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Full text of "The art & practice of typography : a manual of American printing, including a brief history up to the twentieth century, with reproductions of the work of early masters of the craft, and a practical discussion and an extensive demonstration of the modern use of type-faces and methods of arrangement"

The ART &• PRACTICE o/ 

TYPOGRAPHY 



By EDMUND G. GRESS 



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Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 
in 2012 



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Tie ART ^^ PRACTICE o/ 

YYPOGRAPt 

A Manual 
of American Prmtmg 

INCLUDING A BRIEF HISTORY UP TO THE 
TWENTIETH CENTURY. WITH REPRODUC- 
TIONS OF THE WORK OF EARLY MASTERS 
OF THE CRAFT ^ AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW 
AND ELABORATE SHOWING OF MODERN 
COMMERCIAL TYPOGRAPHIC SPECIMENS 




By 
EDMUND G. GRESS 

•>.UT»OR THE AMERICAN MANDAi, 
AUTHOR 
THE AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF PRINTING- 
TYPE DESIGNS IN COLOR 






WIj 



t* YJRK' SWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY -1910 



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i 



■The ART is PRACTICE o/ 

TYPOGRAPHY 

-A Jytanual 
of American Printing 

INCLUDING A BRIEF HISTORY UP TO THE 
TWENTIETH CENTURY. WITH REPRODUC- 
TIONS OF THE WORK OF EARLY MASTERS 
OF THE CRAFT y AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW 
AND ELABORATE SHOWING OF MODERN 
COMMERCIAL TYPOGRAPHIC SPECIMENS 




By 
EDMUND G. GRESS 

EDITOR AND CO-AUTHOR THE AMERICAN MANUAL OF TYPOGRAPHY 

AUTHOR 

•THE AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF PRINTING" 

•TYPE DESIGNS IN COLOR- 



NEW YORK -OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 1910 



i 



P I ^ D 

TO THE TYPOGRAPHER 

WHO 

SEEKING KNOWLEDGE 

AND INSPIRED BY AMBITION 

GOES ABOUT HIS WORK 

WITH A 

STOUT HEART 

AND 

SENSITIVE CONSCIENCE 

SUCCEEDING 

IN SPITE OF 

EVERY DISCOURAGEMENT 

THIS BOOK 

IS DEDICATED 

P I ~ID 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS VII 

LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS XVII 

LIST OF DESIGNERS XXIII 

AUTHORS PREFACE XXV 

WHEN BOOKS WERE WRITTEN 1 

THE ORIGIN OF TYPOGRAPHY 7 

THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 13 

TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 19 

TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 27 

THE "LAYOUT" MAN 35 

HARMONY AND APPROPRIATENESS 41 

TONE AND CONTRAST 47 

PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 53 

ORNAMENTATION 59 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 67 

BOOKLETS 75 

CATALOGS 83 

PROGRAMS 91 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 99 

TICKETS 107 

LETTERHEADS AND ENVELOPS Ill 

BILLHEADS AND STATEMENTS 119 

BUSINESS CARDS AND BLOTTERS 123 

POSTERS 129 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 135 

TYPE-FACES . 143 

IMPRINTS 153 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR i 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD ix 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER xvii 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



PART ONE 

WFIEX BOOKS WERE WRITTEN 

Paf/e 1 
The printer <ind typography — The Middle Ages and tlic 
Dark Ages — I^tin in written books kept knowledge alive — 
Meaning of "manuscript" — Writing materials — Arrow- 
shaped writing of the Chaldeans — Papyrus rolls of tiic 
Egyptians — Ink, paper and block-printing supposedly in- 
vented by the Chinese — Dressed skins and palm leaves used 
by Hindoos — The Hebrews wrote upon stones and animal 
skins — We owe the present Roman alphabet to the Phoe- 
nicians — The word "alphabet" derived from the first two 
letters of the Greek alphabet. Alpha and Beta — The bards 
of Greece — Manuscripts written by slaves — Papyrus im- 
ported from Egypt — Development of parchment, and what 
it is — The great Alexandrian library — length of rolls — Story 
of "Septuagint" — Destruction of the Alexandrian library — 
Rome supersedes Alexandria as an intellectual center — 
Caesar credited as the founder of the first newspaper — 
"Short-hand" writing — The {)eriod of Emperor Augustus a 
memorable one in literature — Producing large editions of 
manuscript rolls — Books were plentiful and cheap — Elab- 
orate parchment rolls — Origin of flat-sheet books — Hinged 
waxed tablets — Destruction of the library at Constantinople 
— Drift of literature toward the East — Transcribing and 
decorating holy writings in the monasteries of Europe — 
Monopoly of learning gave power to Church of Rome — 
Since the seventh century monastery manuscripts in Latin, 
the official language of that church — Translation of Bible 
into "Vulgar tongue" forbidden — ^William Tyndale's English 
translation — Martin Luther's German translation — Making 
of manuscript books in the Middle Ages — St. Benedict sets 
the monks to work copying manitscripts — Popularity of 
cloisters — The scriptorium and the rules governing scribe or 
copyist — Tools and materials — Rubrics — Illuminating — The 
copyist at work — A beautiful Irish book — Illuminators' 
colors and binding of manuscript books — Missal, Psalter, 
Book of Hours — Donatus, books associated with the Middle 
Ages — First types were imitations of current Gothic lettering 
— Types cut in style of Roman lettering — Ancient Roman 
writing all capitals — Evolution of Roman capitals into small 
or lower-case letters — The uncial and half-uncial — Minus- 
cule and majuscule — Development of writing toward both 
heavy pointed Gothic and the Roman style used by Nicholas 
Jensen — Cursive, a "script" letter. 



THE ORIGIN OF TYPOGRAPHY 

Page 7 
The invention of typography marked the beginning of a 
new civilization — The beginning and end of the Middle 
Ages— Printing with separate metal types an evolution — 
Demand for playing cards and sacred pictures — Engraved 
wood blocks — Block books, and method of printing them— 
Coloring cards and pictures by means of stencils — The oldest 
dated specimen of printing — The first block books probably 
Latin grammars — The "Art of Dying," the "Bible of the 
Poor," and the "Mirror of Human Salvation" — When, where 
and by whom was typography invented .*— The inventor 
failed to print his name on his product — Almost every 
European country claimed the honor — All claims disproved 
excepting those of Germany and Holland — Weight of evi- 
dence is with Germany — Typography was practiced by 
Gutenberg at Mainz some time during 1450-1455 — Claims of 
priority for Coster of Haarlem — Story of the invention by 
Ulrich Zell the earliest testimony on the subject — Dierick 
Coornhert's version — The unfaithful servant — Dignified gray 
heads point out the house of "the first printer" — Hadrian 
Junius and his "Coster Legend" — Fashioning the bark of a 
beech tree in the form of letters — Changing the letters to lead 
and then to tin — Old wine flagons melted into type — A work- 
man, John Faust, steals the type-making instruments — 
Cornells, an old book binder — The story dissected — Peter 
Scriverius has another version — A clap of thunder — ^Con- 
fusion of dates — A statue erected to Coster in Haarlem — 
"True and rational account" by one Leiz — Gerard Meer- 
man's story — The sheriff who printed with wooden types^ 
Robbed by a brother of Johan Gutenberg — Jacob Koning 
awarded a prize for his essay on the invention — Makes re- 
searches in Haarlem archives — Corroborates some details in 
preceding stories — For many years Coster given ecjual honor 
with Gutenberg — Investigations by Dr. Anton Van der 
Linde — Forgeries and misrepresentations revealed — Haar- 
lem practically surrenders its claim and alters its school 
books — Records of Louwerijs Janszoon and Laurens 
Janszoon Coster — Van der Linde goes to Germany, alters his 
name and writes a book — Hessels translates the book into 
English, and afterward becomes a Haarlem advocate — 
Coster proofs are weak — Haarlem claimants unable to 
agree as to Coster's identity — Gutenberg a tangible human 
being, and probable inventor of the art — Parentage of 
Gutenberg — The family removes from Mainz presumably 
to Strassburg^Was the new art practiced at Strassburg? — 



VIII 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



Records of a lawsuit— Gutenberg agreed to teach Andrew 
Dritzehen certain trade secrets — Fust lends money to 
Gutenberg and takes a mortgage on his printing office — 
Fust seizes all types, presses and books — Records of this 
suit evidence of Gutenberg's invention — The famous Forty- 
two Line Bible — Gutenberg again establishes himself as a 
printer — An appointment from the Bishop of Mainz — Dies 
about 1468 — H. Noel Humphrey's tribute — Peter Schoeffer 
— Copies books at the University of Paris — Becomes Guten- 
berg's assistant — Assumes charge after his master's death — 
Marries Fust's daughter — The new firm publishes a Psalter 
— First book with a printed date — Features of the book. 

THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 

Page IS 

The city of Mainz — A conflict between two archbishops — 
The city is set afire — Fust and Schceffer's printing office 
burned — The workmen flee to various parts of Europe — 
A table of the spread of typography from Mainz — In Ger- 
many — John Mentel at Strassburg — Albrecht Pfister at 
Bamberg — Ulrich Zell at Cologne never printed a book in 
the German language — Arnold Ter Hoorne first to use 
Arabic numerals — Gunther Zainer at Augsburg first in 
Germany to print with Roman characters — Heinrich Kefi'er 
at Nuremberg — John Sensenschmidt at Nuremberg and 
Bamberg — The Bamberg Missal — Anthony Koburger at 
Nuremberg had twenty-four presses in operation — In Italy — 
First type printing done in the monastery at Subiaco— 
Conrad Schweinheim and Arnold Pannartz brought from 
Germany — Ulrich Hahn first printer in city of Rome proper 
— John de Spira first typographer at Venice and had ex- 
clusive right — Nicholas Jenson comes to Venice and uses a 
new Roman type-face — Story of his introduction to the art — 
The first page of displayed type composition — J, U and W 
not in books printed by Jenson — His office passes to Aldus 
Manutius — Italic introduced — Aldus reduces the size of 
books and suggests the printing of a polyglot Bible — Works 
of Peter Paul Porrus and Augustin Justinian — Aldus as- 
sisted by scholar-refugees from Constantinople — His com- 
plete name — Venetian printing offices and their product — 
Bernardo Cennini at Florence — Johan Nunieister at Foligno 
— In Switzerland — Bertold Ruppel at Basel — This city 
gave France its first typographers — John Froben at Basel — 
Erasmus has him print his books — In France — Ulrich 
Gering, Martin Crantz and Michel Friburger at Paris — 
Gering becomes rich — Sectional wood border on book 
printed by Philip Pigouchet for Simon Vostre — Henry 
Estienne at Paris — ^First of illustrious family of typographers 
— Robert Estienne best known and most scholarly — Flees 
to Geneva, Switzerland, for safety — Dies there after a labor 
of love — In the Netherlands — A press erected at Utrecht — 
Colard Mansion and William Caxton at Bruges produce 
the first book printed in English — Van der Goes at Antwerp 
— Christopher Plantin at Antwerp gave renown to that city 
— His printing office now a museum — A polyglot Bible his 
greatest work — Louis Elzevir, founder of a family of learned 
printers, at Leyden — The second Louis Elzevir at Amster- 
dam — Johannes Andriesson at Haarlem — In England — 
William Caxton the first to set type in that country — Ap- 



prenticed to a merchant and goes to Bruges — Becomes 
Governor — Enters the service of the Duchess of Burgundy — 
Translates a "Historic of Troye" and learns how to print it — 
Returns to England and sets up a press at Westminster 
Abbey — Peculiarities of Caxton's work — Wynken de Worde 
succeeds to Caxton's business — Introduced the Roman 
letter into England — Richard Pynson at London— Richard 
Grafton as a printer of English Bibles translated by William 
Tyndale and Miles Coverdale — Tyndale suffers death — 
Grafton imprisoned for printing the "Great Bible" — Ed- 
ward Whitechurch his partner — John Daye also imprisoned 
— Fox's "Acts and Monuments" — In Scotland — Andrew 
Myllar and Walter Chepman at Edinburgh — In Ireland — 
Humphrey Powell at Dublin— In North America — John 
Cromberger at Mexico City — In the United States — 
Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Mass. 

TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 

Page 1!) 

Martyrs in typographic history— Ecclesiastical and politi- 
cal conditions in Europe from the sixteenth to eighteenth 
centuries — A book of treaties on the intended marriage of 
Queen Elizabeth — Oliver Cromwell encourages printing 
and literature — ^First edition of Milton's "Paradise Lost" — 
Thomas Roycroft prints Brian Walton's Polyglot Bible — 
The first book published in England by subscription — Paper 
for the work allowed to come in duty free — Cardinal Mazarin 
discovers a copy of Gutenberg's Forty-two Line Bible — 
(^hap-books and something about them — Poor representa- 
tives of the art of typography — Woodcuts and type bat- 
tered and worn — Peddled by chapmen — Dicey books — 
Broadsides — Puritans land at Charlestown and begin to 
settle Cambridge and Boston — Rev. Jesse Glover solicits 
money for press and types — Contracts with Stephen Daye 
to come to new country — Rev. Glover dies — Daye reaches 
Cambridge with outfit — Begins printing in 1639 — The first 
work — The first book — Poorly printed — President Dunster 
of Harvard College appoints Samuel Green to succeed Daye 
— Another press and types added — An inventory — The 
printing office discontinued — Printing in the colonies of 
Massachusetts and Virginia — Pennsylvania second English 
colony to have typography — William Bradford prints an 
almanac — Bradford arrested in Philadelphia for printing an 
address — Type pages as evidence — "Pied" by a juryman — 
Bradford goes to New York — First printshop there — 
Official printer — Publishes the first New York newspaper — 
Benjamin Franklin — Indentured to his brother James — The 
New England "Courant" — James is imprisoned — Benjamin 
becomes the publisher — The brothers disagree — Benjamin 
ships to New York — Meets William Bradford and goes to 
Philadelphia — Secures employment with Samuel Keimer — 
Leaves for England to buy printing equipment — Goes to 
work in London — Returns to Philadelphia and starts a 
printing office — One of the first jobs — Publishes "Poor 
Richard's Almanack" — Proverbs widely quoted — Sells his 
shop to David Hall — Quaintness of Colonial typography — 
Comments on reproductions — Page from a Caslon specimen 
book of 1764. 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



IX 



TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 
Page 27 
William Morris" declaration — The first printed book a 
testimony to genius — The first cylinder press and first lino- 
type were crudely constructed — Typography at its highest 
point — Italian and German styles contrasted — These styles 
blended into the Colonial — Franklin as a typographer com- 
pared to Aldus and Plantin — Beginning of the nineteenth 
century — Utility and art — William Nicholson plans a cylin- 
der press — Dr. Kinsley constructs a model — A new ronian 
type-face designed — Ornaments and borders discarded — 
Style of typography becoming uninteresting — Transition il- 
lustrated by four title-pages — Charles Whittingham and 
William Pickering — Artistic qualities introduced — Punches 
of Caslon old-style recovered — ^A page in Colonial style — 
Punctuation marks omitted — Fifty years ahead of their 
time — Job printing of modern development — Newspaper, 
book and job work— Typography should be based upon art 
foundations — A Book of Common Prayer — Title-pages 
without ornamentation — Job printers take to fancy typog- 
raphv — Imitations of copperplate engravers' work — A busi- 
ness card and a bill of fare — Changing styles applied to com- 
mercial headings — MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan — A card 
with apologies — A longing for pictures, color and decoration 
— Brass rule and tint blocks — Remarkable skill exhibited — 
The '"Modern Renaissance" — Machinery led typography 
away from art — Printers thought they were doing artistic 
work — Inspiration wTongly interpreted — Forming of a 
curious chain of events — The Kelmscott Press — William 
Morris, artist, poet, designer and craftsman — Franklin and 
the Franklin stove — Morris and the Morris chair — The in- 
fluence of Morris on house furnishing and typography — 
His home — Learned to print and to make paper — Designs 
tvpe-faces — "Golden" — "Troy" — Draws decorative initials 
and borders — Additional designs by Burne-Jones — Morris 
criticised — Revolutionizes typography — Aubrey Beardsley — 
Will Bradley — A country printer — Studies art in Chicago — 
The "Wayside Press" — "Bradley: His Book" — Inspired 
by both past and present — A new typography — Combines 
with the University Press — Becomes an interesting subject 
for discussion — An opinion by George French — Attempts 
another new style of typography — Profuse ornamentation — 
Works rapidly — Bradley and his clients — His personality — 
Influence upon the American style of typography — Other 
influences— Theodore L. De Vinne — Has a college degree- 
Apprentice in a country printshop — Job compositor with 
Francis Hart — Takes charge of the business — A writer on 
printing subjects — Exponent of the conservative and dig- 
nified in typography — Should be no conflict between the 
styles of Morris, De Vinne and Bradley — For different pur- 
poses — The compositor must decide — De Vinne a leader in 
perfecting modern methods — Designs a typc-face — Per- 
suades printers to group wording — Charles T. Jacobi— 
Has done much for typography in England — Responsibilities 
of the modem typographer — Underrating the value of his- 
tory- — All knowledge is valuable. 

[The chapters foUoyoing are devoted 
to the contideration of typography 
a» practiced in the twentieth century. ] 



PART TWO 



THE ' 



MAN 



"LAYOUT" 

Page 35 
Typography in the twentieth century — Artistic printing 
abundant — -The commercial artist deserves credit — The 
necessity of carefully preparing a job — Every printshop 
should have a layout man — When a building is erected — 
Quality printing is not accidental — Shop style — Layout men 
in large and small shops — Please the customer—Typog- 
raphy essentially a business vocation — Orders obtained 
thru "dummies" submitted — Selecting a layout man — 
Type equipment should be appropriate and sufficient — A 
working outfit for the layout man — Portfolio of sample 
sheets — ^Laying out a small booklet — Paper, margins, type 
page and size of type — Words to a square inch — Arrange- 
ment of title-page — Specimen pages in available body type — 
L'se of crayon and pencil — Dummy submitted to customer — 
Duplicating it in the workrooms — Dummy sheets for period- 
icals and large catalogs — Incorporating illustrations in the 
text matter — -Marking copy for machine composition — The 
average stationery job — A patchwork of typographic styles — 
Different results if handled by a layout man — Studying color 
harmony — Determining color combinations — The colder 
color should predominate — Indicating the finished result- 
Proofs in the colors and on the stock to be used — Blending 
paper stock — Laying out advertisements. 

HARMONY AND APPROPRIATENESS 

Page U 
"Leit-motif" — The central idea in composition — Har- 
mony and appropriateness — Undervaluing thei^ impor- 
tance — What is appropriate.' — Discriminating judgment re- 
quired — Discreet selection of type, ink and paper — It makes 
a difference — As to type-faces — As to inks — As to papers — 
Simplicity synonymous with good typography — The ideal 
printshop — Harmonious type-faces, ink colors and paper 
stock — Certain amount of contrast desirable — All capitals 
or all lower-case — Harmony of type-faces and borders il- 
lustrated — Typographic sins — In typography there should 
be a motive — "Is it appropriate?" — An architectural motive 
— In which strength is the motive — Design suggested by an 
old lock-plate — Typographic motive found in woodcut 
borders and initials of early printers — A millinery booklet 
cover — A page severely plain and non-sentimental — A 
program for a church service appropriate to the environ- 
ment — A page in keeping with a festive spirit — Typographers 
should give support to artists— The Colonial arch and a 
harmonious title-pag(^-The better the typographer, the 
more restraint \ 



TONE AND CONTRAST 

Page ^7 
A story of white and black — A combination popular with 
writers, printers and readers— Uniformity of tone or depth 
of color- A mixture of irregular gray and black tones in- 
excusable — Art principles too often ignored— Contrast 
necessary, but uniformity should not be sacrificed — Art 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



makes concession to utility — A right way and a wrong way — 
Unjust blaming of the customer — A German example of 
uniform tone — Practical demonstration of uniform tone — 
Four ornaments, upon which four pages are constructed— 
Contrast, from the viewpoints of art and utility— Lessening 
the contrast between print and paper — A compromise — Im- 
pressing the print firmly on antique paper — Setting the 
print daintily upon glossy paper — Lack of artistic feeling re- 
sponsible for unpleasant contrasts — Great contrast is 
eccentricity — Mark Twain and contrasts — Cover-page should 
be darker than title-page — The tone of a massed page — 
Controlled by spacing — Duplicating the tone of a pen-and- 
ink illustration — A spotted black tone — Equalizing the tone 
by using lighter ink — Spaced capitals and open-line illustra- 
tion — A classic interpretation of uniform tone — Character- 
istics and tone superbly blended — Initial and headpiece 
should approach the tone of the type page — Uniform tone 
between display line and border — Catalog illustrations 
should stand out in relief — Outline type-faces to obtain 
gray tone on newspaper page — Letter-spacing. 

PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 

Page 53 
Symmetry is necessary to beauty — What has art to do 
with printing? — Two views— The book printer and the job 
printer — Pleasing the few or being all things to all men — 
Printing as a business and as an art — Art is essential to 
printing — Study of art arouses ambition — Unfolds a new 
world — Proportion — Book pages — The width and length 
of a page — Position of the page — Margins — The job printer 
and proportion — Relation of shape of type-face to page — 
Condensed types for narrow jiages — Extended types for wide 
pages — Architecture as an example — V^ertical and horizontal 
lines — The relation of lines to proportion — A page with 
ornament, type-face and page design in proportion — Irregu- 
larity and when it may be introduced — A type line large 
or small by contrast — The happy medium — Balance, an im- 
portant subject — Type lines horizontally centered — Safety 
from blunders — Out-of-the-center balance — The point df 
vertical balance above center — Testing balance to the limit 
— -Diagonal arrangements show lack of imagination — Spa- 
cing — Its proper apportionment — An important feature when 
letters are designed — The capital Iv — Emphasis by means of 
spacing — The effect of separate lines — Should be an even 
page tone — Distributing display lines over the entire page — 
Grouping them at the point of balance — Spaced words in 
narrow measures — A good sign when one recognizes im- 
perfections. 

ORNAMENTATION 

Page 59 
The human race has a liking for ornamentation — Natural 
and artificial beauty — Nature furnishes motives for man's 
work — The average man giving thought to art — Beautiful 
things all about — Privileges of museums and art galleries 
available to printers — Take less thought of food and rai- 
ment and these things shall be added — Is ornamentation 
necessary to art typography.' — Paper as embellishment- 
Covering poor stock with decoration — Ornaments under 
lock and key — Revising ideas of art — Abstinence — Using 



ornaments with discrimination — Study of significance and 
appropriateness — Motive or reason in ornamentation — 
Italian and German influences — Harmony because of sym- 
pathy between arts and crafts — Inharmonious ideas of 
several persons — Relation of typography to architecture 
shown in alphabets — Roman and Gothic — Ornamentation 
both inventive and imitative — Conventionalized ornament — 
With or without perspective — Things which have inspired the 
decorator — Artists' work full of meaning — Leaves, mythical 
beings, sacred animals — Architectural designs on title-pages 
— Egg-and-dart and bead ornaments — Results of observa- 
tion^Designs thousands of years old — Typographic borders 
— Triple division of taste — The severely plain, Doric — The 
slightly ornamental, Ionic — The elaborately ornamental, 
Corinthian — Sturdiness and grace — Difference in ideals and 
preferences — Some delight in magnificence, others in plain- 
ness — The three divisions of taste applied to typography — 
The style of architecture and home furnishings influence 
typography — The "mission" style and straight lines — 
The frivolous rococo style and curved lines — Rococo type 
ornamentation not successful — A style to please those who 
like neither the severely plain nor the elaborately ornamen- 
tal — Ornament secondary — Should not distract attention- 
Excess of embellishment — Chippendale first made furniture 
serviceable, then added ornament — Regularity and variety 
in repetition — Four classes of ornament — Based upon 
geometrical lines, upon foliage, upon the inanimate, and 
upon the animate — Initials as means of ornamentation — 
Corner ornaments — Decoration with a motive — Reversing 
half of a design — A page with but a single ornament — 
Present-day preferences are for Gothic rather than for 
Italian type ornaments — The reason — "Ornament con- 
struction but do not construct ornament." 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 

Page 07 
Good taste important in production of books — Judg- 
ment perfect in one respect and erratic in others — Good 
taste and conservatism — Catering to fashion leaves un- 
salable stock — Conservatives in the minority, yet their in- 
fluence is greater — Tendency of job printers is radical — 
Printed things that please for the moment — Art reasons 
in book typography applicable to job typography — The job 
compositor drawing closer to his book brother — The book 
typographer governed by precedent — The conservative man 
constructive — The radical destructive — Masterpieces dis- 
carded for frivolous things — ^Morris set out to change book 
typography — He offered the good things of the old masters — 
Age not proof of merit — Good typography always good — 
Book industry in America tremendous — Carnegie at first 
ridiculed, now acknowledged a benefactor — The need of 
good books well printed — Majority of books poorly printed — 
Rarely do reading pages, title-page and cover harmonize — 
Cover only part given artistic attention — Should be honestly 
what it seems — A book model in its way — Not a line in cap- 
itals — Only two sizes of type on title-page — Chapter head- 
ings cling to type page — Margins — Surface covered — 
Proportion — Bruce Rogers — Designs books for the Riverside 
Press — Regard for the appropriate — The literary motive the 
cue — Suggesting a product of the middle nineteenth century 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



XI 



— Two pages with faults — Inharmonious tj'pography — 
The cost of an appropriate title-page ridiculously small — 
Provide display faces to match machine letters — Artist and 
typographer and the literary motive — Composite Colonial 
and modern — Unfinished effect — Books that lend them- 
selves to decoration — Serious books — Typographic results 
exceptionally good — General use of border — Title-page an 
excellent example — Reading matter close to border — One 
margin — Style of the modern novel — Modern book com- 
position set on the linotype — An unconventional page — 
Page from a book written and illustrated by Will Bradley — 
Harmony between type-face and decoration — Effectiveness 
of a plain initial — Title-page of classic design — Dignified 
beauty — Adaptation of an old Colonial title-page — A serious 
effort by the Roycrofters — Page from a book by De Vinne — 
An ecclesiastical book by Updike — Improving typography in 
America — A book with a French motive — Avoiding com- 
monplace types — Fonts from old matrices — Specially de- 
signed faces — Arrangement of a book — Fly leaf, sub-title, 
title-page, copyright notice, imprint, table of contents and 
illustrations, preface, frontispiece, dedication, index- 
Numbering the pages — The space under running titles — 
Lowering of the chapter headings — The space around in- 
itials — Position of a book page — Em-quad or en-quad be- 
tween sentences ? 

BOOKLETS 
Page 75 
"A diminutive book" — Brochure and pamphlet are other 
titles — Chap-books prototypes of the booklet — The booklet 
bom when the dodger or hand-bill ceased to be effective — 
Obsolete mediums of publicity — Messages now conveyed by 
a dozen methods — Booklet next to the salesmen's samples 
and the catalog — Its mission educational — Best written in a 
non-technical style — Its influence in favor of a sale — The 
printer's share is large — Planned by advertising writers and 
commercial artists — Blending ideas— Type matter that does 
not fit the decoration — Booklets that are harmonious and 
complete — A central motive around which all weave their 
ideas — Printshop need not be equipped for producing every 
detail — A "plant" — Depending upon the open field of ar- 
tists and engravers — -Learning the customer's preferences — 
Preparing dummies — Booklets the connecting link between 
book and job printing — An original booklet designer — 
Decorative work without perspective — Embossing and flat 
effects — Blending of three elements — The styles of Norman 
Pierce and Edward Everett Winchell contrasted — One of a 
Japanese motive and the other Greek and Roman — De- 
sign covering both front and back covers — Using illustra- 
tion decoratively — A booklet in humorous style — Leaving 
border lines off of halftones — Roughing paper after printing 
— Pages with a small amount of descriptive matter — Plain 
nile border — Placing an illustration which is out of pro- 
portion — Position of a caption — Picture designs that cover 
the surface — Basicly artistic rather than freakish — Type 
forms with photographs — A strong and effective cover by 
simple means — The more one learns, the less elaborate are 
his designs — Lettering important in booklet designing — 
Blending lettering with type-face — A good specimen which 
is not good — Inappropriate treatment — A lettered page by 
Goudy— The customer was right— Adapting typography to 



plates already made — One design on every page — Charac- 
teristics of border should be studied — Subduing the colors — 
The printer is limited, the artist is not — Artistic results 
possible with type alone — Inharmonious ornaments should 
not be used — Printer should design his own booklets — When 
leaving it to the other man, accept his ideas — A rich and dig- 
nified combination — Bradley's radicalism — A style that has 
waned — Booklets more conventional — Both printer and ar- 
tist — Antique in paper, inks, binding and typography — 
Narrowing type-work to a pet style — The conventional style 
—Limited knowledge — Competition — Poorer and better 
work — A style dignified, neat and refined — An interesting 
interpretation of a renaissance panel — Imitative woodcut 
effects — Related pages — Good use of lower-case — Limitless 
opportunity in type founders' material — A subdued tone — 
Small capitals and italic in combination — An unusual ar- 
rangement in which hyphens are omitted — Simple typog- 
raphy on Japanese paper — Live in an artistic atmosphere — 
Advice by Sir Joshua Reynolds — The helpful atmosphere 
of the trade paper — Printers depend too much on artists — 
Possibilities of type arrangement have not been exhausted — 
A good printer and a good artist working together is ideal. 

CATALOGS 

Page 83 
Three branches of architectural virtue applied to the cat- 
alog — Act well, speak well, look well — The days when the 
catalog was a heterogeneous collection of woodcuts and 
type-faces — Now care and taste are shown — The catalog is 
a portable show-case — Proper display of goods makes selling 
easier — "Playing up" the ordinary — Treatment suitable 
for one may be unsuitable for another — How should a jew- 
eler's catalog be treated? — Daintiness, simplicity, refine- 
ment and art — The value of color not in the quantity used — 
A firm that has gloves to sell — An Updike catalog of an ex- 
hibit — Absence of roman lower-case — Other features — 
A catalog of sewing machines — Insignia — Instruments in 
halftone on a dark background — A Bruce Rogers catalog 
of books — Type lines flush at the left — A new idea in cat- 
alog illustration — Projecting the article into the foreground — 
Soft blend between illustration and type page — Illustrating 
the article on one page and describing it on the facing page — 
Place name of article or firm on each page — Depending on 
typographic treatment — Type that is easily read — Extending 
vignetted edges into the margin — A Bradley page — Con- 
trasted with a Rogers page — Different purposes — Like- 
nesses of rubber goods vividly presented — A catalog of 
boys' wear — Many will fail in handling this style — Wire 
screen catalogued and given emphasis — Parallel rule used 
on a book catalog — Tone harmony — Illustration freed of the 
usual store-room atmosphere — Another book catalog page — 
An artistic bond catalog — Cover treatment of a motor 
catalog — The best type-face for catalog pages. 

PROGRAMS 

Page 91 
"Let all things be done decently and in order" — Four 
classes of programs — Programs of sacred services — Offer 
opportunity for artistic treatment — Significance an im- 
portant element — The key to ecclesiastical printing — Rubrics 



XII 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



— A modern interpretation of the historic — Pointed Gothic 
type-face — Uncial rubricated initials — Red lines — A sig- 
nificant device — Prejudices among clergymen — A churchly 
aspect by rubrication — Arranging numerous small titles — 
Economizing space — An almost perfect specimen of church 
program printing — A specialist on church typography — 
Program of lenten services — A small program, with a page 
for each event — Arranging a program with little matter — 
The dance program — Should be dainty — Stock folders — 
Must "look like a dance program" — A typographic dance 
card — Centered dots in place of periods — Uniform border 
treatment on an outing program — An unconventional dance 
program — Banquet programs and varied treatments pos- 
sible — Value of the decorative border — Arrangement of 
type matter — A background in olive — The menu program 
in small booklet form — Menu dishes in the form of checks — 
"Hash" and "Rehash" — A bit of fun — A classic menu-page 
— A style appropriately humorous — Eating in a foreign 
language — Side hits — Artistic treatment simulating wood- 
cut decoration — A simply constructed menu page — Unique 
arrangement — Titles at the left — Symmetrical arrangement 
— Programs for entertainments and exercises — The com- 
monplace program a disappointment — Artistic programs — 
A refined page by Updike — Features of interest in a page by 
Rogers — Admirable treatment of a brief program — Ap- 
propriate decoration overprinted by type — A page dominated 
by the Gothic style — List of characters unusually displayed 
— A neat page in Caslon type — The program containing 
small advertisements — Theater programs exert influence 
on public taste. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Page 99 
Publicity essential to success — The modern representative 
of the public crier — Not confined to any size or shape — 
Often consists of only one page — The most personal of 
printed mediums of publicity — The printer depended upon 
for suggestions and advice — Confidence of the customer an 
asset — Imitation engraved announcement the most common 
— Allows of no original or decorative treatment — Type- 
faces that do not deceive — Brain exercise — Be a producer of 
new things — Difficulty of dark stock — Lessening the con- 
trast — Light ink affected by dark jiapers — Strong lines 
necessary — An announcement in Caslon — Lengtlis of de- 
scenders — A quality depending upon detail in typesetting 
and presswork — Positions of groups and sizes of margins — 
Massed black letter — Good paper and plenty of it — Sym- 
metrical arrangement of a folded invitation — Announce- 
ment card in classic style — Suggesting by typographic 
treatment the thought, in the text — Decorative borders are 
helped by rule lines — Using ornaments as eye-attractors — 
Originality, eccentricity and illegibility — Rule panel treat- 
ment — Mistake to use rule unless needed — A book shop an- 
nouncement — An odd blotter form — Designed to provide 
for a fold — Distinction by a large initial — Spacing of letters — 
A study in tone values — Contrast of black and white- 
Avoiding monotony in margins — Harmony of type-face and 
decoration — A bit of daring — Brief announcement form — 
Colonial effects — Strong, verbose and stylish — A large cir- 
cular announcement — No embellishment — Simplicity and 



legibility — Rugged Colonial style — An announcement cir- 
cular that is an art product — Classic inscription style — A 
chap-book folder — A little brochure-announcement — Florets 
before paragraphs — The printer's own advertising — Pleasure 
accompanies art-craftsmanship— Strengthen weak places. 

TICKETS 

Page 107 
Good results by accident — A good job of printing should 
be an everyday occurrence — -Lack of interest reason for non- 
development — Any man not interested in his vocation to be 
pitied — Thought concentrated on typography — Efficiency a 
guarantee — Accept responsibilities— The first observations 
of a student — "None perfect, no not one"— ^Tickets afford 
practice of art printing — Many themes and styles in typog- 
raphy — Resourcefulness a valuable characteristic — Ticket 
forms especially designed — One based upon a classic motive 
— An idea from ancient Rome^Capitals slightly spaced — 
The historic Gothic or church style— Contrast by the use of 
color — A modern conception with a masculine motive — 
The margins of two styles — An odd and striking effect — 
Modern treatment based upon the Colonial — A bookish 
effect — An idea for a lecture course — White or colored 
stock.' — A ticket of peculiar interest to women — The geo- 
metric or secession style — Enthusiasm over new styles — 
Building a house in the sands — Square-faced type and 
square ornaments — An adaptation of the missal style — 
Inspiration from William Morris and Italian printers — 
For educational and art functions — A motive from the art 
workers of the Middle Ages — A modern application of classic 
type effects^A purely Colonial effect — Dainty, refined treat- 
ment and -symbolic decoration — Typography that is distinct- 
ly ma.sculine — Orange is lighter than black in tone — An 
arrangement dictated by an ornament — A ticket not easily 
duplicated — Color background — Corner decoration in 
keeping with the subject — A motive from early French books 
— Typographers should go thru the world with eyes open. 

LETTERHEADS AND ENVELOPS 

Page 111 
A subject of interest — ^The large requirements of business 
correspondence — Energetic competition — Profit and the 
friend who interferes — Two ways of meeting competition — 
Lowering prices is the wrong way — Raise the quality — 
Unprofitable orders — Print according to art standards and 
get a proper price — How shall letterheads be treated ? — 
Imitation engravers' effects and legitimate type headings — 
Capitals and squared type groups — Lower-case and free, 
unshaped arrangements — Away-from-center arrangement — 
Shape harmony — Moderate spacing — Theatrical letterheads 
— Striking effects within the bounds of art — Plain gothic 
type and a touch of the decorative — An imposing design — 
Treatment peculiarly suitable to a machinery business — " 
Machinery never had the sympathy of the art world — Reason 
for prejudice — What the job printer must do — A difficult 
piece of type composition for a general store — How to place 
a great amount of copy without the use of rules — The con- 
trary proposition of little copy — The writing paper of a 
theater — Letterheads with large lists of officers — Adver- 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



XIII 



tising a meeting — Dignified, yet novel attractiveness— Telling 
the attractions of a summer cottage — Real estate dealers de- 
mand striking effects — The inscription panel style adapted 
to letterheads — A classic motive — The attractiveness of a 
hand-lettered design approximated — Getting "something 
different" — Artist and printer combine their talents — A 
difference in the freedom allowed for decorative treatment— 
A "twin" letterhead — Uncommon distribution of color — 
Combination type and artist's design — The crossed-line 
panel adapted to letterhead purposes — Simple type effects 
by means of Caslon lower-case — Absence of punctuation — 
The robust Colonial style — A sample of secession art — 
Neatness and dignity in letterhead designing — The use and 
purpose of envelops — A post office request — Poor taste to 
cover entire face of envelop — Distinctive treatment of sta- 
tionery — Cheap paper and economy — A machine-slug style 
— Envelop for forwarding of proofs — Envelop closely re- 
lated to letterhead — Appropriate for the business — Dupli- 
cating the letterhead form on the envelop — Value of sim- 
ilarity — Another specimen in spaced gothic — Trademark 
and type-face should harmonize — An arrangement set in a 
few minutes — Where type-face and device blend — An in- 
teresting medieval note struck — Odd tone obtained by 
spaced border and capitals. 

BILLHEADS AND STATEMENTS 

Page 119 
A sense of proportion which belittles typography — The 
message the important thing — A momentous period when the 
tj-pe is set — Typography of billheads and statements highly 
important — The shop's standard — Style, or fashion — Change 
in billheads due to altered methods of transacting business — 
A form commonly in use a decade ago — "Bought of," "To" 
and "Dr." — Discarding the "M" — Individualizing billhead 
treatment — An unusual billhead for a coal dealer — Sym- 
metrical placing of a great number of words — The com- 
pany's name at the top of the sheet — Invoice— Stock head- 
ings not frequently used — The special form billhead — Treat- 
ment that should be confined to the printer's own stationery 
— Changes the typewriter has worked in billhead printing — 
A simple form, also serving for a letterhead — An uncommon 
arrangement — A German specimen — Order numbers on 
billheads — Appropriate for the business — Monthly state- 
ments — "As per invoice" — A form appropriate for any busi- 
ness — "Statement of your account" — Value of related treat- 
ment — An arrangement that is unique — The "credit 

BUSINESS CARDS AND BLOTTERS 

Page 12S 
The card as a means of announcing a visitor — Prevents 
embarrassment and misunderstanding — Physical construc- 
tion of a card important — Cards of the large and the small 
business house — Copperplate engravers set the style for 
much business card printing — Little pleasure in being an 
imitator unless you are a good one— Good stock, dense 
black ink and perfect types — Pleasing results with green- 
black ink— Purely typographic treatment — Customs followed 
on most printing of this kind — Novelty in business card con- 
struction — Arrangement like the address on an envelop — 



A Bradley card selected for strength, decorativeness and sim- 
plicity — An arrangement met with too infrequently — Rules 
used with lower-case or capitals — A business card in gothic— 
An interesting effect along classic lines — Setting forth each 
phrase in a line — Card-edge border treatment — Careful ad- 
herence to the laws of shape-harmony — Horizontal lines 
crossing the card — A neat design in an engravers' roman — 
Roman capitals with italic lower-case — Effects that are 
permissible if well done — Caslon italic for a jewelry house 
business card — Inset corners that suggest the contour of the 
type group — No one card is best for all purposes — A halftone 
cut used as the background of a business card — ^Type ar- 
ranged in the unconventional style of hand-lettering — A 
church organ card historically significant — Lettered and 
engraved designs — A "reverse" plate — Legitimate type 
effects — Imitation work — Blotters have a place in modern 
business — A quality of usefulness — Coarseness should be 
avoided — The size generally used — Rearrangement from an 
intricate rule design — Chap-book style adapted to a blotter — 
An illustration to attract attention — A dignified blotter for 
the personal desk — The secret is restraint — Material that is 
used and material that is not used — Both writing and 
typographical treatment important— A background of 
small squares — Simplicity and appropriateness — Tone har- 
mony a chief characteristic. 

POSTERS 

Page 129 
A specialty in large cities — The general commercial 
printer — Wood-type equipment — Strength important in 
poster printing — Capitals most useful — Wood letters in 
various widths — Avoid very condensed letters — Size of 
posters — The poster is an advertisement — Not read at close 
range — Poster printing should have harmony, balance and 
tone — A simple design — Old-style lettering on a poster — A 
window-card in Colonial style — Common sizes of window 
cards — An easy arrangement with artistic possibilities — En- 
larged type lines by zinc etching — An arrangement designed 
for a season of football — Cards used in cars — Usual size — 
Poor results — Easy to do good work with proper material — 
Good work can be done with imperfect equipment — Foolish 
to handicap workmen — Legibility chief essential in car-card 
advertising — Decorative touches supplied by ingenuity — 
Easily-adapted treatment requiring no special material- 
Car -cards unique among insurance advertising — Treatment 
within scope of the typographic printers' limitations — Pos- 
sibilities of type for poster purposes — Clever arrangement — 
Quality that is too rare — Card for a Sunday-school excursion 
— A simply treated type design — A poster in secession style — 
The motto-card — An opportunity for printers — Advertising 
uses — Decoration on posters — The homely "sale bill" — 
The over-decorated poster which loses the message — A 
happy middle-ground — A well-balanced mind needed by the 
printer — Paying for instruction. 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 

Page 135 
Advertising, from the typographic printer's viewpoint — 
Treatment influenced by advertising managers — The com- 
positor should hold to the spirit rather than the letter of 



XIV 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



his instructions — Need of more thoro understanding and 
cooperation — Mention type-faces by name — An old prob- 
lem — Now the compositor must think more deeply — Differ- 
ent typographic styles for various audiences — Failure in 
another field — The element of human interest — Quality 
now more of a consideration — Advertisement need not 
violate art and dignity — A department store advertisement — 
Prices emphasized by large figures — Names of articles dis- 
played — One style of display letter used — A distinct series of 
type for each large advertiser — Blending typography with 
illustration — Intelligent cooperation — Illustration displaces 
type display — Two sizes of body type — Illustrations that 
carry a touch of caricature — Simple typographical treat- 
ment, without display — An advertisement writer who gets 
a thousand dollars a week — Underscored bold-face lines — 
No border — Combined typographic and photographic de- 
sign — Artistic treatment as first accorded a department 
store advertisement — The treatment abandoned — Appropri- 
ate handling of the advertiser's copy — Placing a long list of 
agents — Unusual position of a trademark^A strong ad- 
vertisement with a conventionalized illustration — The arrow 
as an indicator — An Indian battlefield — ^A page of small ad- 
vertisements — A series of attractive advertisements — Rela- 
tion in tone of type-face and border — Highly artistic treat- 
ment of a silverware advertisement — A style in which artist, 
engraver and typographer are jointly employed — Insertion in 
mortise after electrotyping — Uniform style in program ad- 
vertisements — A mere directory of business friends — 
Getting variety — A Bradley arrangement with blank space 
at left — A harmonious decorative motive— The refined, dig- 
nified Wanamaker style — Play day with the advertisement 
writer — Type matter that shows white on a photographic 
background — The best manner of using a small space — A 
defective idea of type display and a rearrangement — The 
coupon — Sketching the advertisement — Fit the copy to the 
design or the design to the copy — Printers should learn 
something about advertisement writing. 

TYPE-FACES 

Page I4S 
Interest shown in the subject — Type-faces should be se- 
lected for general usefulness — Printers hindered by unwise 
selection of type equipments — Pride of possession now in 
large fonts of a few legible, artistic faces — Problems of com- 
mercial job printers — Division of type-faces into four classes 
— -The Roman alphabet — Its characteristics — Originally 
only capitals — Wide and narrow lines — What happens when 
the scheme is reversed — The serif — Italic and small capitals 
— Their introduction — Swash letters — Italic and small ro- 
man capitals — The capitals made full hight and inclined — 
The ampersand — Its decorative qualities — The Caslon 
type-face — For legibility, beauty and versatility it has no 
equal — The face revived — Introduced into America — It 
again assumes an important place — Modified to accommo- 
date the lining system — Interesting features sacrificed to 
present-day requirements — The Caslon alphabet — The face 
with long descenders — Graduated sizes — Text letters — Fash- 
ioned after lettering in manuscript books — Various desig- 
nations — Still used in Germany for books and newspapers — 
Should be used sparingly on commercial printing — Text 



capitals illegible — "Block" letters — Misnamed gothic — 
Prominent place in specimen book — Crude and primitive — ■ 
The new secession art — Block letters tabooed in many print- 
shops — Type equipment of a small-sized commercial print- 
shop — Should be type-faces that look well, wear well and 
allow of constant use — Idle type-faces — Legibility the first 
test — An art side — Type-faces should have certain beauty 
of design — The beauty and usefulness of the Caslon — A few 
faces — Developing their possibilities — Notable printers lim- 
ited in supply of type-faces — A type equipment of one face — • 
Type at pound rates — Two faces — An italic mate — Three 
faces — A bold letter — Four faces — Old Style Antique — 
Square serifs — Seven faces — A condensed form and a text 
letter — Faces fairly harmonious, but care should be used in 
combining them — Selection of faces merely representative — 
Alternatives — Scotch Roman — Caslon faces with strength- 
ened lines — French Old Style — Other substitutions — Pos- 
sible to select an equipment without departing from the Cas- 
lon model — Related series of type-faces, known as families 
— How far should harmony be carried? — The old idea of ex- 
treme variety and the new one of harmony — Danger not so 
much in sameness but in variety — Automatic harmony with 
the Cheltenham family — An auxiliary type equipment — Im- 
itation engravers' letters — Script for commercial purposes 
out of style — One type foundry does not show script — Var- 
iety thru change of capital letters — "Bread and butter" faces 
— Luxuries in type-faces — Formal work — Resemblance of 
De Vinne to bold-face Caslon — Jenson Old Style — Type- 
faces for two-color printing — Not successful in small sizes — 
Outline letters for newspaper advertisements — "Old-style" 
and "modern" not as significant as a generation ago — 
"Modern" type-faces may regain popularity — Outside in- 
fluences — Type-faces of our fathers' days — Suggestions 
printers should memorize. 

IMPRINTS 

Page 153 
The printer should regularly use his name and device — 
Neglect and fear of customer's condemnation — Should mark 
his product as other craftsmen and manufacturers do— 
A guarantee of quality — How the innovation could be in- 
troduced — A precaution — Imprint should be unassuming 
and inconspicuously placed — Various uses — First use of a 
printers' decorative device — Historical uses of distinguish- 
ing marks — Emblems of hospitality — The sign of the Cross 
— Printers should select a device and attempt to live up to it 
— The Gutenberg Bible contained neither device nor printed 
name — Fust and Schoeffer's Psalter first book with imprint — 
The colophon — A decorative device — Its significance — Im- 
itated — Adopted by Printing House Craftsmen — The classic 
Aldus device — Pickering uses it — Others adapt it — Bruce 
Rogers' interpretation — The imprint-device of the Venetian 
Society of Printers — Its significance — Emblem of authority 
— Globe probably represented the earth — Double-cross 
associated with archbishop's authority — Similar astronomi- 
cal signs — The most popular of old imprints — Hubbard 
adopts it — Emblem of the perfect — Symbolizes an attempt 
to do perfect work — Used on biscuit packages — Other adap- 
tations — "A good device lives forever" — Caxton's imprint 
device — Resembles a rug — ^Characters cause discussion — 



SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS 



A trade device used by the merchants of Bruges — A mer- 
chant's memorial plate — De Worde adapts the device — 
Morris' dcNnce resembles De Worde's — The device of the 
German master printers — Tvpothetae — A modern adap- 
tation — The British printer and the pun — Dave and Mvllar 
— Froben's imprint — Devices of Bebel, Plantin, the Elzevirs 
and Estienne — Devices very large in the old days — Ancient 
motives in two modern devices — The winged Lion of St. 
Mark — Recent adaptations — Story of the device — A colo- 
phon-imprint — Four designs with ancient motives — The 
unique mark of the De Vinne Press — Three imprint-devices 
based upon architectural motives — Initials in monogram 
form — Representative devices used by commercial printers — 
Decorative imprints with type-founders' material — Harmony 
of type, rule and ornament — Small type imprints — Casting 
them on the linotype — Where should an imprint be placed — 
On books — On small commercial work — A legitimate op- 
portunity for publicity. 



APPENDIX 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 

Review of fourteen prize-winning designs and twenty-four 
others, submitted in a circular competition, conducted 
by The American Printer School of Typography. 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 

Review of thirteen prize-winning designs submitted in a 
business card competition conducted by The American 
Printer School of Typography. 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 

Review of thirteen prize-winning designs submitted in a 
business card competition conducted by The American 
Printer School of Typography. 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



PART ONE 

WHEN BOOKS WERE WRITTEN 

Page 1 
The scribe at work, frontispiece 

Illuminated page from the " Book of Kells," opp. p. 1 
Lettered page from the "Book of Kells," opp. p. 1 
AssjTian clay tablet, p. 1 
Ancient Roman reading a manuscript roll, p. 1 
The refined style of Italian manuscript books, opp. p. -2 
Roman wa.xed tablet, p. 3 

The famous Egyptian "Book of the Dead," p. 3 
Evolution of the alphabet, p. 4 
Capital letters of the ancient Romans, p. 4 
Uncial letters of the sixth century, p. .3 
Half-uncial letters, p. 5 
Gothic letters of the fifth century, p. 5 

THE ORIGIN OF TYPOGRAPHY 

Page 7 

Portion of a page from Fust and Schci'tfer's Psalter of 1457, 
opp. p. 7 

French playing card, a block print, p. 7 

Image print of W2^, p. 7 

Bible of the Poor, a page from a block book, p. 8 

Text-page from the block book "Ars Moriendi," p. 8 

Page from an engraved wood block, p. 9 

Page printed from .separate metal t}-pes, p. 9 

Laurens Coster (portrait), p. 10 

Johan Gutenberg (portrait), p. \i 

Johan Fust (portrait), p. V2 

Peter Schtjeffer (portrait), p. VI 

Decorated page from Gutenberg's famous Bible of Forty- 
two Lines, opp. p. 12 

THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 

Page IS 
The Venetian style of typography and decoration, opp. p. 13 
The spread of typography from Mainz (table), p. 13 
Page printed by Koburger, p. 14 
The first page of displayed t\-pe composition, p. 14 
A page from the famous Bamberg Missal, opp. p. 14 
The first italic type-face, a page by Aldus, p. 1 j 
Specimens from Plantin's Polyglot Bible of 1569, pp. 16, 17 
Gothic ornamental pieces, from a "Book of Hours," p. 16 



Page by England's first printer, Caxton, p. 17 
Page in English by John Dave, p. 18 
The first Psalter in English, p. 18 



TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 

Page 19 
A title-page of 1655, with many words and much type- 
display, opp. p. 19 
The first book printed in English America, p. 19 
Title-page of a Shakespeare book, p. 20 
First edition of "Pilgrim's Progress," p. 21 
The first issue of the London "Times," p. 21 
Page from a chap-book, p. 22 
Page from "Description of Trades," p. 22 
French specimen of 1742, p. 23 
Caslon types and ornaments, p. 23 
First edition of "Paradise Lost," p. 24 
Two pages from "Poor Richard's Almanack," p. 25 
Italian specimen of 1776, p. 26 
German specimen of 1670, p. 26 

TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 

Page 27 
Title-page of "Historyes of Troye" (Morris), opp. p. 27 
First text-page of "The Story of the Glittering Plain," opp. 

p. 27 
Page from a "Book of Common Prayer," p. 27 
A design of the rule-curving period, p. 28 
Title-page of 1810, p. 28 
Title-page of 1847, p. 28 
Title-page of 1872, p. 28 

Title-page of MacKellar's "American Printer," p. 29 
A banquet program of 1865, p. 29 
From a type foundry specimen book of 1885, p. 30 
A business card of 1865, p. 30 
A business card of 1889, p. 31 
Stationery composition of 1870, p. 31 
The panel as used in 1893, p. 31 
A neat letterhead of 1897, p. 31 
Two title-pages by Charles Whittingham, p. 32 
Bradley's adaptation of the Colonial style, opp. p. 32 
A Jacobi page of 1892, p. 33 
A Bradley page in Caslon lower-case, p. 33 
A Bradley page in Caslon capitals, p. 34 
A De Vinne page, p. 34 



XVIII 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



PART TWO 

(The index figures refer to the number of the example) 

THE "LAYOUT" MAN 

Page 35 
Booklet cover-page laid out with pencil and crayon, 1 
Anticipating the appearance of the printed page, 2, 3 
Ascertaining color combinations with crayons, 5, 6 
Laying out copy for machine composition, 4-a, 4-b 
Table for ascertaining the number of words to square inch, 7 
Notehead set without instructions, 8 
Business card set without instructions, 9 
Label set without instructions, 10 
Notehead laid out for compositor, 1 1 
Business card laid out, 12 
Label laid out, 13 
Layout of a cover-page, 14 
Cover-page as set from instructions, 15 
Layout sketch for a catalog cover, 16 (insert) 
The cover printed as indicated on the layout sketch, 17 
(insert) 

HARMONY AND APPROPmATENESS 

Page J^l 
Harmony by the use of lower-case, 18 
Harmony of type-faces and borders, 19 
An architectural subject treated appropriately, 20 (insert) 
A booklet cover suggestive of the subject, 21 (insert) 
Catalog cover suggested by old lock-plate, 22 
An old lock-plate, 23 
Inscription on a Roman arch, 24 
Cover-page for a catalog of books, 25 
A plain page for a plain purpose, 26 
Treatment appropriate for a church program, 27-a 
Portion of a page of an old manuscript missal, 27-b 
Cover-page for a catalog of decorative materials, 28 
The Colonial arch, 29 
Title-page in semi-Colonial style, 30 

TONE AND CONTRAST 

Page !fl 
Contrast in color and tone, 31 
Uniform tone and contrast of black and white, 32 
Four ornaments, each of a different depth of tone, used in 

the construction of four pages, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 
Two extremes of tone on book pages, 38, 39 
Blending of illustration and text, 40 
Spotted black tone of border and text, 41 
Blending of illustration and type-face, 42 
Uniform tone in classic typography, 43 (insert) 
A study in uniform tone, 44 (insert) 
Tone-blending of initial, headpiece and text, 45 
Emphasis of parts to be printed in light color, 46, 47 
Display lines should match the border in tone, 48 
Uniform tone by equal spacing, 49 

PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 

Page 53 
One method of determining the page length, 50 
Another method, 51 



Three widths of type-faces, 52 

Type page in which vertical lines predominate, 53 

An architectural comparison, 54 

The conventional page shape, 55 

Type page in which horizontal lines predominate, 56 

An architectural comparison, 57 

Page in which ornament, border and type-face are in pro- 
portion, 58 (insert) 

Pages in which the type-face is not in proportion, 59, 60 

Mismated type-faces and borders, 61 

In which vertical lines are proper, 62 (insert) 

Horizontal lines not suitable, 63 

A display line surrounded by other type lines must be 
larger than when alone, 64, 65 

Type proportionately too large, 66 

Type proportionately too small, 67 

A proportion that is about right, 68 

Out-of-center balance on a business card, 69 

Type grouped unusually high, 70 

Exact center is too low, 71 

The point of vertical balance, 72 

An architectural example of out-of-center balance, 73 

A disorderly arrangement, 74 

The ornament balances the design, 75 

Out-of-center balance on an announcement, 76 

The effect of horizontal lines in a ty{>e page, and how it is 
avoided, 77, 78 

Spacing letters to obtain even tone, 79 

Emphasis obtained by letter-spacing, 80 

The obsolete practice of spreading the lines over the page, 81 

The modern practice of grouping the lines, 82 

ORNAMENTATION 

Page 59 
The egg-and-dart ornament, 83 
The bead ornament, 84 

The egg-and-dart ornament as a typographic border, 85 
The bead ornament as a typographic border, 86 
Conventionalized papyrus plant, 87 
The winged ball, 88 
The acanthus leaf, 89 
Palm-like Greek ornament, 90 
The Doric pillar, 91 
The Ionic pillar, 92 
The Corinthian pillar, 93 
Ornamentation on an entablature, 94 
Square-lined, ornamentless furniture, 95 
Square-lined, ornamentless typography, 96 
Dainty, elaborate rococo ornament applied to furniture, 97 
Similar treatment of a program title-page, 98 (insert) 
Slightly ornamental furniture, 99 
Slightly ornamental typography, 100 
Monotony and variety in strokes and shapes, 101, 102, 103, 

104, 105 
Roman architectural border and roman type-face, 106 
English-Gothic pointed ornament and Gothic type-face, 

107 
Natural and conventionalized ornament, 108 
Extravagant wall border ornamentation, 109 
Roman scroll ornament cut in stone, 110 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



XIX 



Type ornament based upon geometric lines. 111 

Type ornament based upon foliage, 11-2 

Type ornament based upon the inanimate, 113 

T}-pe ornament based upon the animate, IH 

Ornamental hand-lettered effect, llo 

Corner ornaments, from bolts on inscription plates, 116 

Decoration from an old manuscript book, 117 

Filling blank spaces with ornamentation, 118 

Page in semi-ornamental ecclesiastic style, 119 

Initials of various kinds, I'^O 

Simple ornamentation applied to letterhead, HI 

Appropriate ornamentation on a modern booklet, 1'2'2 

Effect of alternating colors, MS 

An ornament based upon the animate used on a business 

card, \U 
The significance of ornamentation, applied to a booklet, 

H5 (insert) 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 

Page i>7 
Two model specimens of book typography, actual size, 



H6, 



(in 



-rt) 



Title-page of a book of classic poems, 128 

Title-page with a nineteenth century motive, 1-29 

Two book pages inharmoniously treated, 130, 131 

Two pages of comjKxsite Colonial and modern typography, 

13i2, 133 
Two pages constructed with care for detail, 134, 135 
A text-page in modem roman, 136 
A text-page in old-style type-faces, 137 
Title-page in lower-case, 138 
Page from a children's book, 139 
Harmony in tone of type-face and decoration, 140 
A title-page of classic design, 141 
Adaptation of an old title-page to modern purposes, 14'2 

(insert) 
Text-page of a Roycroft de luxe volume, 143 
Text-page from a book by De Vinne, 144 
Two pages from a small ecclesiastical book, 14.5, 146 
Clever adaptation of the historic crossed-line border, 147 
Text-page with a F"rench typographic motive, 148 

BOOKLETS 

Page 7-5 
Cover-page by a booklet artist, 149 
Combination of decoration and photograph, 150 
Booklet page in humorous style, 151 
Combination of photograph, hand-lettering and type, 15-2 
Admirable treatment for little reading matter, 153 
Arranging a photograph which is other than page propor- 
tions, 154 
Adapting a photograph to a cover-page design, 155 
Effective results by simple means, 156 
A hand-lettered cover-page, 157 
An otherwise good typographic page that is too dainty for 

the purpose, 158 (insert) 
More appropriate treatment of the cover, 159 (insert) 
Adapting t_\-pography to a decorative design previously 
made, and the value of repeating the same design on all 
pages, 160, 161 (inseri) 



Ivcttering and decoration in rich, refined style, 162 

Two pages in Colonial style, 163, 164 

A dainty, refined cover-page, 165 

Page in renaissance panel, 166 

Typography in imitation of hand-lettering and decoration, 

167, 168 
Pleasing use of lower-case, 169 
Cover-design all in type founder's material, 170 
Title-page in Caslon, 171 

A pleasing specimen of the fan -shaped title-page, 17'2 
Unconventional arrangement of a booklet page, 173 
Commendable use of capitals, 174 

CATALOGS 

Page 83 
Two daintily -appropriate pages from a jeweler's catalog, 

175 (insert) 
Artistic treatment of a glove catalog, 176 
Two pages from a catalog of exhibits, 177, 178 
Page from sewing machine catalog, 179 
Page from badge catalog, 180 
Strong treatment and pleasing use of color on two facing 

pages, 181, 182 
Classic style of book-catalog typography, 183 
Emphasizing the object by pen-and-pencil drawing, 184 
Use of the vignetted halftone in a tool catalog, 185 
Illustrative and descriptive pages facing each other, 186, 187 
Admirable treatment of a camera catalog, 188 
Book-catalog page, 189 
From a catalog of rubber goods, 190 
Page from a catalog of boys' wear, 191 
Facing pages from a catalog of wire screen, 192, 193 
Book-catalog page with parallel line border, 194 
Page from automobile catalog, 195 
Artistic page of organ catalog, 196 
Decorative border adapted to book catalog, 197 
Cover of bond catalog, 198 
Cover of a motor catalog, 199 

PROGRAMS 

Page 91 
Program cover-page in ecclesiastical style, 200 (insert) 
Economizing space on a program containing numerous 

small titles, 201 
Missal style of church program, 202 
Classic treatment of a church program page, 203 
Program cover-page in missal style, 204 
Generous margins on a church program, 205 
A dance card, 206 
Page from a booklet program, 207 
Unconventional treatment of a dance program, 208 
The decorative border on a banquet program, 209 
A halftoned decorative background on a program, 210 
Page from a diminutive booklet program, 211 
The banquet program in the form of a check book, 212 

> treatment of titles and odd menu arrangement. 



213 
Suggestion for a menu page, introducing a bit of fun, 214 

(insert) 
A classic menu page, 215 



XX 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



Menu-program used by master printers, '-21(5 

Dignified style for menu page, 217 

Treatment simulating woodcut decoration, '218 

The missal style adapted to a menu-program, (219 

Unique arrangement of a menu page, 220 

Excellent typographic treatment, 221 

Refined entertainment program page, 222 

Two pages from an entertainment program, 223, 224 

Program page in lower-case, 225 

The decoration was in color, 22fi 

Program in Gothic style, 227 

A well-arranged page, 228 

Neat treatment of a program, 22!) 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Pacje 9!) 

An announcement form adaptable to many purposes, 230 
(insert) 

Two pages from a dignified, refined and artistic announce- 
ment folder, 231, 232 

Announcement in Colonial style, 233 

Odd treatment of an announcement, 234 

Pleasing and symmetrical arrangement, 235 

Classic arrangement based upon the architectural inscrip- 
tion plate, 236 

Typography suggesting the thought expressed in the reading 
portion, 237 

Ornaments as eye-attracters, 238 

Original and eccentric in treatment, 239 

Announcement in panel style, 240 

Suggested as an announcement form, 241 (insert) 

Odd treatment of an announcement, 242 (insert) 

Division into two groups, providing for fold, 243 

A study in tone values and margins, 244 

Harmony of type-face and decoration, 245 

Artistic form for brief announcement, 246 

Colonial treatment of an announcement page, 247 

Strong, verbose and stylish, 248 

First and second page of an artistic, unembellished an- 
nouncement circular, 249, 250 

Blotter announcement in rugged Colonial style, 251 

A page that rates high in tone, balance and symmetry, 252 

Announcement in classic inscription style, 253 

Title-page of announcement in chap-book style, 254 

Refined, yet attractive typographic treatment, 255 

TICKETS 

Page 107 
Classic, refined treatment for art and literary purposes, 256 
The historic Gothic, or pointed style, 257 (insert) 
Strong treatment, the motive of modern origin, 258 (insert) 
A striking effect that should please the college student, 

259 (insert) 
Modern treatment based upon the Colonial, 260 
Suggestion for course tickets, 261 
Daintily appropriate in type-face and illustration, 262 
The secession or mission style applied to ticket composi- 
tion, 263 
The ecclesiastical or mission style well adapted, 264 
Perhaps Morris would have set a ticket this way, 265 



The medieval art worker furnished a motive for this 

ticket, 266 
Modern application of classic type effects, 267 
Patterned after Colonial treatment of title-pages, 268 
A dainty, refined effect suited to many occasions, 269 
Robust treatment of an outing ticket, 270 
The cab ornament dictated the type formation, 271 
Treatment that should prevent easy counterfeiting, 272 
Corner decoration suitable to the subject, 273 
This arrangement has a French motive, 274 

LETTERHEADS AND ENVELOPS 

Pacie 111 
An original letterhead design, 275 
Artistic treatment in squared effects, 276 
Suggestion for a theatrical letterhead, 277 (insert) 
A neat letterhead oddly balanced, 278 (insert) 
An imposing design from type material, 279 
Peculiarly suitable to a machinery business, 280 
Letterhead for a storekeeper selling a general line, 281 
Individuality obtained by means of decorative initials, 282 
Letterhead for a theater, 283 
Disposing of a large list of officers, 284 
On which a meeting is advertised, 285 
Dignified, yet novel treatment, 286 

Letterhead of a summer hotel, giving facts above it, 287 
Unique treatment for real estate dealers' letterhead, 288 
The inscription panel style adapted to a letterhead, 289 
A heading that has a classic motive, 290 
A type-design that approximates a lettered heading, 291 

(insert) 
"Something different," by means of the Caslon type-face, 

292 
In which artist and printer combined their efforts, 293 
A "twin" letterhead in Caslon capitals, 294 
Neat letterhead and uncommon distribution of color, 295 
Combination type and artist's design, 296 
The crossed-line panel on a letterhead, 297 
A simple Caslon lower-case letterhead, 298 
Letterhead in robust Colonial style, 299 
Designed heading in the so-called secession style, 300 
Neatness and dignity in letterhead designing, 301 
A good specimen of printer's proof envelop, 302 
Simple, yet strong treatment of an envelop, 303 (insert) 
Suitable treatment for machinery envelop, 304 
The envelop which accompanied a letterhead shown, 305 
Another envelop mate, 306 

Spaced gothic, topped by harmonious device, 307 
A purpose for which Caslon Text is excellent, 308 
Harmony of device and type treatment, 309 
Distinctive and artistic treatment, 310 
An uncommon envelop corner, 311 

BILLHEADS AND STATEMENTS 

Page 119 
An old form of billhead, 312 
Another old form of billhead, 313 
A decorative style peculiarly appropriate, 314 (insert) 
An excellent billhead in the panel style, 315 (insert) 
Uncommon use of gothic type, symmetrically arranged, 316 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



XXI 



Treatment that has individual interest. 317 
The special form billhead, 318 

The quaint Colonial style adapted to a billhead, 319 
The use of the typewTiter is causing changes in the con- 
struction of billheads, 3-20 (insert) 
The letterhead arrangement is popular for billheads, 3i21 
An uncommon arrangement in Scotch Roman capitals, 3'2'2 
How a German printer treated a billhead, 3-23 
Order numbers are now frequently placed on billheads, 3'24 
When guide rules are unnecessary, 3-25 
Peculiar treatment of a statement, 3-26 
It is well to have a statement labeled as such, 3-27 
A statement form appropriate for any business, 3-28 
Statement form to accompany billhead, 3-29 
Unconventional treatment that is pleasing, 330 

BUSINESS CARDS AND BLOTTERS 

Page 123 
Customarj- arrangement and proportions of type lines on 

business cards, 331 
Novelty in business card construction, 33-2 
Strong and decorative, yet simply constructed, 333 (insert) 
An excellent arrangement of the Caslon type-face, 334 

(insert) 
A well-treated card in gothic, 335 (insert) 
A card treated along classic lines, 336 
The Colonial is here suggested, 337 
The card-edge border gives unique distinctiveness, 338 
Careful adherence to the laws of shape-harmony, 339 
Where horizontal lines are well employed, 340 
A neat design in an engravers' roman, 341 
A dignified card with a historical motive, 34-2 
Bold, artistic treatment of a printer's card, 343 
Caslon italic is a good letter for a jewelry house card, 344 
Uncommon treatment, with harmony of contour, 345 
An arrangement that will be appreciated by cultivated peo- 
ple, 346 
A halftone cut as the background of a business card, 347 
Type arrangement in the dashing style of hand-lettering, 348 
Business card for a church organ manufacturer, 349 
A lettered and engraved design, 350 
Unique effects by means of a reverse [)late, 351 
An attractively-designed card, 35-2 

Blotter, rearranged from intricate rule design, 353 (insert) 
The Colonial style admirably adapted to blotter purposes, 

354 (insert) 
A well-treated blotter, 355 

Clear-cut, dignified and tasteful treatment of a blotter, 356 
Unconventional treatment was justified in this case, 357 
Tint background formed of type squares, 358 
Blotter used in the writing room of a convention hall, 359 
A blotter whose chief characteristic is tone harmony, 360 

POSTERS 

Page 129 
Strong and harmonious poster treatment, 361 (insert) 
Refinement in theatrical printing, 36-2 
A superior specimen of hand-lettered poster, 363 
The Colonial style used on a window card, 364 
Simple typographical treatment, 365 



A hanger for which two headlines were enlarged from type 
prints, 366 

Window-card designed for a series of games, 367 

A style that is legible and appropriate, 368 

Panel treatment within the resources of the average print- 
shop, 369 

A style unique among insurance advertising in cars, 370 

An effect easily duplicated by ingenious printers, 371 

The possibilities of type for poster purposes, 37-2 (insert) 

A car-card in which the art and advertising elements are 
blended, 373 

Suggestion for an excursion window-card, 374 

A simply-treated type design, 375 

Poster treatment that is easily duplicated in the average 
printshop, 376 

Dainty treatment of a motto-card, 377 

The motto-card as a method of advertising, 378 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 

Page 135 

A well-treated department store advertisement, 379 (insert) 

Blending typography with illustration, 380 

In which an illustration displaces a display line, 381 

Simple type treatment, without display, 38-2 

How a prominent advertising firm treats its own advertise- 
ment, 383 

Typography and photography are combined, 384 

Artistic treatment of a department store advertisement, 385 

The style of underscoring words, 386 

Advertisement containing a long list of agents, 387 

Strength in typography and illustration, 388 

Questionable use of the arrow, 389 

Uniformity of type treatment on a group of small adver- 
tisements, 390 (insert) 

One of a series of attractive type advertisements, 391 

Artistic results from non-typographic treatment, 39-2 

A style much used in magazine advertising, 393 

An effort to give uniformity to a page of program adver- 
tisements, 394 

Blank space and vertical lines as attracters in a magazine 
advertisement, 395 

A decorative motive and pleasing harmony, 396 

A refined and artistic department store advertisement, 397 

Play day with the advertisement writer, 398 

Interesting combination of typography and photography, 399 

Making the best use of a small space, 400 

Too many sets of words emphasized, 401 

Order and dignity from the same copy, 402 
'Coupons used in magazine advertisements, 403, 404, 405 

TYPE-FACES 

Page 1^3 
Treatment of Roman letters at the time of the Italian 

Renaissance, 4D6 
The decorative value of italic, 407 
Type alphabet based upon the type-face designed by 

' William Caslon, 408 (insert) 
A working series of the Caslon type-face, 409 
The Caslon type-face and Scotch Roman, contrasted, 410 
Reversing the accepted distribution of thick and thin lines 
leads to grotesqueness, 411 



XXII 



LIST OF REPRODUCTIONS 



Alphabet of Caslon Italic, 412 

Alphabet of Scotch Italic, 413 

The old Caslon figures and the modernized kind, 414 

Two styles of the ampersand, 415 

A line of "Swash" letters, 416 

Showing the difference in length of descenders and ascenders 
in two Caslon faces and one Cheltenham, 417 

Uncial letters make admirable initials, 418 

The beginning and growth of the type equipment of a com- 
mercial printshop, 419 

Type-faces that could be substituted, i'iO, 4'^1 

A Caslon equipment, i'-Z'-i 

The remarkable Cheltenham family, i23 

A type-face equipment for imitating the work of copper- 
plate engravers and lithographers, 4'-24 

The block (or gothic) alphabet, 425 

Variety obtained by changing the capitals, 4"26 

Artistic and interesting faces suitable for special purposes, 
427, 428 

Excellent type-faces for lawyers' briefs and legal blanks, 429 

There is a general resemblance between Caslon Bold and 
De Vinne, 430 

Type-faces based upon French Old Style, 43 1 

Jenson compared with Old Style Antique, 432 

Two standard German type-faces, 433 

Type-faces for color printing, 434 (insert) 

"Old-style" type-faces, 435 

"Modern" type-faces, 436 

"Plain" type-faces of our fathers' days, 437 

Distortions of the "modern" type-faces, 438 

Some of the fancy letters that pleased printers during the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, 439 



The pun, as found in two ancient printers' marks, 446 
Devices used by notable printers of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, 447-A 
A printer's device and imprint that monopolizes two-thirds 

of the title-page, 447-B 
Two modern designs with ancient motives, 448 
The Lion of St. Mark and its use by the Oswald Press, 

449-A 
The Lion of St. Mark adapted to a book on Venetian life, 

449-B 
One of Robert Estienne's marks, 450 
Colophon showing the thistle mark of Bruce Rogers, shaped 

after the Estienne device, 451 
Modern imprints suggested by ancient forms, 452 
An imprint that has to do with mythology, 453 
Printers' marks based upon architectural motives, 454 
The monogram is an attractive form for printers' devices, 455 
Representative of the large variety of devices in use by com- 
mercial printers, 456 
Decorative imprints constructed with type founders' orna- 
ments and suitable type-faces, 457 
Quaint book -ending as used by Elbert Hubbard, 458 
Small type imprints and the various effects possible with 
them, 459 

APPENDIX 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 

Reproductions of fourteen prize-winning designs and twenty- 
four others, submitted in a circular competition, con- 
ducted by The American Printer School of Typography, 
pp. i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, and two in.serts. 



IMPRINTS 

Page 153 
The first imprint-device, and two imitations, 440 
The first "imprint," as found on Fust and Schd-tt'er's 

Psalter of 1457, 441 (insert 
Aldus' anchor and dolphin device, and adaptations by 

modern printers, 442 
The most popular imprint-device as early used by printers, 

and modern interpretations, 443 
The imprint-device of England's first printer, its probable 

derivation, and two notable devices evolved from it, 444 
The arms supposed to have been granted German master 

printers, 445 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 

Reproductions of thirteen prize-winning designs and forty- 
six others, submitted in a business card competition con- 
ducted by The American Printer School of Typography, 
[)p. ix, X, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, and insert. 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 

Reproductions of thirteen prize-winning specimens, fifteen 
which received honorable mention and thirty-five others, 
submitted in a business card competition conducted by 
The American Printer School of Typography, pp. xvii, 
xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, and two inserts. 



LIST OF DESIGNERS 

PART ONE 



Aldiis Manutius, p. 15 
Barker, Christopher, p. 18 
Bradley, Will, opp. p. 32, 33, 34 
Caxton, William, p. 17 
Daye, John, p. 18 
Daye, Stephen, p. 19 
De Vinne, Theodore L., p. 34 
Franklin, Benjamin, p. 25 



Fust, Johan, and Schceffer, Peter, opp. Newcomb, Thomas, opp. p. 19 



p. 7 

Gutenberg, Johan, opp. p. 12 
Jacobi, Charles T., p. 33 
Jenson, Nicholas, p. 14 
Koburger, Anthony, p. 14 
MacKellar, Thomas, p. 29 
Morris, W'illiam, opp. p. 27 



Parker, Peter, p. 24 

Plantin, Christopher, p. 16, 17 

Rand, George C, and Avery, p. 29, 30 

Roberts, James, p. 20 

Sensenschmidt, J., opp. p. 14 

Thomas, Isaiah, p. 28 

Whittingham, Charles, p. 32 



Adams-Brander Company, 297 

Anger, Harrj- A., 121, 292, 294, 327, 330 

Bartlett-Orr Press, 156 

Beers & Frey, 354 

Beran, C. R., 207 

Betz, Joseph Company, 321 

Blanchard Press, 157 

Bradley. Will. 62, 76, 100, 139, 163, 164. 

189, 191, 211, 219, 238, 239, 333 
Bradley, William Aspen wall, 141 
Brannon, I^ennis, 278, 283 
Britton Printing Company, 252 
Calkins & Ilolden, 396 
Calumet Press, 243, 247 
Carr, Horace, 251, 256 
Chasmar-Winchell Press, 192, 193 
Cleland, T. M., 49, 147, 234 
Colonial Press, 136, 137, 138 
Cook Printing Company, 124 
Cooper, Frederick G., 293, 363 
Corday & Gross, 173, 301 
Crittenden, Lee L., 171, 253, 336, 346 
Crocker, Frank L., 170 
Currier, Everitt R., 231, 232 
Davis, A. S., 198 
De Vinne Press, 217 
De Vinne, Theodore L., 144 
Donnelley, R. R. & Sons Co., 195 
Dunn, B. L., 392 
Estienne, Robert, 447-B 
Fleming & Carnrick, 96 



PART TWO 

Figures refer to the example numl>er 

Fleming Press, 196 

French, George, 126, 127 

Fust, Johan, and SchoeflFer, Peter, 441 

Gazette Press, 340 

Giraldi, Auguste, 169, 338 

Government Printshop, Berlin, 118 

Gowdy, F. W., 159, 162 

Greenleaf, Ray, 309 

Gregson & Crosby, 166 

Gress, Edmund G., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 25, 
26, 27-A, 28, 30, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
39, 46, 48, 53, 55, 56, 58, 66, 67, 68, 
69, 82, 85, 86, 106, 107, 115, 116, 
119, 142, 167, 168, 200, 205, 208, 214, 
218, 220, 230, 235, 237, 241, 242, 244, 
245, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 
263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 
272, 273, 274, 277, 281, 282, 284, 285, 
286, 287, 303, 306, 308, 314, 322, 325, 
329, 332, 347, 348, 349, 353, 357, 359, 
361, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 371 
374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 387, 388, 402, 
457 

Gress, Walter B., 342 

Griffith-Stillings Pre.ss, 210, 213 

Gustafson, D., 344 

Haight, A. V., Company, 291 

Haine, Harry, 221 

Hall-Taylor Company, 176, 393 

Harmer, J. Justus, 351 
I XXIII I 



Harrison, Charles G. Company, 319 

Heintzemann Press, 45, 51, 132, 133, 276 

Hill Print Shop, 334, 335 

Hotchkin, William R., 397 

Jepson, John, 44 • 

Kehler, J. H., 40 

Kiessling Brothers, 254 

Kleukens, F. W., 32 

Lang, Fred S., 226, 352 

Leader, Leon I., 289, 290, 295 

Little & Becker, 185 

Lord & Thomas, 385, 386 

Low, Earle N., 255 

Mackay, A. F., 172, 233, 246 

Marchbanks, Hal, 292, 299 

Matthews-Northrup Works, 125, 179, 

181, 182, 184, 190, 199 
McDonald Printing Company, 380 
Melton Printshop, 279 
Meyer, Herbert W., 151 
Morrill Press, 152, 186, 187 
Munder-Thomsen Company, 98, 122, 

165 
Nash, J. H., 134, 135, 194 
Neal Press, 310 

Peabody, Charles Edward, 216, 337 
Pierce, Norman, 149 
Pirsch Press, 326 

Powers, George A. Company, 296, 305 
Rogers, Bruce, 43, 128, 129, 148, 183, 

223, 224, 449-B, 451 



XXIV 

Roycroft Shop, 143 

School of Printing, Boston, 42, 75, 335 

Sherbow, Benjamin, 236, 249, 250 

Sindelar, T. A., 392 

Smith, Herbert R., 315 

Stafford, H. Ernest, 320 

Stern, Edward & Company, 175, ISO, 

275 
Stetson Press, 225, 228 



LIST OF DESIGNERS 

Stillson, Robert L. Co., 350 

Stutes, Edward W., 206, 240, 288, 317, 

345 
Taft, Henry D., 343 
Tapley, J. F. Company, 339 
Thompson, O. R., 358 
Thomson Printing Company, 372 
Thunberg, B. A., 229 
Trow Press, 140, 248 



University Press, 41 

Updike, D. B., 70, 145, 146, 177, 178, 

203, 215, 222, 227 
Vreeland, Francis William, 16, 161 
Willett Press, 302, 390 
Winchell, Edward Everett, 150, 153, 154, 

209 
White, S. H., 360 
Woodis, W. A., 174, 280, 304 



APPENDIX 



Allen, W. A., xi 

Anderson, James F., xxiv 

Anthoensen, Frederick W., opp. f). i 

Backen, Theo., xii 

Benson, H. W., vi, xiv 

Biggers, E. M., xxi 

Black, Eli, ii, xv, xx 

Bradford, William B., xiv 

Brannan, B. Walter, xvi, xviii 

Brown, William B., vi 

Caldwell, F. M., xxi 

Clarke, James G., xviii 

Cobb, John E., xxiii 

Connor, Edward, iv 

Corbin, Harold S., vi 

Cota, Will J., opp. p. ix, x, xx 

Crocker, Frank L., xiii, opp. p. xvii 

Davis, James H., v, xxiv 

De Witt, Philip L., viii, xxii 

Doe, Harry G., xxii 

Dowdy, W. E., xix 

Doyle, William L., opp. iv, x. opp. xx 

Durphey, Chester A., xxii 

Eldridge, Harold, xii 

Eslick, Ches., xxi 

Evans, L. F., xiii 

Fernberg, Anderson, xxii, xxiii 

Fitzpatrick, Ernest, xxi 

Flaskamp, C. P., xiv 

Franklin, C, ii 

Foreman, A. S., x 

Frommader, E. A., viii, xii, opp. p. xx 

Goldsmith, Warren, xxii 

Grady, George R., xxi 

Grampp, George H., xvi 

Gress, Walter B., vi, xiii 

Griffiths, J. Arthur, xix 

Grigutsch, O., xiii 

Ginsburg, Percy, xi 

Grossman, Harry F., xxii 

Gustafson, N. G., xv 

Hemperly, Wm. B., Jr., vii 



Henneberry, R., xiii 
Hogan, James W., x 
Houtkamp, John, xv 
Hulce, G. H., vii 
Hussion, Thomas A., xxiv 
Jackson, Thomas H., iv 
Jackson, William H., xiii 
Johnson, A. L., xxiii 
Johnson, L. A., xxiii 
Jones, E. L., xxi 
Jones, Tom V., xvi, xxi 
Keppler, Charles F., xvi 
Kiessling, F. W., xxiii 
Kuestardt, Paul, xxi 
Lake, F. W., xii 
La very, Albert J., xi 
Leader, I^eon I, iii, xi, xxiii 
Lewis, Barnard J., ii 
Lewis, J. Warren, xv 
Lilliston, O. L., x 
Lovendale, A. R., xx 
Maginnis, W. R., x 
Marchbanks, Hal, xviii 
McLellan, Fred., xx 
McLoughlin, M. F., xxi 
Melton, W. F., vi 
Merriam, M. C, xii 
Millar, George, xvi 
Miller, E. A., xxiv 
Miller, F. W., xxiv 
Miltenberger, A., Jr., xiv 
Mixter, Howard, opp. p. ix 
Moberg, Karl R., xiii 
Mohrman, W. A., v 
Moore, F. H., xvi 
Moore, George B., xiv 
Morgan, Clyde, xx 
Morris, C. R., xv 
Nelson, Arthur, viii, opp. p. ix 
Nelson, Olaf D., xx 
Newcomer, S. A., ii 
Oliver, Gilbert, vii 



O'Neal, George W., xiv 

Padgett, W. R., xxiii 

Peterson, Emile, xv, xxii 

Porter, D. A., xxiii 

Prastmark, Albert, xi 

Ray, Edwin R., xxiii 

Reblin, Austin M., iv, xvi 

Reed, C. F., vi, xviii 

Ross, George Graham, xix 

Bossardt, William R., viii 

Ruggles, Robert G., xxiv 

Salade, Robert F., xvi 

Shaw, Frank A., xv 

Sheegog Ptg. Co., xxiv 

Shirley, George W., x 

Shrope, Harry E., xii 

Shute, Alf., xxii 

Smith, Herbert R., xiv, xix 

Smith, H. Frank, vi 

Snow, Emmons E., viii 

Spradling, J. W., xii 

Stephens, E. R., xxii 

Stover, Clement M., xxiv 

Streeter, Ronald T., xx 

Stryker, John A., vii 

Terry, W. R., xiii 

Thompson, William W., viii 

Toovey, William, xii 

Van Sciver, Howard, xxiv 

Verburgt, J. P., xxi 

VoUmer, Edward C, xxiv 

Walsh, vii 

Watkins, J. W., opp. p. i, opp. p. iv, xi 

White, S. H., viii, X, xxii 

Wismer, H. D., vi, xi, xx 

Wohlford, J. S., XX 

Wolf, Frank J., xi 

Woodis, W. A., vii, vii, vii, xiv, xviii, xxiii 

Woods, John H., xv 

Woolley, Clarence B., viii 

Worden, R. E., xviii 

Young, Frank W., xx 




AUTHORS PREFACE 



TAKING advantage of the opportunity offered by the 
preface the author tests the good nature of the reader to 
the extent following. 

This book, "The Art and Practice of Typography,"" is 
intended primarily for commercial or job printers. It rep- 
resents the efforts of one of them to advance the cause of 
good typography. No trouble or expense has been spared 
to make the book interesting and comprehensive. Ground 
is covered that has never before been gone over, and the 
subject of typograph.v as it affects the commercial printer 
has been viewed from every angle. 

It may be interesting to relate how this book came to 
be written: In 190^2 Auguste Giraldi and several other 
men interested in the improvement of typography among 
commercial printers, inaugurated a mail course under the 
name of the American Correspondence School of Typog- 
raphy. Lessons were prepared and the printers of the 
country evinced considerable interest in the project. It 
was the pleasure of the author to be connected to some 
extent with this work, and after the Oswald Publishing 
Company purchased the course he conducted it as the 
School of Typography department in The American Printer, 
writing a majority of the lessons, which afterward ap- 
peared as chapters in the book, "The American Manual 
of Typography. "* There was such a large demand for the 
Manual that the edition, supposed to last ten years, was 
exhausted two years after its publication in 1905, and 
the editor of The American Printer, John Clyde Oswald, 
requested the author to rewrite the book under the 
present title, "The Art and Practice of Typography,'" 
the first chapter appearing as a lesson in typography in 
the December, 1907, number of that publication. 

The first Manual had grown by chapters from the few 
lessons purchased from the original school, but in the 
present work everything was carefully planned before a 
line was written. The author set aside the first five chap- 
ters (Part One) for the historical consideration of typog- 
raphy, realizing the work of the best printers receives in- 
spiration from ancient sources. Part Two treats of the art 
and the practice of typography in a manner intended to 
be interesting, understandable, and educational. Art prin- 
ciples are applied to type arrangement, and to make the 



instruction doubly valuable every step is illustrated by 
specially -prepared or selected type designs. From his pri- 
vate collection of specimens of printing the author has 
been enabled to reproduce some of the work of America's 
best book and commercial typographers, which should 
serve well as models for typographic study. The ever- 
important question of type-faces is argued from practical 
and art standpoints, and the imprint is also discussed. 
An interesting feature will be found in the appendix. 
From three contests conducted by The Ainerican Printer 
have been selected one hundred and sixty entries for re- 
production, showing thirty-eight ways of treating a cir- 
cular, fifty -nine arrangements of a business card, and 
sixty-three styles of blotter typography. 

The author may be pardoned for calling attention to a 
feature of this book which is uncommon. Not only was 
the text written by him, but he is responsible for the 
style of binding, the selection of type-faces and colors of 
ink and paper, and suggestions and rough sketches upon 
which the drawings of the chapter headings were based. 
The book is far from perfection, yet it represents an idea 
to which the author became wedded, for better, for 
worse." 

Further light has been shed on the significance of Fust 
and Schoeffer's imprint -device (pages 153-160.) by Henry 
Lewis BuUen, librarian of the Typographic Museum of 
the American Type Founders Company. Regarding the 
characters and the shields, he writes : 

"It has been shown that those 'crossed bars' are sim- 
ply the Greek letters X (Chi) and A (Lambda). The three 
stars denote seniority on many medieval coats of arms. 
The two shields hung on a branch denote alliance ; pos- 
sibly the alliance of Schoeffer with the Fust family tree on 
his marriage to Fust's daughter. As to the significance of 
the Greek capitals nothing is known. Greek letters have 
each a numerical value. That of Lambda is 30, of Chi, 
600. Doubtless to the initiated of that period these char- 
acters had the same sort of significance as those used by 
the Greek -letter societies of our day. In medieval times 
European society was permeated by secret societies ex- 
pressing their identity by symbols. The Kabbala, which 



XXVI 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 




goes back to the tenth century and still secretly sur- 
vives, was vigorous in the fifteenth century. It attached 
wonderful or mystic meanings (hence our word cabalistic) 
to the letters of the sacred writings, and so far as these 
are of the New Testament they were originally Greek. 
Neither Fust nor Schceffer, being tradesmen, had a right 
as individuals to use a coat of arms, but it would be strange 
if so substantial a citizen as Fust did not belong to some 
secret organization, into which he might 
take his son-in-law. This we may be sure 
of: the device had a meaning to many con- 
temporaries of Fust and Schceffer. The de- 
vice on the right-hand shield is known to 
I be Schceffer's, because it was used in vary- 
ing forms by his descendents, who con- 
tinued in the printing business in an un- 
broken line for three centuries and a half. 
Its latest form is shown in the cut inserted 
in this paragraph, used by Peter Schceffer, of Bois-le-Duc 
in the Netherlands, as late as 1747, and probably later. 
The last of this celebrated family was Jacques Schceffer, 
printer in Bois-le-Duc, born June 2, 1720, died Decem- 
ber 17, 1796, without issue. The Bois-le-Duc printing 
office was established in 1540 by John Schoeff'er, the old- 
est grandson in the senior line of the original Peter 
Schoefltr. It continued all that time without a break." 

In the chapters of this book devoted to the history of 
printing mention is frequently made of rare books associ- 
ated with the early days of the craft. It may be of interest 
to the readers of this work, sometimes visitors to New York, 
to know, that on Communipaw Avenue, Jersey City, is a 
public library and museum wherein many of these books may 
be seen or examined. This library, which contains books 
and relics pertaining to typographic matters only, was es- 
tablished in 1908 by the American Type Founders Com- 
pany, with Henry Lewis BuUen as librarian. There will be 
found "The Chronicle of Cologne" (page lO), the address 
of Coornhert (page lO), the "Batavia" of Junius (page lO) 
and other books that figure conspicuously in the Gutenberg- 
Coster controversy. A copy of Moxon's " Mechanick 
Exercises," which tells of type-making processes in the 
seventeenth century, is there, as is also Tory's famous 




Champ Fleury, " treating of the formation of the alpha- 
bet. A book of peculiar interest to American printers is 
a history of the Quakers, the first book produced by 
Franklin and his partner Meredith (page 24). Books by 
Jenson, Froben, Estienne, and other noted printers are 
also in the library. 

In the chapter on imprints, thru an oversight no recog- 
nition was given the device of Geofroy Tory, of Paris, ac- 
complished scholar and expert printer of the sixteenth 
century, who according to an epitaj)h 
written by a compatriot "was the first 
man to discuss seriously the art of 
printing," and "taught Garamond, 
chief of engravers." His work on the 
derivation and formation of Latin char- 
acters had considerable renown. He 
claimed, according to Fournier, tiiat 
all the letters are formed of I and O. 
Proportions are arrived at by dividing 
a square into ten lines, perpendiculai 
and horizontal, forming one hundred squares completely 
filled with circles, the whole giving form and figure to 
the letters. The reproduction here (thru the courtesy of 
Bruce Rogers) of one of Tory's devices, shows it to con- 
sist of a broken pot filled with instruments, and the 
Latin phrase "Non plus" (nothing more). 

The double cross found in the lower left corner is in- 
teresting in connection with the use also made of it by 
the Venetian Society of Printers (pages 154-155). 

The author does not anticipate again having the pleas- 
ure of producing a book as elaborate as this one, and 
trusts the time and thought given it will not have been 
in vain. If it accomplishes even a little part in the present 
movement for spreading the glad tidings of good print- 
ing, the recompense will be pleasant indeed. 

In closing the preface it affords the author much pleas- 
ure to be able to express appreciation of the encourage- 
ment rendered him by John Clyde Oswald, without 
whose hearty co-operation as publisher this book would 
have been impossible. 



Edmund G. Gress. 



New York, Februc 



PART ONE 




O -S e a 







o u u '- 

v-fc -S-S ^' 



WHEN BOOKS WERE WRITTEN 



TO MANY people the words "Printing" and "Typog- 
raphy" are synonj-mous. The Standard dictionary in its 
leading definition of the word "Printer," says: "One 
engaged in the trade of typographical printing ; one who 
sets type or runs a printing press, specifically a com- 
positor. ' ' 

But in these days there are so many kinds of printers 
(lithographic printers, steel and copper-plate printers, 
linotype printers, textile printers, etc.) that to define a 
printer who does his work with type, the word "typo- 
graphic" is strictly proper. 

The word "typography" is derived from the Greek 
typos, or type ; and graphe, or writing — type-writing. 
Typography, then, as I shall use it, means printing from 
movable, or separate types. 

The origin of tjpography ma.v be open to dispute, but 
it is an undeniable fact that the art of printing with sep- 
arate types was practiced at Mainz, Germany, during the 
years 1 450-1 45.5, and from there spread over Europe. 

Before that period books were written by hand or 
printed from crudely engraved blocks of wood. 

The thousand years preceding the invention of print- 
ing (the fifth to the fifteenth century) are known in 
history as the Middle Ages, and the first six centuries 
of this period (the fifth to the eleventh) are called the 
Dark Ages, because during those years civilization in 
Europe relapsed into semi-barbarism, and scientific, artis- 
tic and literary pursuits were almost entirely abandoned. 

Latin had been the language of intellectual Europe up 
to the time of the fall of Rome (4-70 a.u.) and one of the 
influences that led up to this benighted period was that 
Southern Europe was overrun by so-called barbarians 
from Ciermania in the north— the Angles ;ind .Saxons, 
who settled in Britain; the Franks, Burgundians and 
Goths, who settled in Gaul (now France) and Germany ; 
the Vandals who settled in Spain, and the Lombards, 
who settled in Italy. 

In lUly, Spain and Gaul the Latin-speaking natives 
far outnumbered the invaders, and the Germanic con- 
querors were forced to learn something of Latin. The 
present languages of those countries are the result of 
that attempt. The language of the Germanic Angles and 
Saxons was used in Britain after their invasion of that 
country, but was modified by the French-speaking Nor- 
mans who conquered England in the eleventh century. 
Thus Latin as a common language died. 

Altho dead to most of the population of Europe, Latin 
was made the official language of the Christian church, 
and, during that period of the Middle Ages when French, 
Spanish, Italian and English were in a state of evolution, 
it afforded a means of keeping alive in written books the 
knowledge the world had gained before the dark curtain 
of ignorance was rung down. 



Manuscript books are so-called from the Latin words 
manu scripti, meaning written by hand," and the initials 
of these two Latin words are frequently used for the word 
manuscript, i.e., "MS." 

The materials upon which books were written have 
at various times been clay, stone, wood, lead, skin, papyrus 
and paper. 

Looking back six thousand years to the beginning of 
recorded time we find the Chaldeans (Babylonians and 
Assyrians) writing arrow-shaped characters with a sharp 




tri-pointed instrument upon damp clay, which was then 
made permanent by baking. In 1845 a library of baked 
clay tablets was discovered among the ruins of Nineveh. 
Thousands of these tablets have been collected in the 
British Museum, the most interesting of which is one 
which had been broken in eighteen pieces, containing an 
account of the Flood. 

Twenty-five hundred years before the Christian era, 
when the great pyramids were being built, the Egyptians 
WTOte upon papyrus, a plant growing on the banks of the 
Nile. The inner portion of the plant was stripped, the 
strips laid across each other, pressed and dried. The 
squares of material thus made were then joined together 
to form a long strip which was rolled around a rod. 

Upon papyrus is written one of the oldest "books" in 
the world, the "Book of the Dead," now in the British 
Museum. This is a literary work of a semi- sacred char- 
acter, and copies were placed in the tombs with deceased 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Egyptians, whence its name. A reproduction of a portion 
of this book is given on the next page. 

Supposedly under the patronage of the Egyptian ruler, 
Rameses II., about thirteen hundred years before Christ, 
many books on religion, law, medicine and other subjects 
were written, and a great library was accumulated. 

The Chinese wrote with a stylus or brush upon tablets 
of bamboo fiber. It is impossible accurately to determine 
the antiquity of Chinese methods, as the extravagant and 
often unsubstantiated claims of historians antedate those 
of modern discovery. Ink, paper, and printing from 
blocks were all supposedly invented by the Chinese early 
in the Christian era, and even the first use of separate 
types is credited to Fi-Shing, a Chinese blacksmith. It 
may be relevant to suggest that the old-time ' black- 
smith" joke and the printing-term "pi" are derived from 
this source. 

Dressed skins and palmleaves were used by the Hindoos, 
and writings in Sanscrit were probably done in the tem- 
ples by the Brahmins, the priests and philosophers of 
early India. The Vedas, sacred writings as old as 2000 
B.C., formed a big portion of the Hindoo literature. 

The Hebrews wrote upon stones and animal skins. In 
this manner they preserved the Old Testament portion of 
the Bible, and gave to posterity one of the most wonder- 
ful books ever written. » 

The ancient Phoenicians were commercial people, and 
being such did very little in producing literature ; yet it is 
to them that we owe the present Roman alphabet. The 
illustration on a following page shows how this transition 
came about. There is a slight resemblance between some 
of the twenty-two characters in the Phoenician alphabet 
and certain picture writings of the Egyptians, whose hiero- 
glyphic alphabet consisted of several hundred characters 
and was as cumbersome as is the Chinese alphabet with 
its several thousand characters. 

The Greeks received their alphabet directly from the 
Phoenicians, there being a tradition that one Cadmus in- 
troduced it into Greece. Some writers claim that Cad- 
mus" merely signifies "the East" and does not refer to 
an individual. The names of the first two letters of the 
Greek alphabet, Alpha and Beta, are similar to those of 
many other languages, and the word "alphabet" is de- 
rived from these two letters. 

In Greece, especially at Athens, before manuscripts 
became numerous, lectures and public readings were im- 
portant features of intellectual life. 

The poems of Homer, supposed to have been composed 
about 880 b.c, were not put into writing until 560 B.r., 
and during this period of more than three hundred years 
they were retained in the memory of bards, by whom 
they were sung or recited. 

"Plutarch's Lives," one of the best known Greek lit- 
erary works, was written in the second century, a.d. 

The Greek nation is generally acknowledged to have 
been one of the most intellectual of ancient times, yet it 
is a peculiar fact that only the boys were given an edu- 
cation, the intellectual development of women being con- 
sidered unnecessary. 

Copying of manuscripts was often a labor of love. 
Demosthenes, the great philosopher, is said to have tran- 
scribed with his own hands the eight books of Thucydides 
on the history of the Peloponnesian War. 

Many of the Greek manuscripts were written by scribes 
and copyists who were slaves, and some of these slaves 
developed much talent of a literary kind. 

The Greeks imported papyrus as a writing material, 
until one of the Ptolemies, in the interests of the Alexan- 
drian library, decreed that no papyrus should go out of 
Egypt. This led to the development of i)archment, so 



named from the city of Pergamus, where it was first 
made. Parchment is the skin of calves, goats or sheep, 
cleaned and smoothed. 

In the days of militant Greece, Alexander the Great 
conquered Egypt, and in the year 332 b.c. founded Alex- 
andria. When at his death Alexander's empire was 
divided among his generals, Egypt fell to the lot of 
Ptolemy, surnamed Soter. Thus began a dynasty of 
Egyptian kings known as Ptolemies, ending in 30 b.c. at 
the death of Cleopatra, the last of the line. The second 
Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, founded the great Alex- 
andrian library, which accumulated over five hundred thou- 
sand rolls of manuscript, mostly brought from Greece. 
The length of the rolls varied from small ones of two 
hundred lines to massive scrolls of one hundred and fifty 
feet when unwound. 

There is a legend that Ptolemy Philadelphus was so 
impressed with the appearance of a roll of parchment con- 
taining in gold letters the sacred scriptures of the He- 
brews, that, about 270 b.c, he caused their translation 
to be made into Greek. This, it is said, was done in 
Alexandria in seventy-two days by seventy-two learned 




ANCIENT ROMAN READING A MANUSCRIPT ROLL 
From a painting found at Pompeii 

Jews from Jerusalem. Hence the name "Septuagint," 
which has always been applied to that Greek version of 
the Old Testament. 

Julius Cai-sar, the Roman conqueror, whom Shake- 
speare designated the foremost man of all this world," 
about the year 30 b.c. visited the city of Alexandria and 
became interested in Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen. This 
led to a war with King Ptolemy, and during a fierce 
battle Caesar set fire to the Egyptian fleet. Unfortunately 
the flames extended to the Alexandrian library and de- 
stroyed the greater part of its magnificent collection of 
manuscripts. 

Gradually after that, Rome superseded Alexandria as 
an intellectual center, as Alexandria had previously 
superseded Athens. The conquest of Greece, over a hun- 
di-ed years before had been the cause of many Greek 
scholars and philosophers taking up their abode in Rome. 
This, with the fact that a great number of scribes and 
copyists had involuntarily come to the Eternal City be- 
cause of the fortunes of war, helped to develop in the 
Romans an interest in literature. 

During the period of Roman history identified with 
Julius Csesar there were customs in manuscript making 
that are interesting in their suggestion of modern news- 
paper methods. In fact, Caesar is credited as having 
been the founder of the newspaper. 



MAR CI TFKr.Vni VA 
KRDNIS REBVM B\ 
STICAR\'M L113KK U.\D 
NIQRYMTVRAMIVM 


HHRI 


hpjMAGNI 


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mirtc OS romanos 



urba 



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uunt ton3.utorR& ^ 



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aoro ueriantur tn alte r up 
Dp ere faciunao Ucqurm 



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tabant . Itaq ti^ annti ita 
Jmilerut : tat n oms. n\o 



VP.OM VAKRC Tr, RE RUSTICv\r 



H onfe-cs iTifuta: ptrfcr 
H on-canaiTnprope-flvm-jenortv 
;, H os<f Siproflcftisluabiis&rfacns 
' 1 ntcr tocofi tnunaa- Ubcri ■ 
Tc utn prole tnatroru5q:tiri5 
I H tte clcos ptau5 aiprecatt 
[v irtatr4tmetx)5morcpatruiTvciuc» 
^^i- ichs retntxtx) cartmneiiHt* 
roiatna: etanSifcn Aalxtyr 
t-oacmcm ucnerw canrmus ^ 
k <^ H T' Garrmfntiw* bbcr c|OArtus er uloTnus 

I "Bis Ubur«w««Hi(ralca.Tuuirni 
f Ajnic^propugnacula- 
a^^Paratus atone c^ns pertculitm. 
f ubircTnecenas tuo 

s <juibus -KT tuta fijperftttcr 
Ti da fi cotma. grams 
^v trutn Tictuin perfcmemur otmtiv 

ti ckJce-tittcoun fitnul 
' A nbvncUJborexnmtntsthcatndtcte. 

O u emfcrrer noti tiioUef uiros 
v-P M-etjxas.^Ar-ocuelpcralpittmmg?''-- 

ll KV 2 _ A PAGE fROM THE "ODES OF HORACE,'- 
# AN ITALIAN M.S. OF THE 15™ CENTURY 



Tlie rJcK, refined style of Italia 
manuscript books or tne 
FifteentL Century, at 
tlie time or tlie mtroauction 
or typograpny into Italy 



WHEN BOOKS WERE WRITTEN 



He introduced the daily publication of the news of the 
Roman Senate and People, a radical change from the 
previous custom of issuing yearly news-letters known as 
the Annals. The acts of the senate were reported by 
trained writers known as tabularii, or inscribers of tablets, 
and were revised and edited before publication by a 
senator appointed to that duty. Abbreviated forms of 
writing were used in "reporting,'* a sort of short -hand 
which enabled the scribe to write as rapidly as a man 
could speak. Ctesar himself wrote his letters in char- 
acters which prevented them being read by his enemies. 

The Acts of the Senate" grew into a diary of general 
news, known as the "Acta of the City,*" and it is likely 







y 



ROMAN WAXED TABLET 

The present method of binding tlat books probably originated 

with these old tablets 

that the educated slaves in the families of public men were 
called into service to duplicate copies for circulation. 

Altho the Emperor .\ugustus, who reigned in Rome at 
the beginning of the Christian era, discontinued publish- 
ing the Acts of the Senate, he encouraged the writing 
and copying of books to such extent that 
the period is a memorable one in literature. 
The classic authors, \ irgil and Horace, 
wrote at that time, and many other import- 
ant manuscripts were produced. 

Sia%-e labor was utilized for copying, and 
large editions of manuscript rolls were pro- 
duced with an ease that rivaled the later 
method of the printing press. In such in- 
stances it was the custom for a reader to 
read aloud to, say, one hundred trained 
writers. The possibilities of this process may 
be imagined. Horace allowed his slaves 
rations which were so meager that the en- 
tire cost of production, including papyrus 
and binding, of a small book was equivalent 
to about twelve cents in United States coin. 

Thus it will be seen that in the days of 
the Roman Empire books were plentiful and 
cheap because of slave labor, just as they 
are cheap in modern times because of ma- 
chinery. 

For most of their books the Romans, as 
had the Egyptians and Greeks before them, 
used rolls of papyrus wound about rods. 
Ordinarily these rods were made of wood, 
but for highly-prized manuscripts, rods 
made of ivory with gold balls at the ends, 
were used, and the writing in such cases was 
on purple-colored parchment, elaborately 
decorated with gold or red ink. 

The present style of flat sheet books 
probably originated with the use by the 
Romans of tablets of wood or metal, wax- 



coated, on which memoranda was scratched with the 
stylus. Several tablets were hinged together and the 
wax surface was protected by raised edges in the man- 
ner of the modern school slates (see illustration). This 
led to the use of several leaves of vellum fastened to- 
gether and enclosed by richly carved ivory covers, a 
form that came into use about 300 a.d., shortly before 
Constantine removed the Roman capital to Constantinople. 
Constantinople naturally became the center of civiliza- 
tion, and the work of transcribing manuscripts was taken 
up in that city. In the eighth century the reigning em- 
peror, in order to punish the transcribers for insubor- 
dination, caused the library at Constantinople to be ' sur- 
rounded by vast piles of faggots, which being fired at a 
given signal, the whole building was totally destroyed, 
along with its twelve scribes and chief librarian and 
more than thirty thousand volumes of precious manu- 
scripts. "" It seems to have been a favorite method of 
punishment during the Middle Ages, for those in author- 
ity to destroy valuable manuscripts. 

While, as we have seen, with the fall of the Western 
Empire of Rome, the drift of literature was toward the 
East, there remained in the West a dim light that was 
kept burning thru the six hundred years so fittingly 
called the Dark Ages. This light came from the monas- 
teries of Europe, in which little bands of devoted men 
were transcribing and decorating the holy writings used 
by the Roman Christian church. 

The Christian church as an organization became power- 
ful after the Roman Flmpire declined, and the monopoly of 
learning which the church possessed during the Dark 
.\ges gave it such a superior knowledge and power that 
the Church of Rome granted authority to kings, and took it 
away, at its pleasure. A memorable instance of this 
power took place in the eleventh century when Hilde- 
brand, who as head of the church was known as Pope 
Gregory \II., forced Henry I\'. of Germany who had 



'M^:r:i\^lt.PJAU^isxif.^^:^i°^'''^L'z:i'7t 



^ mmm 



ik 



\XJ^ 



THE FAMOUS BOOK OF THE DEAD • 

ihapter of the "Book of the Dead." showing hie 
This book was -written upon papyrus, and copie 
placed by ancient Egyptians in tombs with their dead 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



offended him, to seek pardon in a most humiliating man- 
ner. Henry stood barefoot in the snow for three days, 
before Hildebrand would pardon him. 

On one occasion previously to the event mentioned 
above, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), king of the 
Franks, who was crowned by Pope Leo III. and saluted 
as Emperor of the West, was so mistakenly zealous in 



PHE.NICIAN 


ANCIENT GREEK 


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portions of the Bible were made into common tongues, 
but at great risk. William Tyndale set about to translate 
the Bible into Englisii, vowing that ere many years he 
would cause the plough-boy to know more of the scrip- 
tures than did the priests. By 1,526 he had completed 
the New Testament, but his books were burned in the 
public squares as soon as completed. Ten years later 
Tyndale was burned, as had been his books. 

In 1534 Martin Luther completed his wonderful trans- 
lation into German of the entire Bible, and gave to the 
peoi)le what had previously been denied them. 

We will now consider the making of manuscript books 
in the Middle Ages. In the early days of the Christian 
church, persecution was so severe that Christians lived in 
hiding, or secluded themselves from the outer world to 
worship. This condition led to the existence of a class 
of men known as monks (from a Greek word monos, 
meaning "alone")- At the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury, an earnest, conscientious Christian, now called 
Saint Benedict, set out to reform the evils then preva- 
lent in monastic life. One of his theories was that the 
monks should spend their time, not in idleness, but in 
manual labor, in teaching the youth, and in copying 
manuscripts. The Benedictine monks, as the followers 
of Benedict are kno A^n, were the main agents in spread- 
ing Christianity and keeping learning alive during the 
Dark Ages. Their mode of living became so popular that, 
it is said, there were at one time thirty-seven thousand 
monasteries or cloisters in existence. 

One of the occupations of the Benedictine monks was 
that of copying manuscripts, and in some monasteries a 
room known as the scriptorium was set apart for such 
work. The office of scribe or copyist was one of great 
imjjortance and stringent rules governed the work. No 



fro 



Lthe; 



tPh, 



extending along with his own kingdom that of the Lowly 
Nazarene, that he ordered the hanging of more than four 
thousand prisoners before the Saxons would consent to 
be baptized and conquered. 

Latin as a language is dead, so far as the secular world 
is concerned, but since the seventh century it has been 
the official language of the Church of Rome. All manu- 
scripts produced by monks after that time, whether writ- 
ten in Britain, Germany or Italy, are in Latin, and the 
services of the Roman Catholic Church are conducted in 
that language even today. In the year 1080 the King of 
Bohemia asked Hildebrand, the Papal head of the church, 
for permission to have the services performed in the 
language of the people. This request Hildebrand refused, 
saying: 'it is the will of God that his word should be 
hidden, lest it should be despised if read by every one." 

In 1229 a council of the church published a decree 
which not only strictly forbade the translation of the 
Bible into a "vulgar tongue," but also forbade all but 
the clergy to have copies in their possession. 

In spite of these mandates, translations of various 



_ 

A 


B C 


D 


E 


F G 


H 


I 


L M 


N 





P Q R 


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T V 


X 



CAPITAL LETTERS OF THE ANCIENT ROMANS 

writing was done by artificial light, talking was pro- 
hibited, and none but the scribes were allowed in the 
room. The tools were quill pens, knives to cut the quills, 
pumice stone to smooth the surface of the parchment, 
awls and rulers with which tomake guide-lines, and weights 
to keep down the pages. Parchment and vellum, the 
former made of the skins of calves, goats or sheep, the 



WHEN BOOKS W^ERE WRITTEN 



latter of the skins of unborn lambs and kids, were the 
materials written upon. Black ink was commonly used 
for the text of books ; and vermilion, an orange-red ink 
made of red clay, was used for titles and important parts 
of the text. The portions in red were known as rubrics, 
from ntbrica (red earth). 

Illuminating was done to some extent in the monas- 
teries, but illuminators other than monks were often 
called upon to assist in this work. This practice led to 
queer combinations, as sacred writings were frequently 



^ B C O 

e F C 
n ) L m 

M o 
P 9 R S 

r ^ 



UNCIAL LETTERS OF THE SIXTH CENTURY 

These letters show the Roman capitals assuming the shape of 

the later Gothic, or text, letters 

decorated with monkeys and other animals and birds, 
which might have afforded appropriate decoration for an 
account of the Flood. 

After the parchment was prepared and before begin- 
ning to write the scribe would scratch his guide-lines upon 
it with an awl. The position of the page and the lines 
of lettering were thus indicated, the page 
guide-lines extending to the edge of the 
parchment. The scribe's work was prin- 
cipally that of copying (setting reprint, 
printers would say) from a book on the 
reading desk at his side. He was supposed 
strictly to "follow copy," and his work 
was compared occasionally by a person 
known as a corrector. The black writing 
finished, the skins were passed to the rub- 
ricator or illuminator, if the manuscript 
was to be elaborately treated. 

The colored plate shown as a frontis- 
piece is from an old print and pictures a 
scribe at work. He is writing the text on 
a sheet of parchment held in place by a 
weight. The book from which he is copy- 
ing is in front of him, above his writing 
desk, and his copy is indicated by a guide 
such as printers still use. Ink pots and 
pens are in place and an elaborate library 
is evidently at his disposal. The picture 




HALF-UNCIAL LETTERS 

Demonstrating the transition of Roman capitals into small or 

lower-case, letters 

is defective in perspective but is withal rather inter- 
esting. 

The most beautiful and elaborate specimen of the 
illuminator's art now in existence is the famous "Book of 
Kells,'* a copy of the Gospels written about the seventh 
century. It is notable because of the excellence of its 
decoration, the endless variety of initial letters it con- 
tains, and the careful lettering. The scribes and illum- 
inators of Ireland have a lasting monument in this book, 
as it is supposed to have been produced in the monastery 
of Kells, founded by St. Colombo. 

Gold, red and blue were favorites with the illumin- 
ators, the burnished gold leaf adding richness to the 
brilliancy of the effect. 

Manuscript books were ordinarily bound in thick 
wooden boards covered with leather, but there are 
books yet preserved the boards of which are of carved 
ivory, and others that are inlaid with precious stones. 

The books associated with the .Middle Ages most 
familiar to us, are the Missal (mass-book) containing the 
services of the celebration of the mass ; the Psalter (book 
of psalms) containing the psalms used in church services; 
the Book of Hours, containing prayers and offices for the 
several hours of the day, and the Donatus, a short Latin 
grammar, the work of Aelius Donatus, a Roman gram- 
marian of the fourth century. 

When printing was invented the first types used were 
imitations of tlie current Gothic lettering, known to us 
as Black Letter, Old English, etc. A few years later, 
when typography was introduced into Italy, the types 



Inoinnts <{; ilmUmt[ a^jrtro mgulo o^immlt aiipl)al)mt 
tflUnf fiTltyt|n((B infitttftfflni j»nq;rtl»ttt omt^ffi^tHr 

Tiftu^ ponnfimXefttuifoflninislmimiau^ 
btnpUtu qumtaDu^unti. 



Also si 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



were cut in iinitatiun of the lettering selected for use by 
the scribes of the Italian Renaissance, which lettering is 
familiarly known in our time as Roman. The capitals of 
this Roman lettering are fashioned after those used in 
ancient Rome, and the small or lower-case letters are 
after the Roman writing known as minuscule, of the 
twelfth century. 

The ancient Roman writing was all capitals, and as 
found on stamps and coins was of the character of tlie 
modern so-called "Gothic" (plain strokes, without the 
small cross strokes known as serifs). The more carefully 
made Roman capitals, as carved on monuments and 
buildings, are not unlike the present type-faces known 
as Caslon and French old style. 

The evolution of Roman capitals into the small or 
lower-case letters of the present day is traced in the 
writing called uncial, in which the letters A, D, E, H, 
M, Q are rounded and altered in appearance. More 
changes developed the writing known as half-uncial, 
in which only the N and F retain the appearance of 



Roman capitals. The small (lower-case) letters became 
known as minuscule, as contrasted with majuscule, or cap- 
ital letters. (See reproductions on preceding pages.) 

From this point book writing developed in two direc- 
tions : one toward the heavy pointed stroke of the churchly 
Gothic style, and the other, guided by Charlemagne in 
the eighth century, to the style of Roman letter used by 
Jenson and other printers of Venice, Italy, in their 
classic printing of the fifteenth century. Our old-style 
Roman types are from this source. 

Another style, called cursive, was the carelessly executed 
handwriting used for ordinary purposes, and in that 
respect may be likened to our own business script. 

Thus as the fifteenth century dawned upon Europe we 
find literature and learning locked up in the cells of 
the monks, while outside, the hosts of people who for 
ten centuries were wandering in semi-darkness, had 
reached an elevation which showed them a new exist- 
ence coming with the intellectual awakening that was 
then already upon them. 4> •{. 4. ^i 4. 4. 4. 




Mm Dirb^pofibSiimmmtiS'lnuttatmfnm^ 

fle9fmagnSDnmtimltraDQ2mitt0jelSmifr« 
^nme DictemftfcfluepBlelnmtatmni- 

ttonabijtin cuotiar* 
(onfiltoiinptozu irin 
utapttoQnoQmnim 
mtbetimpeQilnirnoIr^ 

ffimsci^iftmlrgeniie mriiimbtf bit ar 
]uidr,Httrittan$lignu(|tipIammtflr 
(rots tBurTuB aqfeqfifmdufuiibabitin 

fdartjv^bttt;jQ|ortrunptjnof^^ GrD 
tan^tmlttta que ^onmiua a fm tm, 
JbCDnonrrfitrgi rmipqmtuDtQornr^ 
pab2f9tnfdrtliamlhii| QJinomrbna 
iimiuIfanitiitrriniinoQiSibit^iid^ 



Portion of a page (full size) from Fust and Sckoeffer'fl 

Psalter of 1457 

Tke first book with a printed date; with woodcut 

initiala and decoration 




E] 



7 



^H 



THE ORIGIN OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE invention of typography in the fifteenth century 
marked the beginning of a new civilization and the end 
of the medieval thousand years. The Middle Ages may 
be said to have begun with the capture of Rome by the 
Vandals in 455 a.d. , and to have ended with the produc- 
tion of what is considered the first printed book in 1455. 




Printing with separate metal types, while involving 
a new principle, was to some extent a development of 
other methods. The evolution from manuscript books 
to block books, and from block books to books printed 
from types occurred quietly in the natural courseof events ; 
so quietly, indeed, that there is mystery surrounding each 
change of method. 

In the early part of the fifteenth century, when writing 
was the only agency used for making books, the demand 
for playing cards and sacred pictures necessitated a 
method of reproduction more rapid than the old ; and thus 
engraved wood blocks were introduced. 

As the desire for knowledge outgrew the productive 
resources of the russet-gowned scribes, men with a me- 
chanical turn of mind began to engrave pages of books 
on wooden blocks, a process which, tho extremely tedious, 
afforded a means of partly satisfying the need, and which 
became the stepping stone to the invention of printing 
with separate types. The block books, as they were 



As has been shown, during most of the thousand years 
preceding the invention of typography, ignorance and 
superstition reigned thruout Europe, despite the efforts of 
Charlemagne and others to revive learning and encourage 
interest in books. The popular mind had become so per- 
verted that ability to read and write, and love for art 
were considered proofs of effeminacy. 

As the medieval period neared its close, the brain of 
man became more active; he began to reason and to 
understand much that before had been mystery. Inter- 
est was manifested in the problems of science and re- 
ligion, and notable things were accomplished by artists 
and craftsmen. It seemed as if the intellect of mankind 
was awakening from a long sleep, and civilization was 
being born again. 

As the light of the new intelligence shone upon the 
earth, and Euroi)e rubbed its dazzled eyes. Typography, 
the star that was to light the way to modern knowledge 
and achievement, appeared. 




8 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



called, sometimes contained whole pages of reading mat- 
ter, each letter cut in relief on the face of the wood, and 
frequently the page included a large illustration carelessly 
drawn and crudely engraved. The early method of print- 
ing block books was by placing the paper on the inked 
surface and rubbing the back. Only one side was printed 
and a brown distemper ink (a kind of watercolor) was used. 
Simply constructed presses, prototypes of the modern 
hand press, were employed by block-book makers in 
later years. Playing cards and image prints were popular 
products of the block-book period, and after being i)rinted 
were colored by means of stencils. A French pla> ing 
card of the fifteenth century is reproduced on the pre- 
ceding page, as well as a print illustrating the old leg- 
end of St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus across 
a river. This last-mentioned print is dated 1423, is 
8/8 X 11% inches, and is the oldest dated specimen of 
printing. 

The invention of printing really dates from the time 
books were printed from wooden blocks, altho the more 
important invention, that of typography (printing with 
separate types), is also known by the general word "print- 
ing. " The first block books, probably Donatuses, may 
have been printed in Holland. The * Donatus" is a 
Latin grammar, and received its name from its author, 
yElius Donatus, a Roman grammarian of the fourth cen- 
tury. It is a small book of not more than thirty-four 
pages printed on parchment, and had a large sale. 

There is a morbid side to human nature, and it has 
been with us since the beginning. Today it finds delight 
in perusing in the sensational newspapers detailed de- 
scrii)tions of murders, train wrecks, and other happenings 
in which blood is spilled. During the Middle Ages it pre- 
vailed, and is reflected in the pictures that have come down 
to us in the block books. A doleful atmosphere is 
present in the block book "Ars Moriendi" (Art of Dy- 







biltgettiiuccfc^ii^V[ 



yiitntiiQimiy puoSuieii-nt/nt 
^jeoatuistamei 



^nxtan mam vtt^tipntetm3!»t>imtKitm' 



Otmitlkyaftw «>m(WMw< ^-. - -. 

ituntm m buattst^udbxtit firmUaxim't(itmai& 



ing)» whose illustrations show weeping angels and leering 
demons, weird settings that are magnified by the crude- 
ness of the engravings. 

The Biblia Pauperum" (Bible of the Poor) is another 
block book very popular in the days preceding the inven- 
tion of typography. It is a book of about forty pages, 
consisting principally of illustrations of the important 
happenings as told in the Scriptures. The book was for 
the use of illiterate monks, and those who did not have 
access to the elaborate manuscript Bibles. 

A book of similar purpose, but more complete than the 
Bible of the Poor, is called "Speculum Humanae Salva- 
tionis" (Mirror of Human Salvation). This book liter- 
ally presents the transition from block books to type- 
printed books, for of the sixty-three pages in one edition 
twenty are printed from wood blocks and forty-three from 
separate types (see reproductions herewith). The printed 
page of the Mirror" is a trifle larger than the page that 
is now being read. Almost every monastery in Europe 
contained copies of the "Speculum." 

When, where and by whom was typography invented? 
It is surprising that there should be any real uncer- 
tainty about the facts connected with the invention of 
typography, but some uncertainty does exist, and vari- 
ous opinions and conclusions are set forth in books on 
the subject. The new method of printing was invented 
in the midst of indifference and ignorance, and for many 
years but few cared that it had come among them. 

The inventor of typography, whether Coster or Guten- 
berg, was too modest to claim the credit in a substantial 
way, as he failed to print his name on the first books 
done by the new method. 

This modesty, or whatever else it may have been, 
opened the way for almost every European country to 
claim the honor of having been the home of the inven- 
tion. However, all claims have been disproved excepting 
those of Germany and Holland, and as the argument now 
stands the weight of the evidence is with Germany. 

C. H. Timperley,in his Dictionary of Printing" ( 1839) 
says that of those who had written on the subject up to 
his time, one hundred and nine favored Mainz and twenty- 
four favored Haarlem as the birthplace of typography. 

There is indisputal)le evidence to prove that typog- 
raphy was practiced by Gutenberg at Mainz, Germany, 
from 1450 to 145.5, and that the art spread from that 
city to all parts of Europe. There is no doubt about that. 
The only thing which can lose to Gutenberg and Ger- 
many the credit of the invention is proof that another 
man printed from separate types in another country pre- 
vious to 1450. Certain investigators have attempted to 
supply this proof, as we shall see. 






^lilliStSslMiisJitiWsiil 




!ii 






10 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



The pretensions of Holland are that one Laurens Jans- 
zoon Coster (Lawrence, son of John, the sexton or 
sheriff) printed with separate types about the year 1430 
at Haarlem. 

The earliest testimony on the subject is a chapter in 
the "Chronicle of Cologne" (l^QO) wherein the author 
speaks of information about the invention of typography 
received by him from Ulrich Zell, who printed books at 
Cologne, Germany, as early as 1464. He states that the 

art was discovered first of all in Germany, at Mainz on 
the Rhine," and that "the first inventor of printing was 
a citizen . . . named Junker Johan Gutenberg. " This 
statement is added to by the assertion that the new art 

found its first prefiguration in Holland in the Donatuses 
which were printed there before that 
time." It has been argued that the last 
assertion refers to block books. 

An extract from the Cologne-Chron- 
icle account may be of interest: 

This highly valuable art was discovered first 
of all in Germany, at Mainz on the Rhine. 
And it is a great honor to the German nation 
that such ingenious men are found among 
them. And it took {)lace about the year of 
our Lord 1440, and from this time until the 
year 1430, the art, and what is connected 
with it, was being investigated. And in the 
year of our Lord 14.50, it was a golden year, 
they began to print, and the first book they 
printed was the Bible in Latin; it was printed 
in a large letter resembling the letter with 
which at present missals are printed. Altho 
the art was discovered at Mainz, in the man- 
ner as it is now generally used, yet tlie pre- 
figuration was found in Holland, in the Don- 
atuses, which were printed there before that 
time. And from these the beginning of the 
said art was taken, and it was invented in a 
manner much more masterly and subtle than this, and became 
more and more ingenious. . . . But the first inventor of printing 
was a citizen of Mainz, born at Strassburg, and named Junker 
Johan Gutenberg. From Mainz the art was introduced first of all 
into Cologne, then into Strassburg, and afterwards into Venice. 
The origin and progress of the art was told me verbally by the 
honorable master Ulrich Zell, of Hanan, still printer at Cologne, 
anno 1499, by whom the said art came to Cologne. 

There was printed in the year 1561 an address to the 
town officers of Haarlem by Dierick Coornhert, an en- 
graver, in which he stated that he was 

often told in good faith that the useful art of printing books 
was invented, first of all, here in Haarlem, altho in a crude way, 
as it is easier to improve on an invention than to invent; which 
art having been brought to Mainz by an unfaithful servant, was 
very much improved there, whereby this town, on account of its 
" first having spread it, gained such a reputation for the invention 
of the art, that our fellow-citizens find very little credence when 
they ascribe this honor to the true inventor. . . . And because I 
implicitly believe what I have said before, on account of the trust- 
worthy evidence of very old, dignified and gray heads, who often 
told me not only the family of the inventor, but also his name and 
surname, and explained the first crude way of printing, and 
pointed with their finger the house of the first printer out to me. 

It will be noticed that Coornhert fails to mention the 
name of the alleged inventor, the location of his house, 
or the date of the invention. The claim that "the useful 
art of printing books was invented, first of all, here at 
Haarlem, altho in a crude way," may refer to the print- 
ing of block books and not to typography. 

The claims of Holland were first presented definitely 
about 1566 in a history of the Netherlands called "Ba- 
tavia," the author of which was known in his own tongue 
as Adrian de Jonghe ; in English as Adrian the Younger, 
and in Latin as Hadrian Junius. The story as written by 
Junius has been dubbed the "Coster Legend" and it 
reads in part as follows : 

About one hundred and twenty-eight years ago there dwelt in a 
house of some magnificence (as may be verified by inspection, for 
it stands intact to this day) in Haarlem, near to the market, and 




LAURENS COSTER 
Portrait of the supposed Holland 



opposite the royal palace, Laurentius Joannes, surnamed jEditus 
or Custos, by reason of this lucrative and honorable office, which 
by hereditary right appertained to the distinguished family of 
that name. . . . When strolling in the woods near the city, as 
citizens who enjoyed ease were accustomed to do after dinnerand 
on holidays, it happened that he undertook as an experiment to 
fashion the bark of a beech tree in the form of letters. The letters 
so made he impressed the reverse way, consecutively, upon a leaf 
of paper, in little lines of one kind and another. . . . Thereupon 
he made, by the addition of letters, explanations for pictures on 
engraved wood. Of this kind of printing, I myself have seen some 
stamped block books, the first essays of the art, printed on one 
side only, with the printed pages facing each other, and not upon 
both sides of the leaf. Among them was a book in the vernacular 
written by an unknown author, bearing the title "Spieghel onzer 
Behoudenis" [Dutch edition of the "Mirror of Sulvalion," two 
pages of the Latin edition of which are here shovn]. . . . He 
subsequently changed the beech-wood letters 
for those of lead, and these again for letters 
of tin, because tin was a less flexible material, 
harder and more durable. To this day may 
be seen in the very house itself . . . some 
very old wine flagons, which were made from 
the melting down of the remnants of these 
very types. The new invention met with 
favor from the public and . . . attracted pur- 
chasers from every direction. . . . He 
added assistants to his band of workmen, and 
here may be found the cause of his troubles. 
Among these workmen was a certain John. 
Whether or not, as suspicion alleges, he was 
Faust ... or another of the same name I 
shall not trouble myself to ascertain. This 
man, altho bound by oath to the typographic 
art, when he knew himself to be perfectly 
skilled in the operation of type setting, in 
the knowledge of type founding, and in every 
other detail appertaining to the work, seized 
the first favorable opportunity . . . and flew 
into the closet of the types, and packed up 
the instruments used in making them that 
belonged to his master, and . . . immedi- 
ately after slunk away from the house with 
the thief. He went first to Amsterdam, thence to Cologne, and 
finally regained Mainz. . . . Within the space of a year, or 
about 1442, it is well known that he published, by the aid of the 
same types which Laurentius had used in Haarlem, the "Doc- 
trinal" of Alexander Gallus . . . and also the "Treatises" of 
Peter, of Spain ... I remember that Nicholas Gallius, the pre- 
ceptor of my boyhood, a man of tenacious memory, and vener- 
able with gray hairs, narrated these circumstances to me. He, 
when a boy, had more than once heard Cornells, an old book- 
binder and an underworkman in the same printing office when 
not an octogenarian and bowed down with years, recite all these 
details as he had received them from his master. . . . 

This is the strongest proof the friends of Coster can 
present, and it has been thoroly dissected by investiga- 
tors representing both sides of the controversy. The weak 
points of the document appear to be : 

(1) The date of the experiment with wood letters in 
the garden (about 1440) does not leave enough 
time for completion of the invention of separate 
metal types and the equipment of a large print- 
ing office until the theft which Junius says oc- 
curred in 1441. 

(2) The date of the theft of 1441 does not reconcile 
itself with the fact that Gutenberg in 1436 was 
probably experimenting with his invention at 
Strassburg. 

(3) The claim that a Dutch edition of the "Mirror of 
Salvation" was printed with separate types cut from 
wood seems doubtful, because even the best modern 
machinery has not demonstrated that wood type 
can be made as accurately as is necessary for ar- 
rangemen t of small types in a massed page. When 
it is considered that the size of types used on the 
edition mentioned was about fourteen point, and 
the lines were printed in alignment, the modern 
printer is sure to question the accuracy of the asser- 
tion. 

Four editions, two in Latin and two in Dutch, of the 
Mirror of Salvation," are known to exist, all printed 



THE ORIGIN OF TYPOGRAPHY 



from types except twenty pages of the second edition 
which are printed from engraved blocks. They are the 
work of some early printer of Holland, whether his name 
was Coster or whether the books were printed before or 
after 1450 will probably never be ascertained. 

One Peter Scriverius in 1628 wrote a new version of 
the invention in which he says that "in the year 1428, 
Laurens Coster, then a sheriff of Haarlem, strolled into 
the Haarlem woods. He took up the branch of an oak- 
tree, cut a few letters in relief on the wood, and after 
awhile wrapped them up in paper. He then fell asleep, 
but while he slept, rain descended and soaked the paper. 
Awakened by a clap of thunder, he took up the sheet, 
and to his astonishment discovered that the rain had 
transferred to it the impress of the letters," etc. 

Junius had placed the date of Coster's invention at 
about 1440; Scriverius put it at 1428. The date was 
SLgain changed, this time to 1420, by Marcus Boxhorn, 
who wrote on the subject in 1640. 

In 1722 a statu e of Coster was erected in Haarlem, 
but no date was placed upon it. 

.\ true and rational account of the invention" was 
published at Haarlem by one Leiz in 1742, which gives 
in detail the supposed events of Coster's life as a printer 
from the cutting of the wood letters on the tree bark in 
1428 to his death in 1467, but does not reveal the source 
of information. 

Gerard Meerman, a learned but impractical writer of 
Rotterdam, in 1765 published a book, "Origines Typo- 
graphical," and comes to the conclusion that typogra- 
phy was invented by Louwerijs Janszoon, known as 
Lourens Coster, who was sheriff at various times betw een 
1422 and 1434, and who died between 1434 and 1440; 
he used separate wooden types about 1428 or 1430, and 
did not (as Junius had claimed) use lead or tin types; 
he was robbed on Christmas night 1440 b.v Johan Gens- 
fleisch (elder brother of John Gutenberg), who carried 
the art to Mainz; he printed one edition of the "Mir- 
ror" from wooden types. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century a scien- 
tific society of Holland offered a prize for the best treat- 
ise on the subject of the invention and in 1816 Jacob 
Koning was given the award for his essay, "The Origin, 
Invention and Development of Printing." Koning was 
the first writer on the subject to make researches in the 
Haarlem archives and in his book he claimed to have 
carefully collected from the registers, account books, 
and other official data all the entries that could throw 
light on the subject, and to have got together all the 
documentary evidence to be found. 

The investigations of Koning, as reported by himself, 
corroborated some of the details of the stories of those 
who preceded him, and he found that Louwerijs Janszoon 
lived at Haarlem from 1370 to 1439, when he died. 

For many years the discussion stood as Koning had 
\e(t it and Coster was universally given equal honors with 
Gutenberg as the inventor of typography, but for sev- 
eral years previous to 1869 rumors of errors and defects 
in the Haarlem claim were in circulation in Holland. 

Dr. Anton Van der Linde took up the task of investi- 
gating these rumors and the results of his labors were 
given in a series of articles in the Dutch Spectator during 
1870, These articles were revised and issued in book 
form under the title, "The Haarlem Legend of the In- 
vention of Printing." 

Van der Linde showed how Coster's cause had been 
bolstered by Koning and others with misrepresenta- 
tions, evasions and even forgeries, and Holland practi- 
cally surrendered its claims and altered its school books 
to meet the new conditions. 

The town records revealed no mention of printing in 
connection with Louwerijs Janszoon the sheriff who died 



in 1439, or with the Laurens Janszoon Coster shown by 
these items : 

1436 — Laurens Janszoon Coster inherited a seat in a "Christ- 
mas Corporation" from his father Jan Coster. 

1441 — Sold oil, soap and tallow candles. 

1442 — Repaired the lantern in the church tower and sold more 
candles, oil and soap. 

U4T— Sold more candles. 

1451 -Was paid for wine delivered to the Burgomaster. 

14.Ji— Was owed by the town seventeen gilders for a dinner 
supplied the Count of Oostervant. 

1 IT t— Paid war taxes. 

U7.5— Paid a tine. 

UH3— Left Haarlem. 

Van der Linde went to Germany as librarian of the 
royal library at Wiesbaden, became Von der Linde and 
in 1878 published an enlarged edition of his former book 
under the title "Gutenberg," in which he argued that 
Gutenberg was the inventor of typography. 

In 1879 J. H. Hessels, who had translated into Eng- 
lish Van der Linde's first book, was asked to write a re- 
view of the new book, "Gutenberg," and in doing this he 
became so interested in the subject that he began a careful 
investigation into the question. He afterward declared 
in the preface of his book "Gutenberg" (l882), "Had I 
myself been able to realize beforehand the time, the 
trouble, and the expense that this Gutenberg study 
would cost me, I should have abandoned the subject at 
the outset." But the work was so infatuating that in 
1887 he published another book: Haarlem, the Birth- 
place of Printing; not Mentz." 

To demonstrate the fickle workings of the human mind 
it may be interesting to note that in his book of 1882 
Mr. Hessels wrote, I have never made any thoro exam- 
ination of the Haarlem question, but such inquiries as 
I have made have led me to believe that the Haarlem 
claim cannot be maintained." Contrast this with the 
title of his book of 1887: Haarlem, not Mentz," and 
notice his change of base. 

While Mr. Hessels had come to believe in Haarlem, 
Van der Linde's faith in the cause of Gutenberg was so 
strong he forsook his native land, and in America Theo- 
dore L. De \'inne in his book The Invention of Print- 
ing" (l876) had reasoned out the tangle in a way to 
satisfy himself and many others that Gutenberg, and 
not Coster, was the inventor of typography. 

It is impossible here to go into detailed discussion of 
the points at issue, and only because the burden of proof 
is upon the Holland advocates, has so much space been 
given to Coster. 

While there may be some truth in the Coster story, 
the proofs are weak, and Haarlem claimants do not seem 
able to agree as to the identity of the man Coster. 

Gutenberg, on the contrary, is shown by records too 
numerous to here mention separately, to have been a 
real, tangible human being, one who printed with separ- 
ate metal types, and the probable inventor of the art. 

It is believed that Gutenberg was born at Mainz, Ger- 
many, about the year 1399. His parents were Frielo 
Gensfleisch (goose-flesh) and Else Gutenberg (good-hill). 
The boy Johan took the last name of his mother, in ac- 
cordance with a German custom of perpetuating a name. 

Because of civil strife in Mainz, the Gensfleisch family 
left that city about 1420 and took up residence presum- 
ably at Strassburg. 

There is a possibility that typography spent its infant 
days at Strassburg. Gutenberg lived there in 1439 and 
was practicing a secret art, which resulted in a lawsuit. 
The records of the case had lain, with other records of 
the time, in an old tower, and were not found until 
about 1 740. They were removed to the Library of Strass- 
burg, remaining; there until the Franco-Prussian War 
(l870), when they were destroyed by soldiers. 



12 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




This suit against Gutenbero- was brought by the rela- 
tives of Andrew Dritzehen, one of his workmen, whom 
Gutenberg had agreed to teach certain things connected 
with the business in which he was engaged. The tes- 
timony of the several 
witnesses includes ref- 
erences to secrets 
which Gutenberg 
would not impart to 
his associates; four 
pieces lying in a press 
(w h i c ii De Vinn e 
claims was a type- 
mold); lead, melted 
forms, work connected 
with printing, etc. 

It is argued that 
Gutenberg could not 
have printed in such a 
perfect manner at 
Mainz in 145 5 if he 
had not devoted many 
of the years before to 
perfecting the new 
art, and for this reason Strassburg may reasonably claim 
to be the birthplace of typography. 

Gutenberg's greatest misfortune, the seizure by Fust 
of his printing office and the just-completed edition of 
the famous Forty-two-Line Bible, fur- 
nishes a strong link in the chain of evi- 
dence that goes to prove him the in- 
ventor of printing. 

The story has been often told how 
Johan Gutenberg, in need of cash to 
finance his invention, went to Johan 
Fust, a citizen of Mainz, and obtained 
a sum of money for which he mortgaged 
his printing office. This was in 1450. 
Five years later we find Fust appearing 
before a public notary in the convent 
of the Bare-Footed Friars to enforce 
his claim. Fust evidently caught Guten- 
berg unawares, for the courts decided 
against the inventor and all types, 
presses and books in the possession of 
Gutenberg were taken to the house of 
Johan Fust. This entire transaction sa- 
vors of business practices so shrewd as to 
be questionable, and presents Fust in an unfavorable light. 

The records of the agreement and lawsuit just men- 
tioned are proof that Johan Gutenberg printed with sep- 
arate metal types at Mainz, Germany, during the years 
1450-1455. While he did not print his name on any of 
the products of his printing office, there are specimens 
of Mainz printing such as Indulgences, Donatuses, etc., 
which corroborative evidence shows to have been done 
before 1455. 

The greatest achievement of Gutenberg, the culmin- 
ation of his efforts in the new art, was the famous Forty- 
two-Line Bible. There are several copies of this book in 
existence. It consists of almost thirteen hundred pages, 
about twelve by sixteen inches, two columns to the 
page, the columns containing for the most part, forty- 
two lines, whence the name by which the book is 
known. The types in size are equivalent to the present- 
day twenty-point, and in style are a copy of the book- 
Gothic letters of the fifteenth century. 

The reproduction of a page of the Bible herewith is 
less than one-half the size of the original, but will give 
an idea of the style of treatment accorded what is prob- 
ably the first type-printed book. The text portion was 




printed in black ink onlj-. The illuminators put a dab 
of red on the initial beginning each sentence, and filled 
all blank spaces with decoration, with which the initials 
I and P are cleverly blended. 

Johan (jutenberg, after his printing outfit was taken 
by Fust, did not entirely lose heart, but again estab- 
lished himself as a printer, altho he never afterward pro- 
duced the equal of his great woi-k, the Forty-two-Line 
Bible. In 1465 he was appointed a gentleman of the 
court of the Bishop of Mainz, as a reward either for his 
invention or for political activity. 

Gutenberg died about 14(J8 and his printing material 
and e(iuipment went to one Conrad Humery, who had 
some rights of ownership in them. 

H. Noel Humphreys, altho a Coster advocate, in his 
"History of Printing" (l8G8)says: "if Gutenberg be 
not the absolute inventor of printing types, he was cer- 
tainly their first conqueror. He is therefore entitled to 
rank as high, if not higher, than the inventor. There 
were not wanting those, even in his own time, who fully 
appreciated his services, and already declared him a glory 
to his native city and to Germany." 

Among Gutenberg's workmen in 1455 was a young 
man about twenty-five years of age named Peter Schoeffer, 
who previously had copied books while a student at the 
University of Paris. He was a valued assistant to Guten- 
berg, and when Fust took over the equipment forfeited 
by the inventor, Schoeffer assumed charge, married 
Fust's daughter and became a partner 
in the business. 

Two years later the new firm pub- 
lished a Psalter, which has become, 
along with Gutenberg's Bible, one of 
the great books of historic printerdom. 
Seven copies are known to exist. The 
Psalter consists of one hundred and sev- 
enty-five vellum leaves nearly square. 
The Psalms are in types of about forty- 
point body, twice the size of those used 
on Gutenberg's Bible and of a similar 
style. The features of the Psalter are 
the large printed two-color initials, gen- 
erally credited to Schoeffer, altho some 
authorities have declared that they orig- 
inated with Gutenberg. 

This Psalter was the first book with a 

printed date, the colophon at the end of 

the book containing August 14, 1457." 

The portion of a page shown in this connection, being 

full size and in colors, should convey an idea of the 

appearance of the Psalter. The four cross lines are for 

the music notes, which were inserted by hand. 

Fust died about 
1466 from the plague 
while at Paris arrang- 
ing for the sale of 
books. Schoeffer con- 
tinued to print, and 
many books came from 
his presses. The last 
book he printed, just 
before his death (about 
1502), was a fourth 
edition of his Psalter. 
And thus one of the 
greatest blessings the 
world has known. Ty- 
pography, was given to 
man. We shall next 
consider how the art 
spread over Europe. 



|igpsra|^:<;::;t;;; 



;:C>aRaB01i 



Intrpu prolagus fanm itjcondi- 
ftpeflmen ipamboUJSl^IjJtnome 
ngstt qriSola qiioa iugit ranttoa^ 
U m i uimm o mna tton Doutionquoe 
Upi ucdit amw.ffdmftarma in oftc» 
i fcnoB-^i^rilfltiatnalaitna'qttoq? 
^ bDfdri6.^]irinf:rdiaun(tptfuaU^^ 
f^ nOimf . (jBimne fclaria fumpnium J 
' ^ notenoe moe ft libranoe fuftmta j 
j de:muobJ6 iwaffrnm nfm ucfnDfl 
('mgrniu .tftfrrpfflamt&fqtiee mrte^ 
]' Dnifa foftraurtiniiri am eqinl fir mf 
Ijuobia efuncabs olno laborart:aur 
ra ranonf Uaa ct aropn-iuifl^ pttor 
U08 obncHtf fmultacn loga egiota- 
rionefradue-mpmniQ iiorannott' 
nnrf-^apuiJ uoomutus fffrai.mDui 
J! qjuanonnrnonjconffrram-inftrp' 
1! ranonr uUJclittrtrm ralomome tio^ 
I lummn:mallorti i]t t^jmeabolae* 
J Dulrjala rt)moj3ubia oorariroflrtlj- 
1; quf giTTTfrrliaftfn-lannf^jnauaiorf 
/ pDlTmrf'tJitnTifirariHra-qliilingua 
nfam urnif rana cu ranrDu^lPftmrft 
pauaretoe-iijufiliifirad) libmtali'' 
prfu&o0f9pl)U0-qui fapitmia falo- 
mome iitfrnbif.Cuoii ^jriort lirtina J 
imm rtpm-no fftiiafhrii ur apnD \a4 
nno9 :ftb patolae pnoraiu.Jfui mdl 
trat fdliame-tt rannrii wnaoDatur 
Dmilinitiinf faloraome-no foluni^ 
mtroQbroru.'ixDmaraattnau ^mti 
f tf caniuawt,?^>emDn0 aputi Ijrbrtti^ 
j^nufq^cftrquiart ipff ftilns gtrram 
Elcqumarrt)oln:rtneuulli fmptou 
um tUir fHt m5h Elonie affinnat. i 
*iru5 trgtj iuijnt) ^ rt)obif ^ matta-'f 
im bbro84tgtt quibr eoa mtiaTeii J 
intfrranoirae Otipjurae no rfripinj 
(tr 5 bfr buQ oolumiiw legat ab fDi^ 
fttationeplfbwrnd aDaiiduritamn n 
tcttiefiicDij Do0maiii^araianljQ 



n^tmi fane Iiptuoaua intopixrum 
raagietditio platttrtjibrt r a a nobi'' 
oura nnaiata* fHtt{) mi mm Oc m- 
;^mi?:ut omratEftruam? ift tame ai 
tijUomflutttltgrnt-Cdarma^is ora 
ffidpra mtiUi0i:quf no in trcriu nae 
f traflSuia maruwtrffiiftarim be prd a 
f pmiflime^maataftfttrluu rapjcefer- 
"' ikpdmboIctiilamdi% 

Ifiratoltfalamottir" 
lalijtHttibrr^eirti: 
jatifiimDafapitttti'^ 
|amibifaplma:ab 
linttlbgmbntjKba 
l^btmic rt ftifdpi'' 
I mblttubtiadone Dortniutittftna 
ft iubiiiu 1 {quiratf rut mur patmUiT 
afluria:ft anolefinm rmtttiaet iind* 
Irdue.^ubieefapiferajiimweilc:^ 
tntdligE0ptFmaithp)iiibrtJit.'^m'' 
aDnrmtparabolam fl: inwptttariO' 
ne!n:titttBrapimriu"irm0uiaiafl34» 
nmtoi bthpnnpm fapimc.^flpim^ 
nam atq;boitnuami\uIrt Defpirint. 
jiltibifiii tut birnplma ptie tut n nr 
DmnttaB Ifgrat mfte nif :iK ab tomr 
gtana rapiti moii itKqneo CDllo mo. 
I /fillraififtla(hiurnurpm)rto:titac^ 
I qpirfraa m.fhi bimtt umi nobifrij' 
I inftbinmtrfagtiim-ahrmoara^tfbi* 
I mla95(tainronifminiBra.bfglutia'' 
r inoQ m fitub mftmtia ujuntir i itt it- 
gtuni«quali McrOmtf m lam : omne 
p cujfa IBftanita rtpairai'-implebim? 
bQiuuenra^rpolti^'fojmtt mme no^ 
birwm»niarfupiu Ttt unum ottmiii 
ntm:Wi mt nr atnbnlfo oi eia.^ro' 
I bibr prtftn aiti a fmude eoD.ppbPd 
^miilloB at) tttabt wrcutiifcfttnarut 
( ffiuabamCaguintnt^jfmfttaauttttt 
' iaarrrtfattteDnilo^pojatot^.tlptq"^ 
tontmranguini fiai mftbianmr:t^ 




Decorated page from Gutei 
famous Bible of Forty-two 
(Reducea to leu than one-half ori, 



ConolanusCepio Clanflimo mto Matxx> Aiv 
CDnioMautXKenoe<]uia apudrUufltiiliniu du<^ 
cemBui^ndreVenecoruoracoh feliacacem 

Votn prefeftus ctiremis ad daf/ 
fern profio(cerer/quam fehdfii^ 
mus impcrator Vcncco^ Pectus 
Mocenicus contra Ocbomanum 
Turcoif prindpeducebar:ucbc^ 




mentet ro^alti me/ucquic^din hacexpeditione 
gcftum eflet litteris mandarem: affirmans ea te 
ApoUinisoraculo uenorababicurum qug a trie 
(cnpca (brenc. Igic uc cibi moregerereni qugab 
imperacorcMocenico pquadriennm geftafunc 
annotauirTancoenim tempore &ille imperiu 
geflit/ & ego ptgfeclura fiinftusfu m*Qua|)pcer 
opuibjlu in quo hscicripca funccibi miccorquod 
M perlegeris/ no minus teegregias imperatoris 
uittutes q magnificaipliusgcftaadmiratu^cer/ 
tu babeo: menCo<^ damnabis eovu (encenaa qui 
affirmare folencemwam eflTc nacuram: nee pro- 
ducere tales uiros qualesipriiastemponbusex^ 
cicerucromnia^ mundo ienefcence ckgenerafle: 
qfalfiCnt udej<:l)ocmaximc appatet. Nam {? 






a 2 



THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE CITY of Mainz is in the western part of Germany, 
on the banks of the river Rhine, and even at the present 
time is heavily fortified. In the year l^O'S, seven years 
after Gutenberji's first Bible was completed, it was the 
scene of a terrible conflict between two archbishops, 
Diether and Adolph II., who contended for the office of 
elector. The elector had a vote in the selection of the 
king or emperor, and Mainz was one of seven principali- 
ties entitled to such an officer. 

Diether was the choiL-e of a majority of the citizens of 
Mainz, but Adolph had the support of the pope in his 
claims and made war to establish himself in the office. 
One night in October, 1462, there was an uprising of the 
followers of .\dolph within the city and hundreds of the 
in'iibitants were murdered. The soldiers of Adolph then 
entered Mainz and set it afire. Most of the citizens fled, 
and industrj- and busi- 
ness was paralyzed. 

Gutenberg was not 
affected by these events, 
as his new shop was out- 
side of the city proper, 
in the village of Eltvill, 
a short distance away. 

The printing office of 
Fust and SchcefTer, how- 
ever, was burned and 
their workmen, fleeing 
for safety from the dis- 
tressed city, took up res- 
idence in various parts 
of Europe. Thus was the 
new art of typography 
spread and its secrets 
made common property. 

As an introduction to 
the consideration of the 
spread of typography, 
the accompanying table 
may be of value. The 
information is as accur- 
ate as can be given after 
carefully consulting 
numerous authoritative 
books on the subject. 
Most writers disagree as 
to the years in which 
typography was intro- 
duced into many of the 
cities of Europe, and 
for that reason in cases 
where such doubt exists 
one of the later dates has 
been chosen for the pur- 
pose of this table. 



C.TV.SX,CO™V 


VsTROmCFD' 


BY WHOM 


Mainz Germany 


1450 


Johan Gutenberg 


Strassburg Germany 

Bamber<r Germany 

Cologne Germany 

Rome Italy 

ISuhiacol 

Basel Switzerland 

AufTsburg Germany 

Venice Italy 

Nuremberg Germany 

Paris France 

Fiorenee Italy 

Utrecht Netherlands 

Bruges Netherlands 

London England 

IWestminstcrl 

Barcelona Spain 

Oxford England 

Leipzig Germany 

Vienna Austria 

Stockholm Sweden 

Haarlem Holland 

Heidelberg Germany 

Copenhagen . . . Denmark 

Munich Germany 

F:dinburgh Scotland 

Mexico City Mexico 

Dublin Ireland 

Cambridge, Mass.,U.S. A. 


1460 
1461 
1464 
1465 

1468 
1468 
1469 
1470 

1470 
1471 
1473 
1474 
1477 

1478 
1478 
1481 
1482 
1483 
1483 
1485 
1493 
1500 
1507 
1540 
1551 
1639 


John Mentel 
Albrecht Pfister 
Ulrich Zell 

/ Arnold Pannartz 

Bertold Ruppel 

Gunther Zainer 

John de Spira 
j Heinrich Keffer 
/ John Sensenschmidt 
( Ulrich Gering 
< Martin Crantz 
' Michel Friburger 

Bernardo Cennini 
j Nicholas Ketelaer 
t Gerard de Leempt 

Colard Mansion 

William Caxton 

Nicholas Spindeler 
Theodoric Rood 
Marcus Brand 
John Winterberger 
John Snell 

Johannes Andriesson 
Frederic Misch 
Gothofridus de Ghemen 
John Schobzer 
Androw Myllar 
John Cromberger 
Humphrey Powell 
Stephen Daye 



THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY FROM MAINZ 



In Germany, before the capture of Mainz, John Mentel 
at Strassburg and Albrecht Pfister at Bamberg, were print- 
ing books by the new process. With this fact as a basis, 
both Mentel and Pfister were once proclaimed inventors 
of typography by over-enthusiastic students of printing 
history. 

Of the printers driven from Mainz by the sacking of 
the city, Ulrich Zell is probably the best known, because 
of his connection with the Coster-Gutenberg controversy. 
Zell became rich as a printer and publisher at Cologne, 
conducting an office there for more than forty years. 
During all that time he never printed a book in the Ger- 
man language. He had as business competitors twenty- 
one other master printers, one of whom, Arnold Ter 
Hoorne, was the first to make use of Arabic numerals. 
Gunther Zainer began to practice typography at Augs- 
burg in 1468, and was 
the first printer in Ger- 
many to print a book in 
Roman characters. He 
was also one of the first 
printers to encounter 
restrictions by labor 
unions. Zainer illus- 
trated his books with 
woodcuts, and this the 
block-printers' guild ob- 
jected to. They induced 
the magistrates to pass 
a law against typogra- 
phers using woodcuts, 
but this law was after- 
ward modified to allow 
the use of woodcuts 
when made by regular 
engravers. 

H einrich Keffer 
printed at Nuremberg 
about 1470 under the 
direction of John Sen- 
senschmidt, who in 
1481, at Bamberg, pub- 
lished his famous Missal 
printed with large 
Gothic types of about 
sixty-point body. Keffer 
had been a witness for 
Gutenberg in his law 
suit of 1455. 

Anthony Koburger 
opened a printing office 
at Nuremberg in 1473, 
and later also conducted 
offices at Basel in Switz- 
erland, and at Lyons in 



14 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



France. Koburger was one of the most successful of the 
early printers ; he had twenty-four presses in operation 
at Nuremberg alone, and is said to have printed twelve 
editions of the Bible in Latin and one in German. 

In Italy the first printing done with separate types was 
in the year 1465 in the monastery at Subiaco, a village 




Hfttna oc" ad ous raaiAOa rdpufa.' 
d'obUidogtam bfae<nnJopfta.5^ 
fovuli'ciynppfuriacpctdltctiiiulul 
muloraua'caynftfipruiTewacIttifci.. 
£mc<ld1edutc|}m'pdi<lu. fcipi'O' 

annu Sirib goiua Aluim. 




I pfi».ccnx.a<l»eaHUtrab 4 ha 
■ hli'uk 1 1MI> e ino phs rm .0^ 



itp.yU.JMcfat 
t.cnioyKs^uni 
KUvillcplcuiii 

.., -Itomicfpctrjdo 

fldqt. jn bis tiuob^iiims fiUia A( 



dii£.i4.li.<ia.tn.faOTua<nt)uo< 

vies ad piiepiu tKi.Cddln ■io unoi 
vfte od pteptu fin txsaai, ilLi I Tapi:. _. 
6no gfijf . JIU <Snt 'b boma>u»gfiam. 
buic .it rc» pfcK trill matt) e gtb. ad lUi 
Dnnaayni)finu)iut'et dtatepdidit. 
id UU Euni abd.i] roSo nai'e-ztjvee 



modi 

flrtn'Bpunfji'.t;, . . 
furfiscTai^Knu^vtduscaftuadiKria 

m (OitiCTiaure neaShut. 

Jfiu ulnuna n«» emo adtjrT.I il 
hufTcebibcftupidi 







ladivTiiidalpboii 

^q<Spiibli«pr<nptd<a 

r Caa* le> biil*;iola (m'fr<4a 
mno en TOf <n CptRolis fm*. 
jehluiaiBabiurc duo Sob 
.«iino»oiiiod<.4S7.(m.Ux.^ 

nlloiupcraUqiu 
_,, a«ona verba qiKimioiu. 
1^ ayna ftluie £nos iMOis e dno p4* 

Xcec«iaa.-ft>:ioaio84^K>n 

IIM 4 etrana Aui m souraiombua 
luugjn 






PAGE PRINTED BY KOBURGER 
Combination of woodcuts and typography in a book of 1493 

on the outskirts of Rome. The cardinal in charge of the 
monastery, impressed with the importance of the new 
art and anxious to have it introduced into Italy, per- 
suaded Conrad Schweinheim and Arnold Pannartz to 
come from Germany for the purpose. In 1467 these two 
printers removed to the city proper and there printed more 
extensively. Many classical works were produced, but 
five years later they complained that a large portion of 
the product had not been sold and that they were in dis- 
tress. 

Ulrich Hahn was the first printer in the city of Rome 
proper, having opened an office there soon after Schwein- 
heim and Pannartz began work at Subiaco. 

John de Spira (born in Spire, Germany) was the first 
typographer at Venice, the Italian city famous for the 
excellence of its printed books. Setting up a press in 
1469, his work was of such quality as to obtain for him 
exclusive right to print by the new process at Venice. 
De Spira died in 1470 and the privilege was forfeited. 

Nicholas Jenson, who came to Venice in 1470, is known 
as the originator of the Roman type-face. Schweinheim, 
Pannartz, Hahn and De Spira, all had used type-faces 
based upon the letters of Italian scribes, but the types 



had Gothic characteristics. Nearly all Roman type-faces 
of the present day trace lineage, as it were, to the tj'pes 
of Jenson. 

With the exception of Gutenberg, Fust and Schoeffer, 
and perhaps Aldus, who succeeded him, Jenson is the 
most conspicuous figure among the early printers. The 
story of his introduction to the art is interesting : Charles 
VII., King of France, in the year 1458 decided to send 
an emissary to Mainz to learn the new art, which was 
supposed to be a secret, and Jenson, then an engraver 
and master of the royal mint at Tours, was selected for 
the mission. Three years later he returned to Paris with 
a full knowledge of typography, but found the king had 
died and that his successor was not interested in the mat- 
ter. This condition of affairs seems to have discouraged 
Jenson, for he did not begin to print until 1470, and then 
at Venice, Italy. (A typographical error in a printed 
date of one of his books makes it read 1461 instead of 
1471, and encourages some writers to claim that Jenson 
was tlie first Venetian printer.) The death of John de 
Spira opened the field for other printers in Venice, and 
Jenson was one of the first to take advantage of it. 

Jenson cut but one set of punches for his Roman type- 
face, the cutting being done so accurately that no changes 
were afterward necessary. The Roman types, being less 
decorative and more legible than the Gothic letters of 
the Germans, allowed the use of capitals for headings. A 
colophon, the forerunner of the modern title-page, was 
set by Jenson entirely in capitals with the lines opened 
up by liberal space. This colophon, which was probably 
the first page of displayed type composition, is repro- 
duced below. 

It is an interesting fact that the books of Jenson do 
not contain the letters J, U and W, these characters 



CpROBI AEMILII DE VIRORVM EXCELLEN 
TIVM VITA PER.M.NICOLAVM lENSON 
VENETIIS OPVS FOELiaXER IMPRESSVM 
EST ANNO A CHRISTI INCARNATIONS . 
M.CCCCLXXI . Vni.IDVS MARTIAS. 



not having been added to the alphabet until some years 
later. To satisfy a demand he also cut and used a round 
Gothic face. The product of Jenson's presses represents 
the highest attainment in the art of printing. His types 
were perfect, the print clear and sharp, paper carefully 
selected, and margins nicely proportioned. 

Jenson died in 1481, honored and wealthy. His print- 
ing office passed first to an association and then to one 
whose fame as a printer perhaps surpasses that of 
Jenson's. 

Aldus Manutius was a learned Roman, attracted to 
printing about 1489 by the pleasures it afforded in the 
publishing of books. He introduced the slanting style 
of type known as italic, so named in honor of Italy and 
fashioned after the careful handwriting of Petrarch, 
an Italian poet. Italic at first consisted only of lower- 



OKLlt 




ttoTtamtfiipiiltctampQ^ 

tJlriiMnf02omltrtdtu9 
mMntadiMtcttcpx 



A page (actual size) from tLe famous Bamberg Missal 
Printed by SensenscKmidt in 1481 



THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 



15 



case letters, upright Roman capitals being used with 
them. The reproduction below shows this combination 
and also the peculiar style of inserting a space after the 
capital letter beginning each line. 

Aldus also introduced the innovation of considerably 
reducing the size of books from the large folio to the con- 
venient octavo. The size of a folio page is about twice 
that of this one, which is known as a quarto, and an 
octavo page is half the size of a quarto. 

Aldus was the first to suggest the printing of a poly- 
glot Bible. The word polyglot means many tongues" 
and refers to a book giving versions of the same text or 
subject matter in several different languages. The polj- 
glot Bible of Aldus was to have been in Hebrew, Greek 
and Latin, but got no further than a few specimen pages. 

The first polyglot work ever printed was a Psalter of 
eight columns, each a different translation, from the press 
of Peter Paul Porrus, at Genoa, Italy, in 1516. This 
Psalter was the literary work of Augustin Justinian, a 
Corsican bishop, who later also arranged an entire Bible 
on similar plans. 

Aldus is honored wherever books are known, not only 
on account of the excellence of his productions, but 
because of the sincerity of his purpose and his love of 
printing. In the first book printed by him at Venice he 
declares for himself and co-workers: "\Ve have deter- 
mined henceforth to devote all our lives to this good 
work, and call God to witness that our sincere desire is 



p. V. M. CEORGICON ilBER pRr-. 
MVS AD M£CO£NAT£M. 

\idfici4tUias/e^tts:(f4o fjiert 

q V erttre Meccend{ ^ulmis'cf; dMun-. 

tus hdbendo 
S it feeori.dtcp dfihyyt cjHOntt fx^rlentiacardr 
H inc atnere mapam- vw o cUriffma rmndi 
L UTmrut ,h(htntrm coelo cfU£ ducim annum: 
L ihcr,0' 'i^ Ceres, ticjhoji mururc tellnf 
C haoniam ^m^gUndcm mnfauit arijht: 
V ornU(j;mu€ntii Acheloidrmfcnit putif 
E t liof agrtjbtm fta/entJd numina Tauru, 
JF erte firmL,F<mmq; feiem,Vryades'(^; ^uelU. 
M untra ue^rdanotu'c^; o,Oii frima frcmtvtrm 
F udit cqttHin magno tellm ^crotffj, tndenti, 
K c^nme:^ ailtvr nermrum,(M pynnia c<ca 
T crcentum niuei tmdent durrubc inucna. 
I py? nemtts linc^ens fdtriutn/altus'q; Lycxi 
P anouium cujhi ,fua fi ti'oi M^TUtU cttrtt: 
A dfti Te^aie /aUcm-olcie^:^; Miner tu$ 
1 nuentrix: wna'c^; ^uer mor^r^tvr or am: 
E tttntiamdh radicrfrcnsSylHaru: (upyejjum'- 
D ijij.-.cffj:^,- onineufnidium qmym dTna tuern 
Qjtitjj' ru>Ud^altt!stJ/)r,nuilo/efmnefru^: 
C^M'/^ifatts Lr^m ccclo dcrmttitu rmbrrm. 
J Ht^ adcOj(jHcm mox e^neftm habifura deorrnn I 



THE HRST ITALIC TYPE-FACE 
Page printed by Aldus at Venice in 1514 



to do good to mankind." In the production of classical 
works Aldus was assisted by many scholar-refugees from 
Constantinople, which city had just been captured by the 
Turks. Aldus' fame spread thruout Europe and many 
visitors came to Venice to see him. This annoyed him to 
such an extent that he had a notice placed above the 
entrance to his printing office which in part read : "Who- 
ever }'ou are that wish to see Aldus, be brief; and when 
business is finished, go away." It can thus be seen that 
the present-day motto cards popular in business offices 
are not a new idea. 

Aldus' complete name was Aldus Pius Manutius 
Romanus, the first word of which is abbreviated from 
Theobaldus. 

There were more than two hundred printing offices in 
Venice before the year 1500 and two million volumes 
were produced. These figures may surprise the average 
modern reader, who is not inclined to concede extensive 
production to the past. 

Bernardo Cennini, a goldsmith, introduced typography 
into Florence, Italy, in the year 1471. It is claimed 
that he made his tools, cast his types and printed, with- 
out instruction from German typographers, depending 
upon verbal reports of the process and examination of 
printed books. Cennini produced only one book. 

Johan Numeister, who had been a pupil of Gutenberg, 
after the death of his master journeyed toward Rome, 
but for some reason stopped at tiie little Italian city of 
Foligno and began to print there in 1470. He used both 
Roman and Gothic types. 

In Switzerland the new art was first practiced at Basel 
about 1468 by Bertold Ruppel or Rodt, who had been 
one of Gutenberg's workmen. Basel was an important 
printing center in the days when the art was young, and 
gave to France its first typographers. 

John Froben, who set up a press at Basel in 1491, is 
perhaps the best known of the printers of that city, and 
because of his use of the then new italic letters was 
called the 'German Aldus." 

In those days lived the famous Dutch philosopher and 
theologian Erasmus, one of the brightest minds of 
Europe. Erasmus having heard of Froben, came to Basel 
to arrange for the printing of his books, and thus began 
a friendship which lasted many years. Erasmus became 
a guest at the house of Froben, and his presence was a 
big factor in that printer's success. Erasmus once said of 
Froben that he benefited the public more than himself, 
and predicted that he would leave his heirs more fame 
than money. (A book of one of the works of Erasmus, 
printed by Hieronymus Froben, son of John, recently 
sold for fifteen hundred dollars at a sale in New York.) 

In France typography might have been introduced as 
early as 1461 had not the death of Charles VII. inter- 
fered with the plans of Jenson and caused him to go to 
Venice. As it was, in the year 1470 Ulrich Gering, 
Martin Crantz and Michel Friburger, three German 
printers who had been working at Basel, Switzerland, 
settled at Paris and began to print under the patronage 
of two members of the University of Sorbonne. The 
early books of this press were printed from a Roman type- 
face. The quality of the work of these printers is said 
not to have been good. Types were defective and press- 
work deficient; many of the printed letters needing 
retouching by hand. 

Gering became rich and upon his death left much of 
his fortune to the university within whose walls he had 
first printed upon coming to Paris. 

In order to demonstrate the success of the early print- 
ers in decorating their books without the aid of illumi- 
nators, a page is reproduced, printed about 1486 by 
Philip Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, a bookseller of Paris. 
The decorations were printed from wood blocks, engraved 



16 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




"Vy nfjpiP 0^*7^^? mil Dinrt l^s-bi; i 
TiK->n> o>n^« ^a^^»v : ciD?pn >j3 ^ 

Snap ^'^n. o^pn -|in3 y»p-) »n> o»nSN idr>i » 
V5^l5tiy'pin-nx6>nSNtfyn* : d>oSd>pi>3 
j;»piS Vya itt^K o>pn ]>3i ^^p-h nnnp Tf x b>pn 




GENESIS. Tranflat.B.Hicrony. TrM/w. 

Capvt primvm. 

N principiocrcauit Dcus ex- 

lum & terra. * Terra autcm 

crat inanis & vacua : & tcnc- 

brac erant fuper facie abyfsi: ""■••• 

v.;^lSP^^o^^^ & fpiritus Dei fcrcbaturfu-Hu..',' 

, per aquas. * Dixitq^ Deus,FiatlutEtfa<fV3cft 

4 lux. * Et vidit Dcus luccm quod cflct bona:&: 

J diuifitluccmatcncbris. * Appellauitqjiucem 

diemi& tencbras node. Fadbumq; eft vc{pcrc 

s & mane dies vnus. * Dixit quoquc Dcus,Fiat 

Hrmamentu in medio aquarum; &:diuidara- 

7 quas ab aquis. * Et fecic Dcus firmamcntum, 

diuifitq; aquas qua& erant (ub firmamcnto, ab 

hisquxcrantfupcrfirmaracntu.Ecfadumcft 



SPECIMENS FROM THE FIRST TWO PAGES OF THE POLYGLOT BIBLE 



in the style of the Gothic period, with stippled back- 
grounds, and are interesting to the printer because they 
show early use of the pieced border, a method now familiar. 




GOTHIC ORNAMENTAL PIECES 



Henry Estienne settled in Paris in 1502 and was the 
first of an illustrious family of typographers. The Es- 
tiennes flourished until 1G64, during that time printing 
many remarkable books. A grandson of Henry Estienne 
was the first to apply the system of numbered verses to 
the entire Bible, 

Robert Estienne, a son of Henry, was the best known 
and most scholarly of the Estiennes. He was patronized 
and favored by the King of France, and his press may 
be said to have been the beginning of the celebrated 
Greek press of Paris. 

Robert Estienne's ambition, the printing of de-luxe 
editions of the classics, was his undoing as well as his 
making. The priests of the Sorbonne, upon the appear- 
ance of a polyglot Bible in Hebrew and Greek from the 
Estienne press, became enraged and Robert had to flee to 
Geneva, Switzerland, for safety. There was little demand 
in that city for elaborate books, but Estienne patiently 
worked there until his death in 1559. His life had been 
spent in a labor of love, for he had scorned money as a 
reward for his work. 

In the Netherlands typography was not practiced so far 
as is known until 1473, when a press was erected at 
Utrecht. While it is supposed that printing was done 
before that time at Bruges, there is no direct evidence 
to support the supposition. It is known, however, that 
Colard Mansion printed at Bruges in 1474, and that he 
taught typography to William Caxton, with him produc- 
ing the first book printed in the English language. 

There is a book with the date 1472, printed at Antwerp 
by Van der Goes, but this date is supposed to be a mis- 
print, as in the case of Jenson's book of 1471. 

Christopher Plantin, a Frenchman, who began to print 
at Antwerp in 1555, gave to that city the renown which 
it enjoys in the printing world. Plantin printed on a 
magnificent scale, his luxurious notions extending to the 
casting of silver types. His printing office was consid- 
ered one of the ornaments of the city and is today used 
as a museum for the display of paintings and typograph- 
ical work. Plantin retained a number of learned men as 
correctors of his copy and proofs, and the story is told 
that his proof sheets, after undergoing every possible 
degree of correction, were hung in some conspicuous 
place and a reward offered for the detection of errors. 
Plantin's greatest work was his polyglot Bible of 1569, 
a portion of which is reproduced above. 



THE SPREAD OF TYPOGRAPHY 



17 



Intcrp.cx GrxcJxx. genesis. 

Capvt primvm. 

N pnnctpwfeat DeuJ caelum (s* 
terra* At terraeratmuifibtlu et 
opojitA^et toicbrxfuperahyf. 
^ fum:c^ (^intusDaferebaturft* 
peraauam. *Et dtxitDctu^Viat 
lux,^ faSii e(l Lx.'Et ytditDcm luce ^efuud bona: 
Cr-diuifit De Its inter li<cem^(d^ inter tenebroi. * Et 
'-jocAuit Deiu luce die: qJ tembroj a;ocauit noEle: 
ft;) f.\£iu eji reffiere -, cfaSIu eft mane, dies rnus. 
*Et dixit Det4s,Fiat firmament u in medio aqux: 0- 
ft diuides inter aqua,^ aqua.* Et fecitDeui ftrma 
mentu,^ diutftt Dent inter aqua;qu<e eratjub fir- 





El, I ^. jUiOfpjumvcrK; tuv o' 3 

<pcog'^S'yive^(pag.*^(i$€VQ&eogT-P'2;Ji-n 
Kcfhiv. )^ d)6;ydf/.(rsv &io<; dvafjUGv $" (pw?'?,(£ obiafjLiQv I* 
J <m>%\A. 'k. cMcihi(Tiv 6 ^ioq T <pm YifJLi^V^iigui T cKo'^g iKoi- 

7 oLvoLfMiGy vScd^g ^ v^ct^g. *;^ i7roin(r6v Qeog t <;ipi(i>iJUL.Kj «fW 
^^Civo^eogctyct^iisv ^iiSciQg wyTTOxaVii^ffp^uaw?, 



IN HEBREW. LATIN AND GREEK. PRINTED BY PLANTIN AT ANTWERP. ABOUT 1569 



Louis Elzevir, founder of the family of learned print- 
ers of that name, first printed in 1595 at Leyden. The 
second Louis Elzevir opened an office at Amsterdam in 
H34>0. The product of the Elzevirs was of such quality 
as to make them famous thruout Europe as printers of 
the classics, and their books were extensively imitated 
and counterfeited. 

While Haarlem is claimed to have been the birthplace 
of typography, a book cannot be produced printed in 
that city with a date earlier than 1483, when Johannes 
Andriesson had an office there. 

In England the name of William Caxton is one to con- 
jure with among typographers, for Caxton was the first 
to set type in that country, the event taking place 
about the year 1477. Perhaps the thing that endears 
Caxton to the hearts of English printers is that he was 
born in England. The first printers of Italy, Switzer- 
land and France were Germans, but Caxton was English ; 
we have his own words to prove it: "l was born and 
lerned myn englissh in Kente in the weeld where I 
doubte not is spoken as brode and rude englissh as it is 
in ony place in englond." 

Caxton had been apprenticed when a young man to a 
merchant, and after his master's death took up residence 
at Bruges in the Netherlands, with which city England 
did considerable trading. There he prospered and as 
governor of the Merchant Adventurers, had control over 
all English and Scotch traders in the low countries. The 
device later used by Caxton for his imprint is supposed 
to have been copied from some trading mark of the Bruges 
merchants. 

Caxton resigned as governor and entered the service 
of the Duchess of Burgundy, who encouraged him in 
literary work. Under her patronage he translated (l469- 
1 47 1 ) a " Historie of Troye. ' ' The demand for this work 
was an incentive for Caxton to learn how to print it. 
This he did with the assistance of Colard Mansion who 
had started a printing office at Bruges. 

Shortly afterward, Caxton returned to England and 
set up a press in the vicinity of Westminster Abbey, 
then on the outskirts of London. The first book with a 
date printed by him is "The Dictes and Sayinges of the 
Philosophers," completed in November, 1477. His type- 
faces are copies of those of Mansion's, who in turn imi- 
tated the letters of Dutch copyists. A type-face based 
on Caxton's letter is made by one of the type foundries. 



The product of Caxton's press during his life is esti- 
mated at eighteen thousand pages, nearly all of folio 
size. Caxton did not print de-luxe editions as did other 
of the early printers of Europe, but his productions were 
no less interesting. On his first books the lines were 



anD jFablce 06 €(b|x \]Df)i(^ \]aete cianflatcD out 
o£ if anO^ tn to englpttly bp vtopUtam Ca^n 
flt Mjcftmpnfttc gn t^ jom of owe loiDe^Ct). 

EStp 6tg?nnttQ f^ egf of e^<ypt Ibit^ tOtt Qi9 fc:6in« 
^Ib ft Itoae fu6tpff/Ibpf«/an{> 6j;nc t»» €te«/«of fectt 
fro Ctopc i^c gcaunt m a JToWnir name*? "Xmoiifo / 
Ib^icO? lljop a nongt oJ^t Opffoiitcft? an*? cupttc f5aj»i)/ ^a 
ftBn>? « gwttftOB/ earge^pro3«/83ngc3olbc»/f6atp»gti>/(i 
f5<nt tijcfte \ rozCe facfifojygoece 6eep/ gwft &gg«6/onO? totg* 
fwt/ 2»n07 pet t^ot rbOicft tba® ibetf« Hi tboo oomCt/an^ oouot 
not fp«fte/6ut not Ibifertonoyng of t^ie ft 6ot) a gafc tbglflt ^ 
Ibae gnecSp ^ngenf oue/ru6tsS n; (nusffaaene/ 2(nd2 2lo « 




([[SQie ^i/Zo:pccon*;nc(Q/]^lb ft t^fcd 6pti) of lOat (bo* 



18 



THE ART AND PRACllCE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



not spaced to the full length. This gave to the right side 
of the page a ragged appearance, as in modern type- 
written letters. 

Caxton did not devote a separate page to a book title 
until late in his life, when he printed a title alone in 
the center of the first page. The rei)roduction (on the 
preceding page) of a part of Caxton's "Fables of Esope" 
shows how the title was arranged at the top. 

Wynken de Worde, a native of western Germany, 
was a workman under Caxton and upon the latter's 
death, about l^Ol, succeeded to the business of liis 
master. He continued to print in Caxton's house for 
several years, afterward removing to "Fleet-street at 
the sygn of the Sonne," in London proper. Old Eng- 
lish black-letter, which is now so popular, was used by 
De Worde to a great extent, and he was the first printer 
to introduce the Roman letter into England. 

Richard Pynson, another of Caxton's workmen and 
friend of De Worde, set up a press in Temple Bar, Lon- 
don, about 1492, and printed many useful books. 

Richard Grafton is famous as a printer of English 
Bibles during the troublous times of the Reformation. 
The church authorities believed it was not good for the 
people in general to read the Sacred Scriptures, and the 
Bible, translated into English by William Tyndale and 
Miles Coverdale, and printed anonymously by Richard 
Grafton at Antwerp, was tiie object of much concern to 
the ecclesiastics. The Bishop of London complained 
that Some sons of iniquity have craftily translated 
the Holy Gospel of God into our vulgar English." 
After a long imprisonment Tyndale suffered death by 



of the church. 

a of^Tdit ,ltc.ti.Da;t of 
8tf , tosa tmrato at ilatopftt 




strangulation and burning. Grafton was imprisoned in 
1540 for printing a large folio Old and New Testament 
known as the "Great Bible." This tremendous task of 
printing was accomplished by Grafton in partnership 
with Edward Whitechurch at Paris and London. 

Shortly after this the prejudice against an English 
translation was partly overcome and in 1.543 Parliament 
passed an act allowing the Bible to be read by certain 





^^^S^^s^^ 


lit^^^ 


^^^H 




THE ^M 




Pfalter or Pfalmes 


^W 




ofDamd, after the tranflation 
ofthe great Bible, pointed 

asuftijUbefungorraydc 
m Churches. 


n 




^ilmprlnted at Lon- 
don by Chriftopher Barker, Prin- 

lerroiheQuecnesMaienie. 


1 




Qum prluilegio T{egi^ 
<L^aieslatu. 


m 




1 


^^ 


m 



arke. 



classes but forbidding women, apprentices, journeymen, 
husbandmen or laborers to read it privately or openly. 

John Daye, who first printed about L546, was another 
English typographer to suffer imprisonment on account 
of activity in the Protestant cause. Manj' important 
books were printed by Daye, and in character and ac- 
complishments he has been likened to Plantin who 
printed during the same period at Antwerp. 

The best known of the books printed by Daye is 
Fox's "Acts and Monuments," on the subject of wrongs 
and persecutions in the days of the Reformation. Dibden 
says it was a workof prodigious bulk, expense and labor. " 

In Scotland printing was introduced in 1507 at Edin- 
burgh by Androw Myllar, in partnership with Walter 
Chepman, under a patent granted by King .James IV. 

In Ireland a prayer book was printed by the new pro- 
cess in 1551 at Dublin by Humphrey Powell. 

In North America typography was first practiced in 
1540 at Mexico City, Mexico, by John Cromberger. 

In the United States, or rather the territory now included 
under that name, typography was introduced in 1639 at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Stephen Daye. 



THE 



Compleat A mbaffador. 

OR TWO 

TREATIES 

OF T H B 

INTENDED MARRIAGE 

QU' ELIZABETH 

Of GLo&ioas Mi^MORYi 

Comprifed in 

LETTERS 



O F 



NEGOTIATION 



OF 



Sir Francis Walfingham, herRefident in France. 

TOGETHER 

With the Anfwersof the Lord "BVRLSiqH, theEart 

of Lficester, SirTHo: Smith, and others. 

^as in a clear Minor, may be fcen the Faces of the two 

Hp^gUnd and Trtmce^ they then ftood; with many remaifable 
Tt^ages of S T A T E, nocac all menuoned in any 
- !^\ HISTORY. 

cv? ^ ^/ 

* ^ Faithfully CoUeaed by the traly Honourable, 

Sir2)^2>i:r D/(f ^f J Knight, 

late Matter of thcRolls. 



X.aW PON: 
Printed by TibtfiNwrmK for QchtUXBeadl^Xi^XhrncsCoJ^t^zxA 

are lo be fold at their Shop atthe Middle-Temple Gate iaHectftrcetj 
x65 5- 



A title-page of many -words and mock type-<liaplay 
(Actual size and color treatment) 



TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 



TYPOGRAPHY has been an important factor in the devel- 
opment of modern civilization. In the battle for civil and 
religious liberty, in both Europe and America, the man 
with the pen and he of the composing-stick have been 
together on the firing line. With Paul they could well 
boast that they had been "in perils of waters, in perils 
of mine own country- 
men, in perils in the 
city, in perils in the 
wilderness, in weari- 
ness and painfulness, 
in hunger and thirst." 
William Tyndale died 
at the stake, Richard 
Grafton and John Daye 
suffered imprisonment: 
Robert Estienne be- 
came an exile from his 
own country ; Jesse 
Glover on his way to 
America found a grave 
in the waters of the 
Atlantic; Stephen 
Daye set type in a wil- 
derness ; James Frank- 
lin, William Bradford 
and John Peter Zenger 
were imprisoned, and 
Benjamin Franklin 
suffered hunger and 
privation. 

As ecclesiastical and 
political conditions in 
Europe strongly influ- 
enced the practice of 
typography during the 
days of the American 
colonies, I will briefly 
review the events of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth 
and eighteenth centu- 
ries that the reader may 
better understand and 
appreciate the subject. 

In the year 1521, 
when Luther appeared 
before the Diet of 
Worms in Germany, the 
English people were 
ardent Roman Catho- 
lics. Henry VIII. was 
King of England and 
the great Cardinal Wol- 
sey was in high au- 
thority. Henry, in the 



\i^ ^"^ '^eb 

m WHOLE I'-f 

'^& BOOKEOFPSALMES d^ 

KjL translated mtt ENGLISH [4^' 

'£J& (Metre, 0}^ 

I SJ Wlicreunto is prefixed a difcourfe de- '-^su 
'^5^ daring not only the UwfuHncs, bucalfopj^ 
tiii the neccfllcy of the heavenly Ordinance MtrJ 
I ^X J of fingiog scripture Plalraes in Wli 'I 

'i(i the Churches of l^& 

*^t<> Letthelfn-iofGodiwetlfentttufljifi Mfrj'J 
•■'y*' jtu^ I* 4// mfiome^ teachina and exhort- r^j^ 
Ip'*^!^., ing one Another in Vfalmesjfimntt^ and 



{^trituallSonrsJinging to the Lordwitb 
trace in joar hearts. 



grace to jour 



learts, 

rlH lamts V. 

' '^,'* '■ Jfanj haff!icted,iet hmfray.aniif 

'^iK anj be merrj let bitu pngff„lme%, 

R^ Imfrintei 

op; t<J4o 



THE HRST BOOK PRINTED IN ENGLISH AMERICA 
By Stephen Daye at Cambridge. Mass., 1640. (Page slightly re 



early part of his reign was exceedingly loyal to the 
Catholic Church ; he published a book in answer to the 
attacks of Luther, for which the pope gave him the title 
Defender of the Faith." However, when Henry wished 
to divorce his wife that he could marry Anne Boleyn, 
the church authorities did not approve. This so angered 
the king that he took 
from Wolsey his office 
and possessions, denied 
the authority of the 
pope over the Church 
of England, and had 
himself declared the 
supreme head of that 
organization. The king 
was excommunicated 
by the pope and in 
return Catholics were 
persecuted and put to 
death, and their mon- 
asteries, colleges and 
hospitals broken up. 
Henry repeatedly 
changed his religious 
opinions and for many 
years both Catholics 
and Protestants were 
put to death for differ- 
ing with him. 

For six years after 
Henry's death in 1547, 
during the reign of his 
son Edward VT., the 
Protestants were in 
power. Then for five 
years under Mary the 
Catholics controlled 
the religious affairs of 
the country, and the 
flesh of heresy" was 
toasted at the stake. 
Elizabeth, who be- 
gan to rule in 1558, 
was proud of the appel- 
lation Virgin Queen" 
and gave the name 
Virginia" to the Eng- 
lish colony in America. 
She never quit spins- 
terhood, but about the 
year 1570 considerable 
correspondence was 
carried on between the 
English and French 
courts regarding her 



20 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Midfc 



ommer ni 
Ireame. 



As it bath bcene fundry times pub. 

lil^ely aHedy hy the %ight Honour a 

ble, the Lord Chambcrlaine his 

VVritten ty VVillim Sbal^cjpearc. 




Printed hy lames "Roberts^ t6oo. 



intended marriage. This resulted in the accumulation of 
over three hundred letters, which eighty-five years later 
were collected and printed as a 44'2-page quarto. (The 
title-page is reproduced full size as an insert in this 
lesson.) A poor Puritan named Stubbs and a poor book- 
seller named Page published a pamphlet against the mar- 
riage of Queen Elizabeth to the French king's brother, 
and tho the queen herself had said she would never 
marry, these unfortunate subjects were punished for their 
audacity by having their right hands cut off. 

Under Elizabeth, the Protestant" religion was per- 
manently established in England, but the enactment of 
severe laws, such as prohibiting any one attending the 
ministry of clergymen who were not of the established 
religion, gave rise to dissenters derisively called Puritans 
because they wished to establish a form of worship based 
on the "pure" word of (lod. It was by these so-called 



Puritans that printing was intro- 
duced into English America. 
Elizabeth reigned until 1G03 and 
was the last of the Tudor family 
of sovereigns. The first of the 
Stuart Kings, James I. (son of 
Mary Queen of Scots), then 
ruled until 1625, when he was 
succeeded by his son Charles I. 
Charles was a despot and claimed 
that the people had no right to 
' 1 any part of the government, A 

£Yh^C <^'vil war resulted, Charles was 

.VIJLL3 beheaded (164.9) and a form of 

CJ government known as the Com- 

monwealth was established. 
Oliver Cromwell shortly after- 
ward became Lord Protector with 
more power than the king had 
possessed. 

Cromwell was a Puritan, but 
of the radical element known as 
Independents, differing from an- 
other element of Puritans known 
as Presbyterians. The Independ- 
ents have come to be known 
as Congregationalists. Under 
Cromwell's severe Puritanic 
rule, sculpture and painting 
were declared as savoring of 
idolatry and public amusements 
were sternly put down. How- 
ever, Cromwell encouraged print- 
ing and literature. He was an 
intimate friend of John Milton, 
the blind author of "Paradise 
Lost" (see title-page reproduced 
on a following page), which 
book was i)ublished in 1667, the 
year following the Great Fire. 
Milton was Latin secretary to 
Cromwell, and published a book 
which argued against roj'alty, 
for which, on the accession of 
Charles II., he was arrested. 

In 1657 (the year before Crom- 
well died) was published the sixth 
and last volume of the London 
Polyglot Bible, compiled by 
Brian Walton and printed by 
Thomas Roycroft. In this Bible 
there were used nine languages : 
Hebrew, Chaldee, Samaritan, 
Greek, Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, 
Persian and Latin. The work took 
four years in printing, and was the first book ever pub- 
lished in England by subscription. Cromwell encouraged 
the undertaking by allowing paper to be imported into 
England duty free, and by contributing a thousand 
pounds out of the public money to begin the work. 

In those days the Puritans presented a curious contrast 
to the Royalists. The Puritan, or "Roundhead" as he 
was also called, wore a cloak of subdued brown or black, a 
plain wide linen collar, and a cone-shaped hat over closely 
cut or long straight hair. The Royalist, or Cavalier," 
wore clothes of silk or satin, a lace collar, a short cloak 
over one shoulder, short boots, and a broad-brimmed 
beaver hat adorned with a plume of feathers. 

The period designated as the Restoration, long cele- 
brated by the Church of England, began soon after 
Cromwell's death, when in 1660 Charles II. ascended 
the throne. This period brought with it a reaction from 



s literary labors 



TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 



21 



the Puritanic conditions that previousl.v existed and all 
sorts of excesses were practiced. Cromwell's body was 
taken out of its grave in Westminster Abbey, hanged on 
a gallows and beheaded. 

It was during the reign of Charles II. (l665) that the 
Great Plague killed one hundred thousand people in 
London, a terrible experience followed by one equally 
terrible the next year: the Great Fire, which consumed 
thirteen thousand houses. 

In 1688 there was another revolution; the people 
passed a Bill of Rights, and set a new King (William III. ) 
on the throne. 

George I., the head of the dynasty now represented 
in England by King Edward VII., came to the throne in 
1714. He was a German, could not speak English, and 
was the grandfather of George III., the "villain" in the 
great drama of the American Revolution. 

In France the Protestant Huguenots were persecuted 
by Cardinal Richelieu, whose strong personality domi- 
nated King Louis XIII. from 1622 to 1642, and many of 
them left for America. In 1643 Louis XIV. became 
King of France and his long reign of seventy-two years 
is renowned because of the magnificence which found 
expression in sumptuous buildings, costly libraries, 
splendidly-bound books, and gorgeous dress. 

Cardinal Mazarin, in whose library was later discovered 
a copy of Gutenberg's Forty-two-Line Bible, acted as 
advisor while Louis XI\'. was under age. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries many 
mechanics in England worked for a shilling a day ; their 
chief food was rye, barley and oats; and one-fifth of the 
people were paupers. Teachers taught their scholars 
principally by means of the lash, masters beat their ser- 
vants and husbands their wives. Superstition was strong 
and children and grown folks were frightened with lugu- 
brious tales into being good." This spirit is especially 
noticeable in the chap-books that were sold during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A title to one of 
these chap-books (dated 172l) reads: 

A Timely Warning to Rash and Disobedient Children; beinp a 
strange and wonderful Relation of a younff Gentleman in the 
Parish of Stepheny in the Suburbs of I^ondon, that sold himself 
to the Devil for twelve years to have the Power to be revenged 
on his Father and Mother, and how his Time beinj? expired, he 
lav in a sad and deplorable Condition to the Amazement of all 
Spectators. 

Children in those days were either devilishly bad or 
ridiculously good. Read this title-page : 

The Children's Example; shewing how one Mrs. Johnson's 
Child of Barnet was tempted by the Devil to forsake God and 



THE 

Pilgrim's Progrefs 

FROM 

THIS WORLD 

TO 

That which is to come : 

Delivered under the Similitude of a 

DREAM 

Wherein is Difcovered 

The manner of his fetting out. 

His Dangerous Journey; And fafe 

Arrival at the Deflred Countrey. 



I have ufed Similitudes. HoJ. 12. 10. 



By John Bunyan. 



HkmfleD anH SntieD atcomine to ffimt* 



LONDON, 

Printed for Nath. Ponder at the Peacock 

in the Poultrey near Cornhil, \6^Z. 




V„m. ^ 


TUESDAY, JANUARY i. 1788 


(Pn« Tbn<.,«,« ) 




XW 


!^^= 








nofjcjTKH or J Lit 



THE HRST ISSUE OF THE LONDON -TIMES ' UNDER THAT TITLE. 1788 
The heading mentions that logotypes w^ere used in the composition of this newspaper 



follow the Ways of other Wicked Children, who us"d to Swear, 
tell Lies, and disobey their Parents; How this pretty innocent 
Child resisting Satan, was Comforted by an Angel from Heaven 
who warned her of her approaching Death; Together with her 
dying Speeches desiring young Children not to forsake God, lest 

Satan should gain a Power over 

them. 

Jack the Giant Killer, tlie 
hero of our childhood days, 
was a favorite subject for chap- 
book exploitation. There is 
shown on the following page 
the title of such a history." 

Chap-books are poor repre- 
sentatives of the art of typog- 
raphy in Colonial days because 
they were to the book indus- 
try then what reprint books 
are to the trade in our time. 
Today it is customary for some 
publishing houses to buy up 
old electrotype plates of obso- 
lete editions of dictionaries 
and other popular books. The 
plates having already been put 
to extensive use, are battered 



22 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE 



HISTORY 

O F 

Jack and the Giants 



The FIRST PART. 




Printed and Sold at the Printing-Ofice in 
Bm-Cburch-Tordt London » 



On December 21, 1(J20, there landed at Plymouth 
Rock, in what was afterward the colony of Massachusetts, 
a band of Puritans from England. These non-conform- 
ists, unable conscientiously to obey the laws of their 
native country, had come to America to worship God in 
their own manner. Ten years later Governor Winthrop 
with one thousand Puritans landed at Charlestown, and in 
the following year these immigrants began to settle Cam- 
bridge and Boston. A building for an academy (now 
Harvard University) was erected at Cambridge in 1638, 
and in 1639 Stephen Daye began to print there. 

For the establishment of this, the first printing office 
in what is now the United States, Rev. Jesse Glover, a 
Puritan minister of some wealth, was chiefly resj)onsible. 
Himself contributing liberally, he solicited in England 
and Holland sufficient money to purchase a press and 
types, and June 7, 1638, entered into a contract with 
Stephen Daye, a printer, to accompany him to the new 
country. Rev. Glover (with his family, Stephen Daye 
and the printing outfit) embarked on a vessel for New 
England, but on the voyage across the ocean, he was 
taken ill and died. 

The press and types having reached Cambridge were 
finally placed in charge of Stephen Daye and printing 
was begun in 1630. The first work produced was "The 
Freeman's Oath," probably a single sheet, and the first 
book (l640) was the "Booke of Psalmes" (familiarly 
known as the "Bay Psalm Book"). The reproduction on 
the first page of this lesson is from one of these books 



PAGE FROM A -CHAP-BOOK" 
Probably a Dicey product of tbe eighteenth century 

and worn, and impressions from them cannot be accepted 
as criterions for determining the quality of modern print- 
ing. Neither are the chap-books true printing represent- 
atives of their times. The woodcuts, crudely drawn in 
the first place, were also worn and battered by repeated 
use. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century chap- 
books were Bvos. (sixteen pages of about 5x8 inches), 
but later were reduced to 12mos. (twelve or twenty-four 
pages of about 4 x 6% inches). The stories were con- 
densed to fit these small penny books, which were ped- 
dled by chapmen. A chapman is described in a Dic- 
tionarie" of 1611 as "A paultrie Pedlar, who in a long 
packe, which he carries for the most part open, and 
hanging from his necke before him hath Almanacks, 
Bookes of News, or other trifling ware to sell." 

Many of the chap-books of the eighteenth century were 
printed and published at Aldermary-Church-Yard and 
Bow-Church- Yard, London, by William and Cluer Dicey, 
afterward C. Dicey only. The Dicey books were better 
productions than those of their imitators. It is not pos- 
sible to determine the exact year in which the majority 
of chap-books were printed, as many title-pages merely 
read "Printed and sold in London," etc., or "New- 
castle: printed in this present year," without the for- 
mality of the date. 

There were also other cheap productions known as 
broadsides, single sheets about 12x15 inches, in most 
cases printed broadwise of the paper and on one side 
only. 



A Description of 



SKREEN- MAKERS. 

THEIR Trade of late Years has been 
greatly improved, not only as to curious 
Workmanftiip, mod of which is now exceedingly 
nice, but as to the Variety of Sorts and the Ma- 
terials of which they are compofed. 

Th e Principal of them, though they are but 
few, are Shop-keepers as well as Makers, whofe 
working Part is an eafy, clean Employ, to which 
they take with an Apprentice 15 or 20 /. whofe 
Hours in work muft be from fix to eight : They 
pay a Journeyman 12 or 15 j. a Week ; 50 /. 
will fct up whom as a Maker only ; but if he 
ftocks aShop with but common Sortments he will 
require 500/. 



SNUFF-MAKERS. 

IT is but a few Years fince their Trade made 
any Figure in Shops, which now appear al- 
moft every where, plainly (hewing, that not only 
the Pra£tice of taking Snuff is greatly increafed, 
but that the Making and Selling it muft be profit- 
able. 

The 



TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 



23 



preserved in the Lenox Library, New York. This book 
of Psahus is a revision of Ainsworth's version of 1012, 
and was in use in New England for upwards of a cen- 
tury, more than fifty editions having been published. 
The size of the type-page of the first edition is 3% x 6% 
inches. 

In quality of presswork this first book of Stephen Daye 
affords a decided contrast to the Bible of Gutenberg, near 
which it lies in the cases at the Lenox Library. The print 
on the pages of the Psalm Book is uneven in color and 
impression, while that on the pages of the Bible is dense- 
black and firmly and evenly impressed. The reproduc- 
tion of the title-page of the Psalm Book does the original 
no injustice. It is difficult to determine whether the 
shoulders of the border printed the angular lines, or 
whether these are a part of the design. It is interest- 
ing to note how in the word "Whole," Daye formed a 
W by combining two Vs, his font of types being one 
evidently intended for Latin work onlv. 




Daye continued in charge of the printing office for 
about ten years. Jesse Glover's widow had married 
Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard Collejre, 
and Dunster, for his wife and as president of the college, 
managed the printing office and received such profits as 
were made. For some reason Daye in 1649 ceased to be 
master printer and Dunster appointed Samuel Green to 
the position. Green had come from England in 1G30 
with Governor Winthrop, but was not a printer at that 
time. 

The commissioners of the united colonies, who had in 
charge the propagation of Christianity among the Indians, 
added another press to tlie one already at Cambridge, 
together with types, etc., for the purpose of printing the 
Bible and other books in the Indian language. In 16G2 
Green gave to the commissioners the following "account 



ABCDEFGHIKLMN 
OPORSTUVWXYZJ 

Quoufque tandem abutere, 
Catilina, patientia noftra ? qu 
^oufque tandem abutere^ Ca- 
tilina^ patientia nqftral quam- 



@#®#®#©***V^W 



g This new Foundery was begun in the Year 1720, ^ 

^ and finifli'd 1763 s and will (with God's leave) be ^ 

* carried on, unproved, and inlarged, by William ^ 

§ Caslon and Son, Letter-Founders in LONDON. § 



of utensils for Printing belonging to the Corporation:"' 

The presse with what belongs to it with one tinn pann and two 
frisketts. 

Item two table of Cases of letters with one ode Case. 

Item the ffont of letters together with Imperfections that came 
since. 

Item one brasse bed, one Imposing Stone. 

Item two barrells of Inke, 3 Chases, '2 composing stickes one 
ley brush, 2 candlestickes one for the Case the other for the 
I'resse. 

Item the frame and box for the sesteren. 

Item the Iliglet brasse rules and scabbard the Sponge 1 galley 
1 mallett 1 sheeting sticke and furniture for the chases. 

Item the letters that came before that were mingled with the 
colledges. 

In 1670 the commissioners presented this equipment 
to Harvard College. Green continued to print until he 
was very old, and upon his death in 1702 the printing 
office was discontinued. 

Before 1740 more printing was done in Massachusetts 
than in all the other colonies. Printing was not intro- 
duced into the colony of Virginia until about 1727, prin- 
cipally because the authorities deemed it best to keep 
the people in ignorance. 

Pennsylvania was the second English colony in Amer- 
ica in which typography was practiced. The charter of 
this colony was granted to William Penn in 1681 and in 
1687 William Bradford at his printing office "near Phila- 
delphia" printed an almanac. This was a sheet containing 
the calendar of twelve months (beginning with March 
and ending with February, as w as customary in the seven- 
teenth century). In England, Bradford had worked for a 
printer who was intimately acquainted with George Fox, 
founder of the Society of Friends (Quakers). This influ- 
enced Bradford to adojit the principles of that sect and he 
was among the first to emigrate to Pennsylvania in 1682. 



24 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 















Paradife loft. 




A 






POEM 






Written in 






TEN BOOKS 






By John milton. 




Licenled and Entred according 




to Order. 




London 

Printed, and are to be fold by Fetcr Partner 

under Creed Church neer Aldgate ^ And by 

Rohrt Bmlrer at the Turk' Hiai\n B^hofUati-ftrut ■ 

And laatthm Wdka , under St. Dunflons Church 

in ?heijhtet , i66j. 











or a cutler, but love of books caused him 
finally to be indentured to his brother, 
James Franklin, who had opened a 
printing office in Boston. Benjamin 
was twelve years of age when inden- 
tured and was to serve as apprentice 
until his twenty-first birthday. Making 
an arrangement with his brother to 
be allowed to furnish his own board, 
Franklin provided himself with meals 
often no more than a biscuit or a slice 
of bread, a handful of raisins, or a tart 
from the pastry-cook's and a glass of 
water," using the money thus saved 
for the purchase of books. In 1721 
James Franklin began to print a news- 
paper (the New England Courant) and 
Benjamin tells how some of his 
brother's friends tried to dissuade him 
from the undertaking, "one newspaper 
being, in their judgment, enough for 
America." Some articles in this news- 
paper giving offense to the Assembly, 
James Franklin was imprisoned for a 
month and on his discharge was for- 
bidden to publish the Courant. To 
evade this order Benjamin's name was 
substituted for that of James Franklin 
as publisher. 

A short time afterward (l723) the 
brothers disagreed, and Benjamin left 
Boston, coming bj' ship to New York. 
Here Franklin offered his services to 
William Bradford, then the only printer 
in the city, but he could give him no 
work. However, he suggested that 
Franklin go to Philadelphia where 
Andrew Bradford, his son, had a shop. 
Franklin did not succeed in getting 
work with Andrew Bradford, but was 
more fortunate with Samuel Keimer. 
The printing house of Keimer, as de- 
scribed by Franklin, consisted of an old 
damaged press, a small worn-out font 
of types, and one pair of cases. Here 
Franklin worked until he left for Eng- 
land to select an equipment for a 
new printing office to be established 
Bradford became involved in a quarrel among the by him in Philadelphia. At that time there were no type 
Quakers of Philadelphia and in 1692 was arrested for foundries or press manufactories in the United States, 
printing an address written by a turbulent member of Franklin had been encouraged by Governor Keith with 
the sect. The sheriff sized a form of four type pages to promises of financial assistance, but the trip to London 



. 1667 



be used as evidence, and it is said that Bradford later 
secured his release because this evidence was destroyed. 
One of the jurymen in examining the form pushed his 
cane against it and the types fell to the floor "pied," as 
it is technically expressed. The trouble into which 
Bradford found himself in Philadelphia very likely influ- 
enced him in 1693 to leave that city and establish a 
printing office in New York "at the sign of the Bible," 
his being the first printshop in New York and the only 
one for thirty years. He was appointed in 1693 official 
printer to the government. In 172.5, when Bradford was 
sixty-one years old, he began the publication of the first 
newspaper in New York (the Gazelle). 

No review of Colonial printing would be complete 
without an account of Benjamin Franklin, whose birth- 
day (January 17) is each year widely celebrated. Frank- 
lin's father was an Englishman who came to New Eng- 
land about 1685, and Benjamin was born in Boston in 
1706, the youngest but two of seventeen children. He 
came near being a minister, a seaman, a tallow-chandler 



proved a fool's errand and Franklin went to work in a 
printing office there as a journeyman, first at the press, 
later in the composing-room, (it is told that forty years 
afterward when Franklin was residing in Great Britain, 
he went into this printing office and with the men there 
drank "Success to printing.") He returned to Phila- 
delphia, worked as a foreman for Keimer, and then with 
a partner, Hugh Meredith, opened a printing office. 

One of the first jobs done by the new firm was forty 
sheets of the history of the Quakers, set in pica and long 
primer. Fi-anklin tells how he ' composed a sheet a day 
and Meredith worked it off at press; it was often eleven 
at night, and sometimes later, before I had finished my 
distribution for the next day's work. But so determined 
I was to continue doing a sheet a day that one night, 
when, having imposed my forms, I thought my day's 
work over, one of them by accident was broken and two 
pages reduced to pi, I immediately distributed and com- 
posed it over again before I went to bed." 

In 1732 (for the year 1733) Franklin first published 



TYPOGRAPHY IN COLONIAL DAYS 



25 



Poor Richard's Almanack. " Forthis purpose he used the 
name of Richard Saunders, an English astrologer. This 
almanac continued to be published by Franklin for 
twenty-five years, nearly ten thousand copies being sold 
annually. The two pages here reproduced are full size, 
and as it is likely that Franklin gave close attention to 
the typography it will be interesting to study their ar- 
rangement. They are good examples of title-page and 
tabular composition of Colonial days. 

Franklin considered this almanac a proper vehicle for 
conveying instruction among the common people, and 
filled the little spaces that occurred between the remark- 
able days in the calendar with proverbial sentences. These 
proverbs, which contained the wisdom of many ages and 
nitions, were later gathered together as a harangue of a 
wise old man under the title "The Way to Wealth," and 
the familiar phrase "As Poor Richard says" is often re- 
peated therein. 

In 1748 Franklin took as a partner David Hall, the 
firm name being Franklin & Hall until 17t)t), when Hall 
became sole proprietor. 

Quaintness is of Colonial typography its chief character- 
istic. While the treatment lacks the artistic quality , the re- 
finement, and the dainty finish of the productions of Aldus, 











Mon. March hath xxxi days. 




My Love and I for KilTcs play'd, 




i)hc would keep ftakcs, I was content. 






But when I won (he would be paid ; 






This made me ask her what ftie meant : 






<5uoth flie, fince you are in this wrangling vciti. 
Here take youi KiUes, Rive mc mine agaim 








I 


5ia Caroline Nat. 


tir: 


6. 9 <5 


St. David 




£ 






1221 


6 %t^ 


> rif. 4 16 mo. 






3 




High Tpring tides 


1 ,K 


6 7 6 


New}) 4 day, 






4 


J 


iSund. Lent 


2 


^^ 


6 5.6 


at 10 at night. 






5 




7 * fet 1 1 2 


; 


-y^ 


6 -46 


Let my rtfuRei 
friend J. G. 






6 




Days 11 h 54 m 

U^hiianicloKdy 


4 


20 


6 , 6 






7 




5 


« 


6 2 6 


) fctJ 9 4c aft. 






8 




* <J 9 cold 


6 


20 


6 I A 


y^cceptthiihtitk' 






9 




ent. T then 


(Jh 


n 


60^ 


hie verfe cf mr. 






10 




Spring Q^ bcgini 


7 


J9 


5 59 7 


VIX. 






»• 


J 


^ "U 9 5c makes 


S 


2d 


5 5B 7 


Fitft Quarter 






i: 




£<J Day&Night 


9 


16 


5 56 1 


ff^enioMtJeam' 






M 




(509 Sti 


10 


29 


5 55 7 


'd,tm/ydTc'Jtb, 






»4 
«5 




IVhtdy but Viorm 
Days incf,^ h. 


10 
1 1 


Si 

24 


) 34 7 
5 55 7 


>fcts5 morn. 
Ge on at thm'Ji 






17 




7 * fef to 20 
St. Patrick 


Y 


19 


5 5i 7 
5 5» 7 


heRon; 
Exientbyeneviiet 






i8 


p 


Palm Sunday 


2 




5 49 7 


take pride 






»9 




Marth many Kcea- 


2h 


i; 


5 48 7 


Full # 19 flay 






20 




(5 b? ff'^' 


- 


25 


5 47 7 


5 in the Morn. 






Zl 




H<KU be buft^tcoi 


± 


ni 


5 4<5 7 


)rif S4<5 aft. 






22 


5'? *fet 100 Fool! 


S 


19 


5 45 7 


qiat theu'rt 






-5 


6,Good Friday 


6 


t 


5 44 7 


tlxit eotmtrj 






24 TNcufaireffUar 


6\x 


1; 


5 43 7 


man 






25 G EASTER Day 


1 


?4 


5 42 7 








i6' n * fcr 9 45 


9 


Vf 


5 40 7 


>rir I mom. 






27 iH:ghz(jir>Hs,'With 


9 


^05 ^9 7 


Laft Quarter. 






28 4 fome tAia to the 




~5 37 7 


HuJieer never 






'9 5 <5 b ("i 


to 


'<^'5 35 7 


favj lad bread. 






10 6(5 v 9 


1 1 


X'5 34 7 


Daysincr. ^ ?8 






31) 7I7 *rct 9 27 


12 


.45 5} 7>"M 2S 







Poor Richard, 17^^, 



A N 



Almanack 

For the Year of Chrift 
Being the Firft after lEAPYFAR: 

Years 



ylnd makti pirt the Creation 
B^the Accounrof rhe E fl<-'n Gre^Jts 

By the Latin Church, when O cnt r 60I2 

By the Computation oi IV IV j ^^j 

By the Roman Chronology ^6%2 

By the Jenvip Rabbie* 54 j^ 

Wherein is cont/itned 
The Lanarions, Eclipfcs, Judgment of 

the Weather, Spring Tidc^ Planets Motions & 
murual AfpcQs Sun and Moon's RiHng and Set- 
ting, Length of Days. Time of High Water, 
Fairs, Gturts, and obfcrvable Day* 
Fitted torheLartrudcol Portv Degrees, 

and a Meridian of Fivr Hours Wert fmn' I onAo^, 
bur maif without fcnfiMc Error fcrveali the ad- 
jacent Places, even from Kcwfoundland ro Stmh- 
Carolma. 



By RICHJRD S^UNDERS.FhWom. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

Printed and fold by B FR^NKLlS. at the New 
Printing Office ncai the Maikci 



Froben and other printers of classics, it has natural sim- 
plicity, human interest, and an inexpressible something 
that makes it attractive to the average printer of today. 

The title-page of the "Compleat Ambassador," show- 
ing the actual size of the original, is constructed in a 
severely plain manner, a style known as the long and 
short line," with catchwords. 

The "Midsommer Night's Dreame" title-page is one 
of the most artistic of Colonial pages, printed when 
Shakespeare was in the midst of his famous literary labors 
(I6OO). To get contrast the compositor alternated lines 
of roman with lines of italic. The spacing material could 
not have been accurate, and two capital Vs were used for 
a W, as Daye had done. 

The "Paradise Lost" title-page is a poor specimen of 
composition and presswork. It was common in Colonial 
days to surround the type-page with a double-rule border 
and in this specimen the rules are bent and battered. 
Printed in 1667, it is apart of the first edition of Milton's 
famous book. 

The London Times heading is interesting, representing 
as it does the first number, under the new name, of a 
newspaper which has since become world-famous. The 



26 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



editionum coUatione , tnultae eaeque infigncs v, 
ftioncs depreliendantur , quodque folio Lxxv i p 
etiam in utroque quod habeo, exemplari non rep 
prefla . Ea autem ex una typographorum ofcitam 
vefta videtur ; nee enim quicquam illic deficit 



CAPUT III. 

s hebraicorum librorum edhionibus 
ibraicae lypographiae origine 
'ue ad annum MCCCCLXXX. 



.. Ps,.ri., 



MccccLxxvi 1 . Alter hie eft hebraicae typographi,,e foe- 
tus , paucis tantum menfibus gerfonidis commentario receo- 
tior. Hic enim editus eft, ut fupra animadvertimus, die iv 
menfis sivan , fub finem videlieet menfis maii anni ijf , 
pfalmi autem editi funt die xx elul , fcilicet fub initium 
menfis septembris . De antiquiflima porro hac extremaeque 
raritatis editione altum eft apud bibliographos filentium , 
primufque earn memorat clarifTimus Kennicott in novo ab- 
iblutiflimae fuae hebraici textus editionis programmate quod 
edidit die xvi decembris anno 1771, ubi illi merito inter 
biblicas editiones principatus honorem detulit . Ita autem com- 
parata eft , ut unicuique verficulo hebraici pfalmorum contextus 
kimchianus commentarius fubjiciatur . Ille quidem abfque 
punftis ( IV prioribus pfalmis exceptis quibus ineleganter 
haec appofita funt ) &c charaftere quadratus , fed formae po- 



heading mentions that the Times was printed logograph- 
ically." Logotypes (two or three letters cast together) 
were being experimented with to facilitate type compo- 
sition, but did not prove successful. 

The printers at the Peacock in the Poultrey near 
Cornhil" surely were good workmen. The "Pilgrim's 
Progress" title-page (a first edition of IGTh) is a finished 
bit of printing. 

The custom of using decorative border units to make 
printed books attractive was seemingly practiced thru- 
out Europe. The Italian page of 177G is an example of 
this, as is also the French specimen of 1742. In this last 
page the decoration is overdone. The German example 
is the title-page of a style book of 1670. 

The page from the Colonial book "Description of 
Trades" exhibits the use of the decorative band for divid- 
ing subjects. This style is now extensively used on 
Elbert Hubbard's publications and has possibilities in 
the direction of general job printing that make it worthy 
of experiment. 

Because Caslon types and ornaments were extensively 
used by Colonial printers I have reproduced on a previous 
page specimens of types and ornaments from the type- 
specimen book of W. Caslon & Son, printed in 1764. The 
Caslon type-face was original in the sense in which the 
type-face cut by Jenson was original ; both had charac- 
teristics which identified them with their designers, but 
both also had a general resemblance to type-faces pre- 
viously used. The Roman face cut by Caslon bears a 
marked similarity in its capitals to the type-face used by 
Thomas Newcomb on the title-page of the "Compleat 
Ambassador" (see insert herewith). 

The illustrations in this lesson were in most instances 
photographed from originals in the Lenox Library, the 
library of the New York Typothetae, and the private 
library of The American Printer. 



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GERMAN SPECIMEN OF 1670 




t^ 



"^1 



TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 



IT WAS near the close of the nineteenth century when of black, was characteristic of the religious fidelity and 
William Morris, the distinguished exponent of strength sturdiness of the dwellers on the banks of the Rhine, 
and simplicity in art, declared that no good printing As the art of printing spread, the German and Italian 

had been done since 1550." According to this statement styles became mingled, finally resulting during Colonial 
one hundred years after its invention typography for- days in a style of typography which represented the 
feited its place among the esthetic arts, and then for Italian modified by the German just enough to make it 

interesting. But typography as an art was in a state of 
deterioration. Even Franklin, called by the printers of 
America their "Patron Saint," as a typographer lacked 
the artistic perception of Aldus and Plantin, tho he was 
a superior mechanic 



three hundred years remained below the standard set by 
its inventor. By setting his date at 1550 Morris over- 
looked the achievements of such eminent printers as 
Plantin and the Elzevirs, but otherwise his arraignment is 
justified. Posterity 
had defaulted in its 
administration of 
the legacy left by 
Gutenberg. 

The first book 
printed from sepa- 
rate types, as an ex- 
ample of artistic 
arrangement and 
careful workman- 
ship, is a remarkable 
testimony to the 
genius of the inven- 
tor, especially when 
the completeness of 
the invention is com- 
pared with the initial 
productions of later 
inventors. The first 
cylinder press and 
the first linotype 
machine were both 
crudely constructed . 

Typography at- 
tained its highest 
point toward perfec- 
tion in Italy in the 
days of .lenson and 
Aldus. The Italian 
style of lettering 
and decoration dif- 
fered greatly from 
the German. There 
was dignity, refine- 
ment, a dainty neat- 
ness, in the printed 
pages of the \'ene- 
tian s, and their 
type-faces were 
precise and of a dark 
gray tone. The Ger- 
man page, with its 
bold Gothic letters 
arranged in masses 





'^^-'' >-^tc. 


^^■:^ cvo ^^^y<>^^ 




h\ ,..^^....^0^. 


heathen : and hi. wonder, unto all ^ | 




■ i^ and > greit King tbove .li god.. 


people. 






4 For the Lord i. great, andean- ' ' 




V, of the earth . ind the itrength of 


not worthily be pr.i«d : he i. more ^ 










y S The lea i. hi., .nd he m.de 






, it : and hi. hand, prepared the dry 


then, they .re but idol. : but .t i. 




•t:r ««d. 


the Lord that made the heaven.. 




I 6 Ocome.letu.wor.hip.idfall 


6 Glory and wor.hip .r« before 




^ ,. 7 For 1« i. the Lord our God 


him ; power and honour are in hi. 












|/-|"d-..r.lh.peopleofhi. pa.. 
ly/j tare.andthe.heepofhi.h.nd. 


kindred, of the people : .«ribe 




unto the Lord .or.hip .nd power. 




rf'.\ 8 To-day \(yt wiU hear hi. voice. 


8 AKribe unto the Lord the 




, i j harden no. your h»arU : a. in the 


honour due unto hi. Name : bring 










?,'.( t«nptatioo,nth.wilden>e..: 


9 worship the Lord in the 






beauty of holineM ; let the whole 






earth .land in awe of him. 






10 Tell it out among the heathen 






. that the Lord i> King : and that it 




1 . i. a people that do err in iheir 


i. he who hath made the round 




_, ^ he.rU, for they hare not known my 








mo.ed;.nd how that he .hall judge 






the people righteously. 




I wr.th : that they .hould not enter 


U Let the heaven, rejoice, and 




,>*^,in.o.yre... 






make a noiK, and all that therein i.. 




v> 


12 Ut .he field be joyful, and 






all that i. in it : then .hall all the 




*l-t! , 


tree, of the wood rejoice before the 




i ^w eantil* fcininB. 












to judge the earth : and with nght- 






eou.neM to judge the world, and ; 






the people with hi. truth. 




r ♦> 2 Sing unto the Lord, and pr.i«. 








>-\4^-- 




Vl 3 DecUre hi. honour unto tl.e 




■-fp, .'-< .---: -■ 

















PLEASING BORDER ARRANGEMENT 
on of the decoration of double-column pages 
tke "Book of Common Prayer," London, 18 



and a shrewd busi- 
ness man. 

The beginning of 
the nineteenth cen- 
tury found the prac- 
tice of typography 
leaning more than 
ever toward utility 
and away from art. 
William Nicholson, 
an Englisliman, had 
planned a cylinder 
printing press and 
Dr. Kinsley, of Con- 
necticut, had con- 
structed a model of 
one. A Roman type- 
face on severe, me- 
chanical lines had 
been designed, and 
picturesque old 
Romans such as the 
Caslon were going 
out of use. Orna- 
ments and borders 
were being discard- 
ed, and tl e style of 
typography was 
getting uninterest- 
ing and losing the 
personal element. 

To illustrate this 
transition there are 
reproduced four 
representative title- 
page arrangements. 
The first is that of 
a book on printing 
published in 1810, 
containing several 
lines of the then new 
Roman type-face. In 
arrangement this 
page is similar to the 



28 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




DESIGN MADE WITH BRASS RULE 

Executed in 1879, it is one of the best specimens 

of the rule-curving period 

"Queen Elizabeth" page inserted in the chapter on Colo- 
nial typography which is perhaps the source from which 
came the long-and-short-line" and 'catch-word" style 
of the average title-page of the nineteenth century. The 
second example of the group shows a displayed page of 
1847 similarly treated, and the third is a reproduction 
of the title-page of a printer's manual of 1872. This last 
mentioned example is the product of a prominent type 
foundry of that time and very likely was arranged in 
the style then accepted as good typography. A more 
uninteresting page could hardly be conceived, especially 
for a book intended for printers. 

The fourth example is a reproduction of the title- 
page of MacKellar's well-known manual, the "American 
Printer" (now out of print), and presents what to the 
head of the most prominent American type foundrj^ was 



probably an ideal arrangement. While revealing the 
long-and-short-line characteristics of the previously men- 
tioned pages, as a whole the effect is more interesting to 
printers. In this page may be noticed the trend toward 
delicate, characterless typography. 

A printer, Charles Whittingham, of the Chiswick 
Press, and a publisher, William Pickering, of London, 
P^ngland, furnish an example of effoit made in the 
middle of the nineteenth century to raise the piactice of 
typography to a more artistic standard. These men, 
both lovers of books and artists in temperament, had 
become intimate friends, and together endeavored to 
introduce into their publications simplicity, appropriate- 
ness, and other artistic qualities. 

Desiring to use an old-style face on one of their books 
Whittingham inquired of the Caslon type foundry if any 
of the punches cut by the first William Caslon were in 
existence. The original punches being recovered after 
years of disuse, fonts of type were cast and used on a book 
"The Diary of Lady Willoughby," printed in 1844. The 
title-page of this book is reproduced on a following page, 
and it will be seen that Whittingham arranged the typog- 
raphy in the Colonial style to harmonize with the liter- 
ary motive of the book. So well was this done that 
one has to look twice at the date to satisfy himself it is 
not 1644. Other typography from these men is not 
<iuite so radically different from that of their contempo- 
raries, but is more refined, artistic and tasteful, as may 
be seen by the "Friends in Council" page at the rear of 
this lesson. An innovation by Whittingham was the 
omission of punctuation marks excepting where needed 
to make clear the significance of the wording. 

Whittingham and Pickering, in the field of artistic 
typography, were fifty years ahead of their time, as print- 
ers in general were not ready to accept the good things 
offered them. The renaissance had not yet dawned. 

Job printing as a distinct department is of modern 
development. Typographers of old were primarily book 
and pamphlet printers, and in many cases interest was 
chiefly centered in publishing newspapers or almanacs; 
job printing was incidental. This caused similarity in 
the typography of newspaper, book and job work, a ccn- 



HISTORY OF PRIN' 




BIOGRAPHY OF PRINTERS, 

ACCOUNT OF NEWSPAPERS. 



OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, 



IN THREE PARTITIONS. 



PRINTER'S MANUAL 



K PRACTICAL II I D 



COMPOSITORS AND PRRSSMK N 



TUOMAS LVNCH 



TITLE-PAGE OF 1810 



TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 



ditioii that today exists only in a small degree. Now 
these three classes of work are generally separated into 
departments, each with its own rules, styles and prac- 
tices, job composition being less restrained by customs 
and rules than any of the other departments. 

Attractiveness is as necessary to the typography of the 
general job of printing as dignitj' and legibility are to a 
law brief, but, endeavoring to get attractiveness into 
their work, job printers often go astray. They wrongly 
labor under the impression that to have a job distinctive 
it must be made freakish. Typography is not good unless 
based upon art foundations. 

Ideas in plenty could have been plucked by the 
printer of the nineteenth century from old books, espec- 
ially from those printed for religious organizations, such 
as the Book of Common Prayer."' A handsome edition 
of a book of this kind was printed in London by John 
Murray in 1814. Each pair of pages is different in 
decoration and typography, the designs being by "Owen 
Jones, architect." The decorative treatment of the page 
of Psalms reproduced from this book is worthy of study 
and adaptation. 

About the time of the Civil War the job printer was 
less fettered than ever by the customs of the book 
printer. While title-pages of books were being composed 
without ornamentation in severe-looking modern romans, 
the job printer, influenced by the type-founder, took a 
liking to fancy typography, for the production of which 
there were shaded, outlined, rimmed and ornamental 
letters, in imitation of the work of the copper-plate en- 
graver. The business card on the next page, and the 











THE 

American Printer: 

% (Qamjni of t5ijjtograpfji|. 

PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS FOR MANACINC ALL DEPARTHENTS 

Bv Thomas MacKellar. 

MACKELIJVR. SMITHS & JORDAN 












I 1^'^'' AMSfflST, «8eS, 

5BIIS. %i nil. 
t °'"""°°' •-■ ~" 



% 



-||#;|»~-.~.w*|^-^ 



'-^M^^ 



THE TREND TOWARD DAINTINESS 
Title-page of MacKellar's manual, the "American Printer." 



BANQUET PROGRAM 
As arranged in Boston in 1865 

"bill of fare" here shown, are specimens of such work. 

The changing styles of typography as applied to com- 
mercial headings are well set forth by the group on the 
fifth page of this chapter. The first specimen is a 
"plain" billhead of 1870. The second is a billhead of 
1893, when the compositor was taught to corral all ex- 
cess wording in an enclosure of rules at the left side 
of the heading proper. In this specimen there is a touch 
of ornamentation and a showing of seven diiferent type- 
faces, one of which is the then conventional script for 
the date line. The third specimen of the group, a letter- 
head which won first prize in a contest held in 1897, 
reveals further development of simple typography. Only 
one face of type is used (Tudor black) and there is no 
ornamentation excepting a few periods on each side of 
the word "The." 

During the nineteenth century no type foundry did 
more toward influencing the typography of the general 
job printer than the one known at the time of its absorp- 
tion by the American Type Founders Company as Mac- 
Kellar, Smiths & Jordan, of Philadelphia. The reproduc- 
tion of a few clippings from its sijecimen book of 1885 
may recall memories to the printer now of middle age. 

The Free Press business card has peculiar interest to 
the author. It was set and printed by him during dull 
hours about the year 1889, when his thinking apparatus 
was controlled by influences from the underworld of 
typographic art. 

There is another phase of late nineteenth century 
typography which should be mentioned. It seems that 
printers had developed a longing for pictures, color and 




THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



m D, 



;ii- 




'-sSHM 



decoration. 
The process 
of photo- 
en <rravin<r 
not liaving 
been per- 
fected, job 
p r i n t e r s 
shaped 
brass rule 
into representations of 
composing-sticks, print- 
ing presses, portraits 
and architectural de- 
signs, and cut tint blocks 
from patent leather and 
other material. The skill 
exhibited bymany print- 
ers is remarkable, and 
beautiful combinations 
of tints were produced. 
It will be difficult for 
many people to believe that the 
"Boston Type Foundry" design, 
(shown on a preceding page) was 
originally constructed with pieces of 
brass rule, but such is the fact. It 
was composed by C. W. L. Jungloew 
in 1879, and is truly a wonderful 
example of the work of the printer- 
architect. The perspective obtained 
by the designer is a feature. Black, 
gold, and several tints were used in 
the printing. 

Interesting as are these 
wonders of the curved-rule 
period, they are not artistic 
in the true sense of the word ; 
examples of skill 
indeed, but not art 
as it is today under- 
stood. 



We now come to 
one of the most in- 
teresting periods 
in the history of 
printing, a period 
which may well 
be termed the 
"Modern Renaissance.*' As was intimated earlier in 
this chapter the invention of printing machinery served 
to lead typography away from art. The printers of that 
time thought they were doing artistic work when they set 
their jobs in fancy type-faces, twisted brass rule, or print- 
ed in many colors. They did not know that art-printing 
was simplicity and something else. The apprentice was 
taught to set ty])e as had his journeyman instructor before 
him. Any inspiration he received came from the type 
founders, and even that was often interpreted wrongly. 
Ten years before the close of the nineteenth century 
display typography was in a chaotic state so far as art 
was concerned. Printers who before had not doubted the 
appropriateness and quality of their own typography, 
began to realize that it lacked something they were not 
able to supply, and were ready to follow a Moses who 
could lead them to better things. Then began to form a 
curious chain of events that was to have a revolutionary 
influence upon commercial typography as well as upon 
commercial art. The first link in this chain was the 
establishing of the Kelmscott Press in England bv 
William Morris. 




William Morris was an artist, a poet, a designer and 
a craftsman. Partiality for things medieval showed itself 
early in his life, and before he took up printing he 
manufactured artistic house-furnishings in the ruins of 
an old abbey. 

Years ago if the average American citizen were asked 
what great thing Benjamin Franklin did, his answer might 
have been "he invented the Franklin stove." The aver- 
age person of today would connect the name of Morris 
with the Morris chair. As the application of art princi- 
ples to typography has caused the compositor to turn 
from rule curving; to set his lines straight, and to seek 
paper without luster, so the influence of Morris has 
led to the abandonment of gilt and polish and trimmings, 
and created a demand for subdued colors and straight 
lines in home furnishings. He wi)o can influence others 
to think and act in manner different and better than 
they have done before, is truly great. 

Morris lived in a picturesque old manor-house in Kelm- 
scott on the Thames in England, and it was there at the 
age of fifty-seven years that he began to print. He was 
not a printer by trade, but before a type was set he 
studied the art from the beginning. He even learned to 
make a sheet of paper himself. Kelmscott Press paper 
was made by hand of fine white linen rags untouched by 
chemicals. Morris as a handicraftsman had an abhor- 
rence for machinery. It is doubtful if he would have 
used even a hand-press if results equally good could 
have been obtained without it. 

Morris' idea seems to have been to take up good typog- 
raphy where the early printers left off. When he wanted 
types for the new printshop he had enlarged photo- 
graphs made of the type pages of Jenson, Koburger and 
other printers of the fifteenth century, and from these 
photographs designed his type-faces, arranging the de- 
tails of the letters to conform to his own ideas. 

His Roman type-face he called "Golden," probably 
because of its use on the 'Golden Legend." This type- 
face was afterward reproduced by foundries in America 
as Jenson, Kelmscott, and other type-names. Morris 
was wont to say that he considered the glory of the 
Roman alphabet was in its capitals, but the glory of the 
Gothic alphabet was in its lower-case letters. He also 
designed a type-face characteristic of the Gothic letters 
used by Koburger and other fifteenth century printers 
and probably because of its use on the Historyes of 
Troye," called it Troy. This type also was reproduced 
bv tvpe foundries, and printers knew it as Satanick and 
TellText. 

The space ordinarily assigned to the page margin.*, 
Morris covered with arabesque decoration in the manner 
of the early Italian printers, large decorative initials 
blending with the borders. These initials and borders, 
with few exceptions, were drawn by himself and engraved 
upon wood by W. H. Hooper. Compare the right-hand 
page of the two pages here reproduced with the Venetian 
specimen in the chapter on The Spread of Typography." 

One of Morris' books, an edition of Chaucer, was 
additionally 
enriched by 
upward of 
a hundred 
illustrations 
by Burne- 
Jones, a 
noted Brit- 
ish artist. 

In both 
England 
and America 
Morris was 
the subject 



6eo. €. Hand & Ayery, 

PLAIH ABD OEBAMKITAL 

looh, %b, anb ^ooir-iirt idirtfrs, 



NO. 3 CORNHIUI-, 



TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 



31 




One of the au 

of much criticism. Men who as art printers were not fit 
to touch the hem of his garment were loud in condem- 
nation of his work. Others, more fair, pointed out the 
excellence of his printing, but claimed that neither his 
type-faces nor his style of typography would be used many 
years. This last prediction has proved partly true. The 
Jenson, or Kelmscott, type-face was used so frequently 
and so generally that despite its virtues it finally tired the 
public eye, and is now seldom seen. Satanick, the "Troy" 
type-face, as made by the American Type Founders 
Company, was not displayed in its specimen book of 190G. 

However, the work of William Morris, tho not ac- 
cepted as the model for general use, was the cause of a 
revolution in modern typograph.v. Instead of the deli- 
cate and inartistic type-faces and ornamentation 
of 1890, the. contents of type foundry specimen 
books now reveal strong, handsome, artistic 
letters and common-sense art borders and orna- 
ments. Morris' experience as a printer did not 
cover five years, yet his name will always live 
because of the good he did typography in the 
nineteenth century. 

Decorative artists were wielding a big influence 
in the revival taking place in the field of typog- 
raphy. Contemporary with Morris in England 
was a young artist, Aubrey Beardsley, prominent 
in a new school of art which saw merit in the flat 
masses of color as found in the grotesque designs 
of the .Japanese. 

Here in America the work of Morris and 
Beardsley found favor in the eyes of Will Bradley, 
who was destined to lead the forces in the typog- 
raphic revolution on American soil. Bradley had 
been a country printer; as apprentice, journey- 
man and foreman he had tasted both the .joys 
and sorrows of practical work in the printshop. 
However, Bradley was more than printer; he 
had artistic tendencies which finally influenced 
him to go to Chicago to study art. There he 
frequented the art galleries and public libraries, 
and developed into a poster artist of exceptional 
merit. There were those who called him the 
"American Beardsley." 

The year 1806 found Bradley with a studio at 
Springfield, Mass., where his love of printing in- 
fluenced him to open a printshop which he called 
the "Wayside Press." In May of the same year 
he issued the first number of "Bradley: His 
Book," a unique publication for artists and 
printers. The type-faces used were Jenson, 
Caslon and Bradley, and almost every page con- 
tained decoration. There were many odd color 
combinations and Bradley must have stood close 
to his presses when this first number was printed. 
Purple-brown and orange, olive-green and orange- 
brown, orange-yellow and chocolate-brown, 



purple-red and green-blue — these were some of the color 
harmonies. 

The Christmas number of "Bradley : His Book" was 
set entirely in Satanick, the American copy of Morris' 
Troy" type, and bright vermilion was nicely contrasted 
with dense black print. 

While Morris was a medievalist, and received his in- 
spiration from the printed books of the fifteenth century, 
Bradley was inspired by both past and present. Printers 
know him particularly because of his adaptations of the 
styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He 
demonstrated how Colonial printers could have done their 
work better. In presenting the Colonial specimens (which 
are here reproduced from the November, 1906, "Bradley : 
His Book") Bradley wrote: 

Antique and deckle-edge papers enter so largely into the mak- 
ing of books today that printers cannot do better than to study 
the styles of type-composition that were in vogue when all books 
were printed upon hand-made papers. A knowledge thus gained 
should prove of great value, especially in the setting of title-pages. 
• • * The only face of Roman type which seems appropriate 
to antique paper is that which is known as Caslon. When types 
were fewer, and the craft of printing less abused than it is now, 
this was the only type used in book work; and some of the title- 
pages in our earlier books are extremely interesting and suggest 
motifs which may well be carried out today. Taking suggestions 
from these books we have set a few pages, using as subjects the 
titles of some modern works. There seems to bean unwritten law 
which we are supposed to follow in this class of composition; and 
yet one should be a little brave and daring, purely for the joy of 
getting out of the old beaten track. 

The type foundries helped the spread of the new typog- 



Masliinjgtfln,^ 



//_ 



To Socdenow k lollaboy, Dr* 

No. 47 Pennsylvania Avenue, 



Stationery composition of 1870 







EDWie^ E. Hills, 

Commission 


m€ 


'Chant, 

/s-s? ... 




■:fi^PiE: 










The panel as used in 1893 







Iprinter an^ JSookmakcr 



A neat letterhead of 1897 
THE CHANGING STYLES OF COMMERCIAL HEADINGS 



32 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



raphy by supplying a series of Bradley's decorations, 
known as "Wayside ornaments." 

Bradley discontinued the Wayside Press in 1898 and 
combined his printshop with that of the University Press 
at Cambridge, Mass. There a battery of presses was kept 
busy during the continuance of the extraordinary interest 
in Bradley booklets. The story is told that one large con- 
cern wished a catalog, but because it was impossible to 
fill all orders, secured it only by offering to pay double 
the estimated cost. 

Like Morris, Bradley became an interesting subject 
for discussion by writers on printing. His work was both 
praised and censured, but he prospered. George French, 
the well-known American writer on printing matters, 
wrote of Bradley at the time: "l recently met Mr. Brad- 
ley and was impressed with a sense of being in the j)res- 
ence of one whose work for the art preservative will be 
recognized in the future as second to that of none of its 
exponents and disciples." 

In 1905 Bradley impaired the strength of his following 
by attempting for the American Type Founders Com- 
pany the introduction of a new style of typography, the 
prominent feature of which was profuse ornamentation. 
While this effort supplied job printers with many valuable 
ideas in type arrangement and color treatment, happily 
the style as a whole was not adopted by printers gener- 
ally or typographic conditions might have become as 
unfortunate as they were previous to 1890. 

Frank B. Berry, associated with Bradley during his 
engagement with the American Type Founders Company, 
tells in these words of the construction of a thirty-two 
page pamphlet of specimens entitled The Green Book 
of Spring:" Starting in on this about half-past ten one 
morning Bradley made up a dummy, prepared the copy 



FRIENDS IN COUNCIL: 

A SERIES OF READINGS 
AND DISCOURSE 

THEREON 




BOOK THE SECOND 



LONDON 
WILLIAM PICKERING 



So much of the DIARY ol 

LADY WILLOUGHBY 

as relates to h&xDomeJlic Hiftory^ 

& to the Eventful Period of the 

Reign of Charles 

the Firft. 



Imprinted for Longman, Brown, Green, & Long- 
MANs,P«/fr«o^er/?ow,overagainft War- 
wick Lane, in the City of 
London. 1844. 



AN INTERESTING TITLE-PAGE 
By Charles Whittingham, London, 1849 



TITLE-PAGE IN THE COLONIAL STYLE 

By Charles Whittingham, London, 1844. The first use 

of the revived Caslon type-face 

and laid out the work — specifying the size and style of 
type to be used, the form of display and designating the 
exact position of each ornament with the required spacing. 
This was in effect practically furnishing reprint copy for 
the compositors. Then, to 'give good measure,' as he 
expressed it, copy was prepared for the cover, and the 
work was ready for the printers before half-past one." 

Once asked why his clients allowed him to do such 
queer things with type and border, Bradley answered in 
his characteristic way : "Perhaps because my salary is so 
large." He is probably the highest-salaried man in the 
printing business, his monthly remuneration in 1908 as 
art-editor of Collier^s Weekly being an even thousand dol- 
lars. Will Bradley, with all the fame, praise and censure 
that has been his lot, remains as unassuming as a com- 
positor at the case. He has an interesting home, designed 
thruout by himself, at Concord, Mass., and his affection 
for the typographic art is shown by the collection 
which he has there of the old and quaint in books, cuts, 
types and press. 

In the few years succeeding the establishment of the 
Wayside Press, Bradley's style of typography was closely 
followed by many printers, and all the printshops of 
America were more or less influenced by it, but at this 
date his ideas and Morris' ideas are merged more or less 
with those of DeVinne, Jacobi, Updike, Rogers, French, 
Kimball, Goudy, Goodhue, Winchell and others. From 
Germany, too, has lately come suggestions in decoration 
that are considerably influencing general typography. 

This lesson would not be complete without a tribute 
to the work of Theodore L. De Vinne, who has the dis- 
tinction of being the only printer in America to receive 
a college degree for accomplishments as a printer. 

Mr. De Vinne's introduction to typography was as an 
apprentice in a country printshop. He went to New York 











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TYPOGRAPHY IN THE 19th CENTURY 



33 



ill ISiT aiul worked at the case and press in several 
ortices before accepting a position as job compositor with 
Francis Hart. L'pon the death of Mr. Hart in 1877, Mr. 
De Vinne took charge of the business, which is now 
known as Theodore L. De Vinne & Co. 

As a writer on printing subjects, perhaps his greatest 
work is ' The Invention of Printing,*' published in 187(5. 
I have examined and read most of the books on tlie sub- 
ject of the invention and De Vinne's book is the most 
reasonable, fair and understandable of all. 

De Vinne has always been an exponent of the sane, 
conservative and dignified in typography. The work of 
his shop is precise, exact and thoro. While giving credit 
to Morris and Bradley for their accomplishments he had 
little sympathy for the styles of either. De Vinne prop- 
erly claimed that a writer's words are of more importance 
than the decoration of a designer. Morris intended his 
books for the shelves of the book collector; De Vinne 
looks upon a book as something to be read. However, 
there need be no conflict between the styles of Morris, 
De Vinne and Bradley. The typographer should learn to 
discriminate, to choose wisely when selecting a style for 
a book or a piece of job-work. For editions de luxe in 
limited numbers, and for booklets on art or literary sub- 
jects, Morris style is api)ropriate. For books on scientific 
or legal subjects, and for booklets of conservative and dig- 
nified nature there is nothing better than the De V'inne 
style. For booklets which are to attract attention and 
for job-work that is to be distinctive, Bradley shows 
the way. 

With De Vinne beckoning to us from the point of con- 



SOME NOTES ON BOOKS 
AND PRINTING. A GUIDE 
FOR AUTHORS AND OTHERS 



Bv CHARLES T. JACOBI 




LONDON: PRINTED AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 
-« BV CHARLES VVHITTINGHAM AND CO., XXI 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, EC MDCCCXCII 



















The 

Puppet Booth 

Twelve Playj 

by 

Henry B. Fuller 






New York 

The Century Co. 

1896 















., 1896 

servatism and Bradley from the point of radicalism, the 
typograjjher anxious to do work properly must decide 
for himself how to treat it. I have seen a jeweler's 
booklet cover so filled with ornamentation by Bradley 
that it was almost impossible to read the wording, and I 
have also seen a children's Bible typographically treated 
by the De Vinne company in a style as severe as if it 
were a book of legislative acts. 

De Vinne has always been a leader in the perfecting 
of modern methods. He was one of the pioneers in the 
use of dry paper and hard press-packing, and has given 
much thought to modern type-faces. The type-face 
known as Century Expanded in more condensed form was 
designed by him as a perfect Roman letter. 

De Vinne did much in persuading printers to group 
the wording of title-pages instead of equally separating 
the type lines as was done in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Charles T. Jacobi, of the Chiswick Press, London, as 
an instructor and writer on printing subjects has done 
much for typography in England. He is not wedded to 
a particular style of typography, but advocates the adap- 
tation of any style that is good when by so doing clients 
are pleased and the principles of art are not violated. 
The title-page reproduced in this connection is unusual 
in arrangement. The type groups and the device are all 
squared and their angularity is enhanced by the exclus- 
ive use of capitals. Realizing that a page or design is 
defective if it presents the appearance of disjointed sec- 
tions, Mr. Jacobi has avoided such results in this instance 
by arranging the page in the form of a letter Z. 



34 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



With this chapter the history of typography is brought 
down to the twentieth century. The modern typographer 
has great responsibilities. Upon him depends the solution 
of the problem whether or not our beloved calling is to 
be ranked with the esthetic arts. Shall the product of 
the village printer be only of the standard of that of the 
village blacksmith ? Every typographer, regardless of 
the nature of the work that is his to do, should cultivate a 
love for the artistic and enlarge his knowledge of the 
things that make for good printing. 1 he chapters that 
follow will help to this end. 

Because printing as now practiced is in a great degree 
dependent upon principles and styles developed during 
the early days of the art, the student should not neglect 
carefully to read and digest the historical facts and repro- 
ductions that have been presented. Too many typog- 
raphers underrate the value of a knowledge of history. 
I do not care what printers of old did ; I want to know 
what the printer of tomorrow is going to do." This is 
almost a literal quotation of the remark of a printer who 
prides himself on his progressiveness, and he is only one 
of many who imagine that, to be up-to-date, it is suffic- 
ient to use new type-faces, ornaments and borders, 
caring little if the resulting jobs lack appropriateness, 
harmony, color, tone, and other elements that are essen- 
tial to perfect typography. 



THE CHILDREN 

BY ALICE MEYNELL 




JOHN LANE; THE BODLEY HEAD 
NEW YORK AND LONDON 1897 



THE LIFE OF 
CHARLES HENRY 

COUNT HOYM 

EMINENT FRENCH BIBLIOPHILE 
1694-1736 

WRITTEN BY 

BARON jfiROME PICHON 



Vkp. 



THE GROLIER CLUB 
NEW YORK 1899 



He who labors without a knowledge of history is much 
like the young man who started to work on a job press. 
He was allowed to make ready a form, and after a while 
the pressman went over and examined the work. On the 
back of the form he found something that looked like an 
underlay, but could discover no reason for its use. Mys- 
tified, he inquired what it was all about, and was told 
that the apprentice was doing only what he had seen 
the pressman often do before — cut out several pieces of 
paper and place them under the form. It had never 
occurred to the young man to ask why this was done. Thus 
it may be with the typographer. He arranges a job of 
type composition in the style of something good he 
has seen, but fails to get the quality of the original be- 
cause he does not comprehend just what has served to 
produce that quality. 

Morris was a student of ancient printing. His thoughts 
were back in the fifteenth century with Jenson, Aldus 
and Koburger, and when he began to print, he printed 
understandingly. There was a well-defined plan, and 
there was harmony in ornament, type, ink and paper. 
When the "up-to-date" printer began to imitate Morris 
he did it with the same degree of comprehension pos- 
sessed by the young man who made the "underlay." 

Will Bradley would not today be as famous as he is in 
printing circles if he had labored under the false idea 
that it was useless to know history. Bradley knows print- 
ing history and loves old books, and this knowledge and 
affection is expressed in his work. The printer who suc- 
ceeds is the one who looks upon all knowledge as valu- 
able and has a good reason for everything he does. 



PART T^VO 



TOfii BOATS 



rAtOG-wwiiR J'fo*? 



{AMPLE )b 



THE "LAYOUT" MAN 



HERE is begun a theme of large proportions and pecu- 
liar importance — typography in the twentieth century. 
The preceding five chapters treat of the accomplishments 
of typographers in days that are past; this and following 
chapters tell of the work and problems of typographers 
in the days that are present. Never was more widespread 
interest manifested in ty- 
pography, and conditions 
are truly encouraging to 
those whose hearts are 
in their work and whose 
work is printing with sep- 
arate types. 

In every section of 
America and Europe, men 
are working and studying 
that their product may 
attain a high standard <<\ 
excellence. No other \>v- 
riod of time has broujilit 
forth artistic printing so 
abundantly, and the fact 
should not be overlooked 
that the commercial a^ti^t 
deserves no little credit 
for this condition ; he li a-. 
placed his talents at tin 
disposal of the business 
man, and both the Helil 
of advertising and that 
of printing have protiti d 
greatly. At a recent ex- 
hibition of advertising art 
in New York City I wa^ 
interested in paintini:s 
from which cover designs 
had been produced for tin 
monthly magazines, ami 
was surprised at their ex- 
cellence. Some of these 
paintings are worthy of 
permanent place in any 
art collection. 

Booklet cover-page laid o 



Artists and advertising 
men realize the necessity of carefully preparing a job for 
the process of printing, but typographers as a class evi- 
dently do not. If they did they would do even better 
work and make bigger profits. Every printshop should 
have a "layout" man. 

In spite of the fact that much good printing is done 
today, fully nine-tenths of the product is partially un- 
satisfactory because of lack of preparation. When a busi- 
ness man decides to erect an office building he does not 
immediately go to a building contractor and tell him to 



build it. He first consults an architectural engineer, ex- 
amines drawings and exchanges opinions, and when the 
building contractor starts his work everything has been 
planned and specified. 

Should printing be done in a less thoro manner ? Is 
not the making of a book, catalog or business card each 
proportionately as impor- 
tant and as well entitled 
to proper attention as the 
larger undertaking.'' Good 
typography is not pro- 
duced where preparation 
is slighted. 

Quality printing is not 
accidental. Shops famed 
for the artistic excellence 
of their product have re- 
tained their shop style" 
despite changes in their 
force of workmen and ex- 
ecutives, and this individ- 
uality, or "shop style," 
as it is termed, has been 
obtained and retained 
only thru careful prepara- 
tion of copy and laying- 
out of the job by some 
person (artist, ad-writer 
or typographer) in various 
ways qualified and thoroly 
understanding shop pref- 
erences in the matter of 
style. 

In printshops extensive 
enough to allow of the ex- 
pense, one or more layout 
men should be employed, 
and in the smaller con- 
cerns the head job com- 
positor or foreman could 
do the work. Solicitors, 
when artistically fitted, 
could in special cases lay 
out their own jobs of 
printing, as personal con- 
tact with the customer peculiarly fits them to do it sat- 
isfactorily. The important thing, anyway, is to please 
the customer. While the art side of the practice of 
typography is important, it is not all important. Typog- 
raphy is essentially a business vocation. Ascertain the 
customer's tastes and prejudices beforehand, and many 
of the changes now made after jobs are in type, which 
often serve to emphasize inharmonious arrangements, 
could be avoided. The average printer rarely parallels 
the experiences of a few fortunate printing concerns who. 




36 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



large and growing dcmanJ for office help. A| 
at the teachers, couiscs of study, accomodai 

.viroiiincnt should be the hest in order to 

;tory results from study, another point 

t. Good teach 

The bctte: 

is always fo 

iployed. As we cmi:| 

compelled to chara 



hich scliool to attend is the 
and good salaries evcrywhe 



, less desirable 



is because of chc: 
ttion, inferior courses of study, lack of influej 
ferior methods. A good article alwa\s commarl 
ice, while a cheap article is sometimes worth t 
ice paid for it. There is therefore no need of ! 
;ing deceived in selecting a school. Time at 
udents have left other schools and enrolled wij 
,e completion of their courses, whereas if theV 



their c 



;, M r it tnis pro 



luld hav 
money and sad experience. Success a, 
bookkeeper depends upon a good i 
:en the result of poor training. Our ^ 
will be noticed by the letters present 
IS. Read what our students s: 
= 1^ , 



Je lectin j dJchoo} 

^""*'"*chers, courses of study, accomodatii 
I should be the best in order to secun 
i. ts from study, another point in d 
;h school to attend is the cost, (jood teacher 
d good salaries everywhere. The better gr^ 
ig men and women students is always found ' 
best instructors are employed. As we c 
petent teachers we are compelled to charge 
of tuition. If any school charges a lower t 
because of cheaper teachers, less desirable a<3 
>n, inferior courses of study, lack of influencj 
■ior methods. A good article always commant 
:, while a cheap article is sometimes worth tl' 
t paid for it. There is therefore no need of a 
,g deceived in selecting a school. Time an 
ents have left other schools and enrolled with' 
completion of their courses, whereas if they 1^ 
• their courses with us we would have sav( 
r time, money and sad experience. Success ai 
pher or bookkeeper depends upon a good t 



The headings : 



EXAMPLE 2 
ts or preparing specimen she 
k-ith pencil 



when receiving an order for a booklet or catalog, are told 
the amount of the appropriation and given carte blanche. 

Orders for much of the better class of work are obtained 
thru "dummies" submitted by printers or solicitors. The 
customer advises a certain number of such persons that 
he is in the market for a booklet and would like to re- 
ceive suggestions. Each competitor prepares a ' dummy" 
on the stock and in the binding intended for the com- 
pleted booklet. The cover design is roughly sketched or 
otherwise indicated and the inside pages prepared to rep- 
resent the finished job. 

Let us imagine ourselves in a printshop of medium 



size, which cannot afford the regular services of an artist. 
From the composing-room force take the most artistic 
and practical job compositor and install him at a desk. 
If there is not sufficient desk work to occupy his full time, 
arrange with him to fill in spare time at the case. In 
selecting a man for the position it should be remembered 
that few typographers have qualifications combining 
artistic perception with thoro workmanship. It is in a 
great measure true that a nervous, artistic temperament 
unfits a typographer for thoro finished work at the case 
or stone, while on the contrary, a calm, precise, methodi- 
cal disposition is often accompanied by lack of imagina- 




LEXINGTON 

MOTOR BOATS 




CATALOG • WINTER 1909 



THE "LAYOUT" MAN 



37 



ictory results from study, another point in; 
'hich school to attend is the cost. Good teach 
jand good salaries everywhere. The better j 
oung men and women students is always four 
ie best instructors are employed. As we em 
ompetent teachers we arc compelled to char 
Ite of tuition. If any school charges a lower tui 
is because of chciper teachers, less desirable 
ation, inferior courses of study, lack of influe 
iferior methods. A good article always comma 
rice, while a cheap article is sometimes worth i 
rice paid for it. There is therefore no need of 
eing deceived in selecting a school. Time a 
;udents have left other schools and enr olled wi 
Ie completion of their courses, whereasjif the; 




no exception ; while he could perhaps manage with only 
a lead pencil and foot rule, it would be foolish to do so. 
His work will be expedited if he has an assortment of good 
crayons ; hard, medium and soft lead pencils ; a pair of 
shears, a T-square, a gelatine triangle, a type-line gage, 
a table for giving the number of words to an inch in the 
various size type bodies ; and a library of books and peri- 
odicals on printing, especially of those showing examples 
of type designs. To provide him also with a set of water 
colors, a jar of chinese white, a bottle of gold paint, a 
bottle of india ink and several brushes would not be ex- 
travagance. 

It would be economical and wise if several sample 
sheets of each kind of stock were kept near his desk, in 
a portfolio or convenient drawer. Book papers could be 
cut in quarters, cover papers in halves, and cardboard in 
various convenient sizes, all ready to be used at an in- 
stant's notice. Several each of ruled headings, cut cards 
and other standard goods should also be included. In 
laying out jobs, especially large runs, he should make 
them of such size as will cut from the sheet with little 
or no waste. If an order is to be rushed, he should ascer- 
tain if the stock may be had without delay. 



EXAMPLE 4-a 

After pasting in illustration and counting the lines for machine 

composition. Reduced from the original 

tion. F^ach workman should have opportunity to do that 
which he can do best. He of the artistic temperament 
should lay out the jobs, and he of the mechanical turn of 
mind should construct them. 

The proprietor or other person in authority should dis- 
cuss with the layout man the subject of shop style in 
typographical arrange- 




ment. The matter of 
type equipment should 
also be gone over, as 
nothing hinders the 
layout man so much as 
to be compelled to use 
type-faces selected by 
another having ideas 
widely different. It is 
important that the type 
equipment be appro- 
priate and sufficient 
for the class of work 
done. An equipment 
of a half dozen har- 
monizing faces of type is far better than one of two 
dozen ill-assorted faces. Good typography is to a large 
extent dependent upon the type-faces used. 

The layout man should make a study of the personal- 
ities and tastes of customers. He should meet all such 
that come into the office, and arrange to call once upon 
the regular customers. He must also keep in close touch 
with conditions in the composing-room, so that in the 
discharge of his duties he does not call for type-faces 
already set out of the cases, or not a part of the equip- 
ment. 

The mechanic and the artist, to do satisfactory work, 
must have a certain working outfit. The layout man is 



WORDS TO THE SQUARE INCH 


-;- 






Sizes 


OF Ty 


PK— SOLID 






5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


1 


69 


47 


38 


32 


28 


21 


17 


14 


2 


138 


94 


76 


64 


56 


42 


34 


28 


i 


276 


188 


152 


128 


112 


84 


68 


56 




414 


282 


228 


192 


168 


126 


102 


84 


H 


552 


376 


304 


256 


224 


168 


136 


112 


10 


690 


470 


380 


320 


280 


210 


170 


140 


12 


828 


564 


456 


384 


336 


252 


204 


168 


14 


966 


658 


532 


448 


392 


294 


238 


196 


16 


1104 


752 


608 


512 


448 


336 


272 


224 


IH 


1242 


846 


684 


576 


504 


378 


306 


252 


20 


1380 


940 


760 


640 


560 


420 


340 


280 


ii 


1518 


1034 


836 


704 


616 


462 


374 


308 


24 


1656 


1128 


912 


768 


672 


504 


408 


336 


26 


1794 


1222 


988 


832 


728 


546 


442 


364 


28 


1932 


1346 


1064 


896 


784 


588 


476 


392 


30 


2070 


1410 


1140 


960 


840 


630 


510 


420 


32 


2208 


1504 


1216 


1024 


896 


672 


544 


448 


34 


2346 


1598 


1292 


1088 


952 


714 


578 


476 


36 


2484 


1692 


1368 


1152 


1008 


756 


612 


504 



zz 


Sizes of Type — 


LEADED with 2-point leads 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


1 


50 


34 


27 


23 


21 


16 


14 


11 


2 


100 


68 


54 


46 


42 


32 


28 


22 


4 


200 


136 


108 


92 


84 


64 


56 


44 


6 


300 


204 


162 


138 


126 


96 


84 


66 


8 


400 


272 


216 


184 


168 


128 


112 


88 


10 


500 


340 


270 


230 


210 


160 


140 


110 


12 


600 


408 


324 


276 


252 


192 


168 


132 


14 


700 


476 


378 


322 


294 


224 


196 


154 


16 


800 


544 


432 


368 


336 


256 


224 


176 


18 


900 


612 


486 


414 


378 


288 


252 


198 


20 


1000 


680 


540 


460 


420 


320 


280 


220 


22 


1100 


748 


594 


506 


462 


352 


308 


242 


24 


1200 


816 


648 


552 


504 


384 


336 


264 


26 


1300 


884 


702 


598 


546 


416 


364 


286 


28 


1400 


952 


756 


644 


588 


448 


392 


.308 


30 


1500 


1020 


810 


690 


630 


480 


420 


330 


32 


1600 


1088 


864 


736 


672 


512 


448 


352 


34 


1700 


1156 


918 


782 


714 


544 


476 


374 


36 


1800 


1224 


972 


828 


756 


576 


504 


396 





EXAMPLE 7 


ning the 


number of words to square inches. Us 


laying 


ut booklets and catalogs will not only 


will mi 


nimize the chance of a miscalculation 



38 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



TALMOND STUDIOS 
^rtigtg' iHaterialg 

1004 Fulton Street, Brooklyn 



Notehead a 



k^itho, 



1 layo, 



For an example of the workinjrs of the layout system 
we will suppose that the principal of a local business col- 
lege has brought in typewritten copy of about a thousand 
words to be made into a small booklet. A little ques- 
tioning brings out the information that the customer 
desires something attractive, refined, and of good qual- 
ity. He does not want a cheap job, and neither has he 
money to spend upon expensive de luxe booklets. 

The layout man looks over his sample papers and finds 
that there is on hand a ten-cent white antique paper 
25 X 38 inches in size. Taking a quarter sheet he folds 
it repeatedly until the leaf appears to be about the 
proper size. Measuring it he finds it to be 4% x 6% 
inches. The leaf is then trimmed to 4% x .5% inches 
(thus allowance should always be made for trimming the 
edges after binding). 

For the cover the layout man selects from his samples 
a medium gray antique stock of good quality. The cover 
stock should harmonize in finish with the paper on the 
inside. In this instance an antique finished stock is 
selected to cover the antique finished paper on the inside. 
Many are the booklets that would have been improved 
by attention to this rule of harmony. However, a rough 
finished cover stock and a smooth inside paper is not as 
inartistic a combination as a smooth cover stock and a 
rough inside paper. 

The cover stock selected in this instance is 20 x 25 
inches in size, and an eighth of this sheet folded once 
gives a leaf 5 x 6% inches. Deciding to have the cover 
lap three-sixteenths of an inch over the edges of the in- 
side leaves, it is trimmed to 4%6 x 6% inches. 

On one of the inside leaves a page is penciled off, the 
layout man judging how much of the paper should be 



For 



TALMOND STUDIOS 

Artists* Materials 

1004 FULTON STREET BROOKLYN 



covered by print. For cheap 
work it is generally necessary 
to crowd the matter into the 
least possible number of pages, 
and in such case narrow mar- 
gins are allowed. For the bet- 
ter quality of work, liberal mar- 
gins are necessary to proper re- 
sults. A page should set toward 
the top and binding edges, the 
margins at these places being 
each about the same. The mar- 
gin at the right edge should be 
a little more than at the top 
and back, and the margin at 
"'*" the bottom should be a little 

more than at the right edge. 
For the booklet now supposed to be in course of prepar- 
ation, 2% X 4 inches has been determined as the proper 
size of the type-page. Each page thus requires eleven 
square inches of type matter. The layout man refers to 
the table (Example 7) which gives the number of words 
to a square inch and ascertains that eleven square 
inches of ten-point type, the lines separated by two- 
point leads, should accommodate one hundred and sev- 
enty-six words. Multiplying this number by six, allow- 
ing two pages at the front of the booklet for the title, 



T AI.M( )NI> STI 'OK )S 

ARTISTS' M.VTKRIAI.S 



etc., he finds the booklet will take 1,056 words, about 
the number of words in the copy supplied. 

For a booklet of this kind the type should be no 
smaller than ten-point. Instead of stinting margins and 
sacrificing legibility, as is often done in endeavoring to 
force copy into a limited number of pages, additional 
leaves should be added. 

The cover and inside papers having been prepared in 
the proper size and number of leaves, the dummy is 
stitched with wire or sewed with silk floss as may be 
desired. The arrangements of the title-page, the first 
text-page and a page entirely text matter are indicated 
in proper position by means of pencil and crayon ; or for 
booklets of a large number of pages it is well to set the 
first text-page in type and paste a proof of it in the 
dummy, getting by this means the customer's approval 
of both type-face and general effect. 

The appearance of the printed page may be anticipated 
by pasting in position a type-page cut from another 
booklet already printed. (Examples 2 and 3.) In a shop 
where much booklet work is done, it would be a con- 
venience to the layout man if a number of specimen 
pages, set in the available body type (both solid and 
leaded), were printed for use in preparing dummies. 
These specimen pages should be about 5% x 7 inches, a 
size that would make them usable for most purposes. 

The cover arrangement was sketched on the gray stock 



THE "LAYOUT" MAN 



39 



(Example l), the border being 
represented by the gray lines 
of a hard lead pencil. The type 
line was indicated by means of 
a soft black lead pencil and an 
orange crayon. No ornaments 
are specified because they are 
better omitted on booklets 
where dignity is to be a prin- 
cipal feature. 

The dummy booklet thus 
completed is submitted to the 
customer and when approved 
goes to the work-rooms with the 
copy. The compositor, make- 
up man, stockman, pressman 
and binder have no excuse for 
any misunderstanding, as, gen- 
erally speaking, they have 

merely to duplicate the dummy. The labor of the esti- 
mate man, too, is lessened, as the dummy booklet affords 
a substantial basis upon which to figure the cost. 

The plan of making a dummy booklet, just explained, 
can be adapted to many jobs, but of course it needs be 
varied to suit special requirements. 

In cases of periodicals and voluminous catalogs, dummy 
sheets should be printed with the outlines of the page 



i <P2> W j.»>APnnr34»irys» ^ ;r^*v.r y ^»'yj^yi[^ry\ ,7*1 



^♦.^#*■l>■^-*««.*^*^•»*^ I 



'^I'^^ALMOND STVmostl 












s laid o 



indicated by one-point rule. With such sheets the lay- 
out man is enabled quickly to paste in position prints of 
the illustrations and text matter from the galley proofs. 
Getting his instructions in such methodical manner the 
make-up man can do his work without confusion of 
orders, and the proof-reader's task is made easy. 

When illustrations are provided to be incorporated in 
the text matter there is more or less trouble in making 
up the pages. To center all illustrations so as to avoid 
changing the width of the type lines is easy but not 
artistic. It is economical to have cuts made the full 
width of type matter, but the printer is seldom consulted 
until after they are made. However, various sizes of 
cuts may be attractively grouped on facing pages and 
the type matter filled in around them. This method 
may appear difficult because the text matter is often 
composed on machines; but it is not difficult if prepared 
in this manner: Take the prepared body-type sheets, 
cut them to the required page size, paste them to the 
dummy sheets, and upon the pages of text matter thus 
presented fasten the prints of the illustrations in proper 
positions. The body-type sheets need not be used on 
pages for which there are no illustrations ; in such in- 
stances merely ascertain the number of lines to a page. 
Example 4-a demonstrates how the print of the illustration 
is placed over the body-type page, and the step" shape 
of the pencil lines shows how the boundaries of the type 



C 1 



*■ ' 



fi 



Notc-Kead a 



tfot 



lines are made to fit the outline of the illustration. The 
length of type lines should always be ascertained with 
the pica (l2 points) as the unit of measurement. 

Supposing Examples 2, 3 and 4 to be dummies of 
pages, the composition of which is to be done on the 
linotype or monotype machine, the layout man with his 
pica measure starts at the initial letter T and measures 
and counts the lines, noting the results in the margins. 
(See Example 4-a. The page as shown is slightly re- 
duced, hence the lines do not measure as set forth.) The 
figures are copied from the margins onto a slip and will 
appear as shown in Example 4-b. 

This plan emphasizes the necessity of a layout man as 
a member of the executive staff in the modern printshop. 
It may be a simple procedure to reset run-around matter 
at the moment needed by the make-up man, but it is an 
expensive habit. 

The average stationery job is given scant attention in 
the larger printshops where long runs on cjlinder presses 
overshadow it in importance. This condition leads to 
unsatisfactory results and the customer is the sufferer; 
his stationery as a whole is not only inartistic but is a 
patch-work of typographic styles and arrangements. To 
illustrate this : A dealer in artists' materials orders at 
various times letterheads, business cards and package 
labels, and the copy is sent to the work-rooms with no 
instructions about style. Assuming that a different 
compositor gets each order, the jobs are composed as 
shown in Examples 8, 9 and 10. These specimens are 



■ :>":.;.■ -*<-^'Jp»^■^*"J»^'^■■-^^i■ , 



>.*^^>.A<7% 



i&ri_ 







40 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



yp^^^iJssiis. 



Erinteiis 




IE3^ 









EXAMPLE 
:, with ir 
ed. Red. 



rdfro 



in detail a: 




above the average in arrangement, but are faulty in 
that the}' have no relation to each other in appear- 
ance; have nothing distinctive in their typography that 
identifies the business card with the letterhead or the 
label. 

How different the results had an artistic layout man 
prepared each order before it was given to the compositor. 
Examples 11, 12 and 13, roughly sketched with pencil 
and crayon, demonstrate what could have been done. 
With stationery thus harmoniously treated a business 
house would be given credit for individuality and pro- 
gressiveness. 

In a printshop doing a good class of work (every print- 
shop should endeavor to do that) the layout man ought to 
make a study of color harmony. Not that it is necessary 
for him to attend an art school or devote most of his time 
and attention to experimenting with prisms and light 
rays; charts and tables which help to solve the color 
problem are easily obtainable. After a little study and 
practice he will learn that while red, yellow and blue 
(the primary colors) harmonize with each other, mixtures 
of two or all three give shades of color considered more 
pleasing. Olive-green (an art shade) substituted for blue, 
in combination with orange, produces an artistic blend in 
place of the gaudiness which otherwise would prevail. 
This because olive-green is a mixture of blue and orange ; 
a relationship in color composition is established and 
contrast lessened. 

A black page increases in interest with the addition of 
a touch of red, and for this purpose vermilion is recom- 
mended. The vermilion shade of red is approximated by 
mixing white with orange-red. 

The colored crayons with which the layout man should 
be supplied, are exceedingly useful in determining color 
combinations. The eye is a reliable guide in this matter, 
if carefully trained to recognize color ha 



should be easy to distinguish the right from the wrong 
color treatment in Examples 5 and 6. The colder color 
should always predominate; backgrounds of bright red 
and bright yellow are difficult to harmonize with any 
color of ink excepting black. 

From the insert (Examples 16 and 1?) will be seen how 
a color combination may be roughly sketched on the 
actual stock to be used. Thus the finished result may be 
indicated without setting a line of type or inking a roller. 

When the page is set in type it is well to have the 
proofs in the colors and on the stock to be used, but it 
is unnecessary to separate the design into several forms 
to do so. For a job such as Example 15, for instance, 
two proofs maj' be pulled, one in black and one in orange, 
and the initial cut out of the sheet printed in orange and 
pasted in position on the sheet printed in black. An- 
other and a more satisfactory way is to ink the entire 
page with black, then clean the black from the initials, 
and ink them with orange by means of a finger. It may 
be relevant to suggest that the human skin is ideal for 
inking purposes, and that a printer's composition roller 
is an imitation of its qualities. 

The layout man, in addition to the study of ink har- 
mony, should learn to blend colors and tints of paper 
stock. He should know that a buff or cream inside paper 
reflects the color of a yellow brown cover stock, and 
hence makes a prettier combination than white inside 
paper and brown cover stock. Another important point 
is the color blending of a tipped-on illustration and the 
stock acting as a background. The prevailing shade in a 
color illustration should be matched by the background 
or by a surrounding border, or by both. 

When laying out advertisements or other display pages 
the size of the tyije-face should be written in the margin 
(Example 14). Practice will enable the layout man intu- 
itively to approximate the size needed. 



IB 



ARCHITECTURAL 

DESIGNS 

IN 

STONE a? BRONZE 

ILLUSTRATED 

AND EXPLAINED 

BY THE 

WORLD'S GREATEST 

ARCHITECT 
SETFORD JETTON 



OSWALD COMPANY I 
PUBLISHERS 




EXAMPLE 20 

An architectural subject treated 

appropriately 



HARMONY AND APPROPRIATENESS 



IN music there is that which the Germans call "Leit- 
motir' — the guiding theme in the construction or inter- 
pretation of musical compositions. The "Leit-motif" 
finds a parallel in the central idea or motive governing 
the composition of a building, a painting, a book or a 
job of printing. If Gothic is selected as the style of 
architecture for a building, every detail from the arches 
to the sm lUest bit of orna- 
mentation is kept in har- ^(^,^(4^(^,^(^,^<^ 
monv with the central idea (^^Jil^J^Q/^,J^Q/oJdl«uJ^LL^.J^Q/^.J^(l«.J^l 
of construction. If the 
building is to be Colonial, 
every detail is made appro- 
priate to the Colonial 
motive. 

The person is legion who 
undervalues the importance 
of harmony and appropri- 
ateness. Houses are fur- 
ni>hed without regard to a 
general plan and furniture 
is added because it strikes 
the fancy at the moment of 
purchase. A Morris chair in 
dull-finished wood, a Louis 
XV'. table with dainty 
curves and gilt luster, and 
a mahogany or ebonv piano 
case are gathered in motly 
discord on an oriental rug. 
And when this same per- 
son has printing done, or 
does it himself, there is 
again revealed an utter dis- 
regard for the things that 
make for harmony. 

Wiiat is appropriate? 
There are times when it is 
difficult to give an unpreju- 
diced answer, especially 
when an idealistic art inter- 
pretation of the appropriate 
is combatted by the homely 
reasoning of a tiller of the 
soil. As a finishing touch to 

the classic architecture of the new agricultural building 
at Washington the words Fructus, Cereales, Forestes and 
Flores were carved in suitable places on the structui 



Proper Contrast 

may be obtained with 

Lower-case Types 

by varying the type 
sizes and grouping 
in pleasing shapes 



Harmony 



unnecessary but are about as poetic as the relief busts of 
Pennsylvania politicians on the bronze doors of the cap- 
itol at Harrisburg. 

It requires a discriminating judgment to distinguish 
between the appropriate and inappropriate. Typogra- 
phers frequently go wrong in the use of the old Roman 
V. The V as part of the words PVBLIC LIBRARY on a 
stone building excites no 
L JE?i J*L JE?i. J*L J*. J*L -^ »fi2 comment, it seems appro- 
priate and in good taste, 
but as part of tiie words 
I'N'RE MILK on a grocer's 
letterhead it tempts the 
risibility in our natures. 

The plain people of one 
of the new sections of New 
York City were astounded 
recently to find the street 
signs bearing such names 
as Socrates, Horatius, Pose- 
idon, Aplirodite, Pericles 
and Seleucus. Names such 
as Wall Street, Broadway, 
Bowery and Fifth Avenue 
are unobjectionable, but 
Seleucus Street and Pericles 
Street— ! 

After all, good judgment 
is one of the most valuable 
assets a man can 



should be had between type 

face and decoration as 

well as between the 

several lines 

of display 



EXAMPLE 18 
To obtain harmony it is frequently necessary 
of type, and either all capitals or all 



Harmonious and appro- 
priate results in printing 
are bi-ought about by dis- 
creet selection and use of 
these three e 1 e m en t s : 
Type, ink, paper. It is one 
thing to ink the type and 
> pull an impression on 
paper, and it is another 
thing to do it properly. It 
makes a difference what 
type is used, what ink is 
used, and what paper is 
used. There are hundreds 
of type-faces, many colors and qualities of inks, and a 
variety of finishes and qualities of papers. 

^ As to type-faces: Printers of law briefs and legal 

The secretary of agriculture noticed the Latin words and blanks need the formal, legible modern romans. Print- 



forthwith ordered the architect to have them recarved 
in the English— Fruits, Grains, Woods and Flowers. 
Now there are those who say the words as modified 
suggest a sign on a country store. The architect prob- 
ably reasons that the words as originally carved were 
purely decorative, and in their English form are not only 



ers making a specialty of commercial statioi 
ding invitations and calling cards need scripts and en- 
gravers' romans. Printers whose chief product is high- 
class announcements and booklets cannot do without old- 
style romans, italics and text faces. When everything in 
printing from the diminutive calling card to the massive 



42 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE 




::l Cbe 


! 




The 


[ 


THE 


AMERICAN 


• : 


;american 




American 




AMERICAN 


PRINTER 


- 


j^rinter 


; 


Printer 




PRINTER 


IS THE 


.. 


13 tfje 




is the 




IS THE 


PRINTERS 


:: 


Printtr'g 




Printer's 




PRINTER'S 


SCHOOLMASTER 


1 


&ci)oolmadter ! 




Schoolmaster 




SCHOOLMASTER 


READ IT 


w 


Eeau it ; 


\ 


Read it 




READ IT 


AND RISE 


\ \ 


and rise '. 


: \ 


and rise 








\ \ 






i' ' 




AND RISE 


A 


The« 


B 
is harmony between type-fa 


d border in each of the above pa 


4 

nels 


D 


The 1! The 1 The I 

American 1 < American J American J 

Printer 1 ] Pointer | pointer % 

is the 1 > »»*»»« ! 5 is the % 

Printer's | j Printer's j « Printer's j 

Schoolmaster i j Schoolmaster \ <» Schoolmaster ^ 


|american| 


1 I>RINTER 1 

g I'UINTKU'S V 
1 HCIIOOKMASTKR | 
1^ liKAl> IT 1 


Read it 1 i Read it j * /?^«J /^ J 
and rise 1 and rise 6 ««<:/ rise ^ 


% A.NI) KISK % 


1 ) < 5 $ 


% 1 






E 




The above type-faces and borders d 


G 
•) not harmonize with each other 




H 


Cfte 




The 




The 




The 


:amencan 




American 




American 




American 


jSrinter 




Printer 




Printer 




Printer 


IS THE 




is the 




is the 




is the 


PRINTER'S 




Printer's 




Printer's 




Printer's 


SCHOOLMASTER 




Schoolmaster 




Schoolmaster 




Schoolmaster 


READ IT 




Read it 




Read it 




Read it 


AND RISE 




and rise 




and rise 




and rise 


I 




J 

There is harmony between ty 


pe-f 


K 
ices in each of the above panels 




L 


THE 




The 




TIIK 




mt 


AMERICAN 




American 




AMERICAN 




Printfr 


PRINTER 

IS THE 




Printer 

IS THE 


i 
i 


PRINTER 

is the 




PRINTER'S 




PRINTER'S 




Printer's 




IS THE 


SCHOOLMASTER 




SCHOOLMASTER 




Schoolmaster 




PRINTKR'S 
SCIIOOI.]MASTER 


READ IT 




READ IT 




Bead it 


1 


READ IT 


AND RISE 




AND RISE 


1 


and rise 




AND RISE 



The above type-faces do not harmonize with each other 
EXAMPLE 19.— Harmony of Type-Faces and Borders. (Note.— In studying an example, cover the balance of the page) 




EXAMPLE 21 

A booklet cover, tLe coloring and typograpKy 

oi ^I'liicL 18 suggestive or tlie subject 



HARMONY AND APPROPRIATENESS 



43 



catalog is solicited many styles of type-faces are needed. 

As to inks : There are inks ground in strong varnish 
for bond papers, inks ground in soft varnish for coated 
papers, and heavy opaque inks for dark cover papers, 
and it makes a deal of difference if they are not used 
appropriately. And then, in the matter of harmony of 
colors there is a subject for much study. The wise printer 
will use good black inks and enliven his jobs with mere 
touches of orange or vermilion. Black and orange are 
always pleasing in combination and look well on most 
papers. There are pitfalls in the use of numerous colors, 
and unless the subject of color harmony is understood by 
the printer he may wisely hold to black and orange. 

As to papers : Wove and laid antique papers, white 
and buff tinted, are appropriate for announcements and 
booklets in combination with old-style type-faces and 
black and orange inks. Dainty papers of linen finish in 
combination with delicate engravers' type-faces, are ap- 
propriate fur milliners, florists, jewelers and others cater- 
ing to the esthetic tastes of women. Dull-finished coated 
papers are considered more artistic than highly enameled 
ones, altho there are many who prefer the luster of en- 
ameled papers for halftone printing. 

It is a stupendous undertaking, in face of the multi- 
tudinous elements tliat are part of the production of 
printed work to point out 
a path that will lead to 
good typography. There 
are many printers doing 
good work and each of 
them has probably arrived 
at his point of attainment 
by diflFerent routes. The 
chapters that precede this 
and the chapters that fol- 
low represent the author's 
attempt to show the way 
to good work and whether 
he succeeds depends to a 
great degree upon the 
reader-student himself. 

Simplicity is synony- 
mous with good typogra- 
phy and its path is a 
straight and narrow one. 








who would do good typography must decide wisely 
when accepting the good things offered by his friends 
the paper man, type man and ink man. They are gen- 
erous in their offerings and willingly assist the doubting 
one in deciding, but confidence in his own judgment is a 
necessary quality for the typographer who would attain 
success. 

The ideal printshop is that one which contains only 
harmonious type-faces, ink colors and paper stock. This 
ideal condition being impossible except in a small shop, 
the best alternative is to have all type-faces as nearly 
harmonious as possible. It would be wise to build upon 
the body 




KiHHftlkitN 




Type-design for catal 

with it. If Caslon roman is chosen as the body letter, 
Caslon bold, Caslon italic and Caslon text will afford 
variety in display while retaining harmony. (Of course 
tlie large display sizes of the Caslon roman should be in- 
cluded.) The Cheltenham family probabl3' provides the 
greatest variety of harmonizing faces. Scotch roman is a 
dignified and legible letter, and supplemented by its italic 
and the larger display sizes is a satisfactory face for many 
purposes. Old-style antique is a useful letter where a 
black tone is desired and is pleasing in its original form. 
Pabst is an artistic old-style face and is an admirable 
letter for distinctive advertising literature, giving an 
effect approximating hand lettering. 

While iiarmony of type-faces is essential, yet a certain 
amount of contrast is desirable. At one time it was cus- 
tomary to alternate a line of capitals with one of lower- 
case. This arrangement gave contrast, but not harmony. 
The best results are obtained by the use of either all 
capitals or all lower-case. As explained in the chapter 
"When Books Were Written," our alphabet in its orig- 
inal Roman form consisted of capital letters only. Lower- 
case letters, also known as minuscules, are the result of 
evolution, and in form differ materially from the capitals. 
Custom decrees that a capital letter be used to begin an 
important word otherwise in lower-case, but with this 
exception either kind is better used alone. 

Harmony of type-faces and borders is illustrated in 
Example 19. Section a is an all-capital scheme enclosed 
in a heavy and light rule border. A border such as this 
owes its origin to the panels used by the Romans to sur- 
round inscriptions on stone, and as these inscriptions 
were in capital letters only, the appropriateness of the 
treatment is manifest. 

In section b there is harmony from both the historic 
and the artistic viewpoint. The black text face, repre- 
senting as it does the direct result of the evolution from 
capital letters, is appropriately used only in its lower- 
case form. The use together of text capitals is objected 



44 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



MW^M^^^iM^m^i^^m^. 



Bare Hooks 



THE SELFORD COMPANY 



iaU and border 



ANNUAL REPORT 



BOARD OF SURVEY 

FOR 1908 

CONTAINING DIAGRAMS 

OF ALL 

IMPROVEMENTS DURING THE PAST 

YEARS TOGETHER WITH PLANS 

AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR 

THE COMING YEAR 



CITY OF PITTSBURGH 

DEPARTMENT OF STREETS 



A plain page, without < 



EXAMPLE 26 
nament or decorative types, for 
purpose 



to on the ground of illegibility. This black text face 
(correctly called Gothic) is historically associated with 
ecclesiastical printing, and the border, consisting of 
pointed crosses of black tone, blends with the pointed 
black letters of the type-face. 

Lower-case Caslon roman is shown by section C. This 
letter has a peculiar gray tone, and the border, possess- 
ing the same characteristic, is appropriate. The har- 
mony which exists between the Caslon face and the bor- 
ders of Colonial days is also illustrated in Example 18. 

Section d shows a plain letter of modern cut known 
erroneously as gothic. Containing no serifs, it lacks a 
feature which has always been considered necessary to 
beauty in type-faces. As a harmonious border for this 
face there is nothing better than a plain rule of the width 
of the type strokes. 

The type and rule in the next four panels do not har- 
monize for these reasons : 

E. — The border is not sufficiently old in style for a let- 
ter such as the Cheltenham, and the small horizontal 
lines of the border carry the eye in a direction contrary 
to that of the up strokes of the letters. The border used 
on Section a would harmonize. 

F. — The border is too light and effeminate for a letter 
as strong and black as Winchell. The border used on a 
or the one used on g would harmonize. 

G. — The border is too black. Italic, because of the 
slant of its letters, looks better not surrounded by a bor- 
der, but when one is used it should be light and contain 
some of the characteristics of the italic. 

H. — The type-face, being extended, does not conform 
to the shape of the panel. The old English border is not 
suitable, for in tone and character it is different from the 
type-face. The border used on a would be better, but in 
the use of engravers' type-faces borders should be omitted. 



In all cases where ornamental borders are used more 
finished results are obtained if a rule separates the bor- 
der from the type, as in Sections b and c. 

The next four panels demonstrate such harmony as 
may exist between type-faces of different series. 

I. — For more than a hundred years Caslon text and 
Caslon roman have been used in combination. Altho 
entirely different in appearance, yet they harmonize 
nicely when properly treated. Caslon text, also known 
as Cloister, gives decorative contrast to a page of Caslon 
roman and is worthy a place in every printshop. 

J. — This panel shows Caslon bold in combination with 
Caslon roman, and demonstrates the close harmony exist- 
ing between type-faces of the same family. 

K. — Another demonstration of the harmony of the 
family types. 

L. — Harmonious, to a certain extent. 

The next row of panels presents the "horrible ex- 
amples" which are defective for these reasons: Section 
M fails to harmonize because the type-face of the upper 
group is slightly extended and the one of the lower 
group is condensed. The shape of the letters of a type- 
face should conform to the shape of the page, and as far 
as possible to the shape of the companion letter, when 
one is used. Condensed letters should be avoided except 
for pages that are long and narrow. 

N. — The type-face of the upper group has nothing in 
common with that of the lower group. That of the 
upper group is a distinctively English roman, with serifs, 
and is set in lower-case, while that of the lower group 
is a plain black modern letter, without serifs, and is set 
in capitals. The main display should never be lighter in 
tone than the less important type matter. 

o. — Inharmonious, because the lower type group, com- 
posed of lower-case italic, presents a widely different 



HARMONY AND APPROPRIATENESS 



45 









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• 


WREATHS 


* 






* 


FLAGS 


• 






• 


^c. 


* 






• 




• 






* 




* 






* 




• 






• 




* 






• 


JOHN WRIGHTS SONS 


* 






* 
* 




* 




•••••••••••••*• 













EXAMPLE 27-a 

Treatrnent appropriate for a church program, in style based upon 

old ecclesiastical manuscript books. (See specimen below) 

appearance from the extended roman capitals of the 
upper group. 

p. — Mismated: one group is condensed while the other 
is extended. 

There are more typographic sins committed thru vio- 
lation of the laws of appropriateness than in any other 
way. In this regard it would not be difficult to make 
out cases against the best of typographers, whose sins 
are washed away by good work in other respects. As 
in architecture where one part of a building bears re- 
lation to all other parts, so in typography there should 
be a motive that blends all elements in serving one well 
defined purpose. The phrase "is it appropriate?" prom- 
inently displayed above the type cabinets, over the 
presses, in the stock-room, and over the layout man's 
desk, would do good missionary work. 

An architectural motive was suggested by the copy 
for Example 20, and type, border, ornament and stock 



EXAMPLE 28 

Cover-page for a catalog of decorative materials, suggesting 

festive gatherings, music and waving flags 

were selected that the motive should be emphasized. 
The architecture of the Romans was frequently embel- 
lished with inscriptions (see Example 24), and in mod- 
ern architecture the panel of Roman lettering is a feature ; 
the lettering is generally all capitals of the same size, 
of a style near that of the ancient lettering ; and the panel 
is outlined with molding, plain or decorative. Serving a 
purpose equivalent to the architect's panel molding, the 
type or rule border is a valuable addition to a page of 
type. A page of display type or a halftone not surrounded 
by a border is like an oil painting without a frame. 
The border around Example 20 is historically associated 
with architecture ; the ornament is an architectural one, 
and the paper upon which the design is printed suggests 
onyx stone. Legibility is secured by printing the type 
in black, and interest is added to the decoration by print- 
ing that in orange. 

Bismarck was called the Iron Chancellor" because 
of his great strength of character and unbending will. 
Strength instantly associates itself with the mention of 
iron or steel, hence the motive for the construction 
of Example 22. It may be interesting to know that 
the design of this page was further suggested by the 
old lock-plate (Example 23). A printer with imagina- 
tion can absorb ideas from many sources. The lock- 
plate is not literally reproduced in type, but a few of 
its features, including the key-hole, were borrowed and 
conventionalized. An artist-designer does not copy 
his models closely; they serve the purpose of suggest- 
ing shape and treatment and his imagination does the 
rest. 

For the cover of a small catalog listing rare books, a 
typographic motive is found in the woodcut borders and 
initials of the early printers. Example 25 shows what 
may be done with type-foundry material on such a cover. 



4b 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



o o 


COLONIAL 

TRUST 
COMPANY 


o o 


J. F. WINTER. President 
A. B. HILL, Vice-President 

H.N. SENTHELL. Cashier 

W. L. WILLISON. Teller 


o o 



EXAMPLE 30 

•Colonial style, appropriate for 

design such as Example 29 



The border is of black tone and the type and initials are 
{riven the strength that harmonizes with it. 

Old books suggest discolored leather, dusty shelves 
and plain men, and it is an abrupt change to the subject 
of millinery, with its bright colored feathers, ribbons 
and delicate finery. The milliner ornaments his sales- 
room with vines and flowers and dainty colors, and the 
printer gets his typographic motive from such sources. 
Example 21 illustrates a booklet cover treated thus ap- 
propriately. The page size is unconventional, the color- 
ing is dainty, and the type lines are neatly diminutive. 

As a millinery store is unlike an office in which are 
maps and blue prints and legal documents, so typogra- 
pliy for these two purposes should be unlike. Example 26 
is a page severely plain and non-sentimental. The types 
are merely to tell something in a blunt manner. There 
is needed no touch of decoration or color to interest the 
reader, because those who read it would do so whatever 
the treatment. This is the only example in the present 
chapter in which the advertising element is unimportant. 
The page is commonplace because it need not be any- 
thing else. 

From the surveyor's office our journey of instruction 
takes us into a church during an elaborate Easter ser- 
vice. Light filtered of its brightness by stained glass 
windows ; high-pointed Gothic arches pointing toward 
the dome ; soft organ-music — all these create an atmos- 
phere of solemnity and harmony. A program or pamph- 
let for use during a church service should be as appro- 
priate to the environment as a Book of Common Prayer or 
Bible. Typographic treatment good as given in Examples 
22, 26 or 28 would be ridiculous for a church program. 
Example 27-a shows a page historically appropriate. The 




type-face is peculiarly fitting because of its pointed foim, 
and also for the reason that a letter of similar design was 
used by medieval scribes on ecclesiastical books (see Ex- 
ample 27-b). Tiie crossed rules, which should be printed 
in orange-red, are adapted from the guide lines as made 
by the scribes for marking the position of a page on the 
siieet. 

When a holiday crowd is gathered, dignity is put aside 
and all enter into the festive spirit of the occasion. Here 
is the motive for the typographic treatment of a booklet 
or catalog of decorative materials as presented by Ex- 
ample 28. It would be an excessive emphasis of appro- 
riateness to print such a page in a combination of bright 
red and blue. The colors should be softened. The page 
would look well printed in a deep blue with a flat blue 
tint overprinting the star border. 

There is room for improvement in the support typog- 
raphers give artists in the production of booklets and 
catalogs. In many cases title-pages are constructed with 
no regard to the motive suggested by the design on the 
cover. Bibliophiles .judge a book not only by the excel- 
lence of its execution, but by the harmonious unity that 
may be expressed by every detail, from the literary con- 
tents to the last bit of tooling worked on the cover. The 
type, ornamentation, paper, ink, margins, leather, the ar- 
rangement of the title-page and the cover treatment, all 
must be selected and utilized in expression of a dominant 
central motive. The same 
rule presents the key to good 
typography in job work. Ex- 
ample 2!) shows tlie Colonial 
arch adapted as the border 
of a booklet cover. The art- 
ist gives this treatment to 
the cover becau.'^e of the 
motive suggested by the 
name Colonial Trust Com- 
pany," and when the title- 
page is set it would be a mis- 
take not to use some Colonial 
arrangement. Example 30 
blends with Example 29 and 
EXAMPLE 29 IS modified from the old Col- 

The Colonial arch onial title-page treatment 

just enough to give it a mod- 
ern appearance without sacrificing the old-time atmos- 
phere. The border suggests both the widely-spaced rules 
of the Colonial printers and the architectural pillars of 
Example 29. No letter spacing is used, despite the temp- 
tation offered. 

Discussion of the subject of harmony and approi)riate- 
ness could be extended much further than is allowed by 
the limits of this chapter. Pages could be filled with 
descriptions of instances in which the compositor had 
erred in treating typography and ornamentation inhar- 
moniously or too literally appropriate. The use of angelic 
ornaments on Y. M. C. A. printing, where something 
more substantial is desirable ; the double-meaning that 
may be read into the use of a horseshoe ornament on a 
printer's letterhead ; the placing of illustrations of live 
fish, lobsters and animal food on banquet programs — these 
are a few of the things that might be mentioned. 

Orators owe success as much to words unspoken as to 
words spoken. The more proficient an illustrator be- 
comes, the fewer strokes will he make in forming a pic- 
ture. The better the typographer, the more restraint will 
he exercise in ornamenting or coloring a piece of print- 
ing. This quality of restraint is especially useful in decid- 
ing what is and what is not appropriate; in decorating a 
page of type, a small leaf ornament is sometimes to be 
preferred to a large illustration of a plant or tree. 



KNIGHTS AND THEIR 
MAIDS OF CAMELOT 

SOME MYTHICAL RELATIONS CONCERNING A 
PREPOSTEROUS EPISODE IN THE LIFE OF LADY 
LANCELOT WHILE SOJOURNING AT CAMELOT 




KING ARTHUR'S COURT 



EXAMPLE 44 

A study in uniTortn tone 

ty Jolin Jepsoc 



TONE AND CONTRAST 



THIS chapter is a story of the alpha and omega of color 
— white and black. Since the creation of the world, 
when light first illumined the darkness, these two col- 
ors (if I may call them colors) have been emblematic of 
extremes — white, the symbol of purity and goodness, 
black of impurity and evil. Wliite and black represent 
extremes in color. Mixing of all the color rays of the solar 
spectrum produces white, and 
mixing of all the colors in the 
solid form of printing ink pro- 
duces black. From this contrast 
of white and black may be drawn 
a lesson in color. (Example 31.) 
Light represents warnitl:, dark- 
ness cold. As the colors are 
toward light they are warm : ;is 
they are toward darkness tiiey 
are cold. Red becomes warmer 
as it takes on an orange hue, ami 
colder as it takes on a purple 
hue. A warm color should be 
contrasted with a cold color— as 
orange with black. The further 
in tone the color is from blat k 
the more it contrasts with the 
black. As an illustration: 
Orange is more pleasing than a 
deeper shade of red as a com- 
panion color for black. Blue, 
jjurple or green, selected to be 
used with black, must be light- 
ened with white ink to get the 
desired contrast. 

White and black as a combin- 
ation is and ever has been popu- 
lar with writers, printers and 
readers. Fully nine-tenths of 
the newspapers, books, catalogs 
and other forms of reading mat- 
ter are printed with black ink 
on white stock. It is coincident 

that optical necessities require for best results in reading 
a black-and-white combination, and black ink and white 
paper are more cheaply and easily produced than other 
colors of ink and paper. 

This chapter is also an illustrated sermon on uniform- 
ity of tone or depth of color, in which is pointed out the 
value of bringing many spots of black or gray into har- 
monious relation. The es- ^ 

thetic importance of uni- 
formity of tone is univer- 
sally recognized. Choirs 
are robed in white and 
black ; fashion has its uni- EXAMPLE 31 

form clothing for the hours Contrast in color ai 

(471 




EXAMPLE 32 



mplc 



Page by F. W. Kl 



and functions of the day and night; theater choruses and 
the soldiery are living masses of uniform tone and color. 
As uniformity is important in these things, so is uniform- 
ity important in the tone of a page of printing. A type- 
page exhibiting a variegated mass of black and gray 
tones, is not unlike a squad of recruits in different stj'les 
of clothing marching irregularly ; while on the contrary 
a type-page (;f uniform tone and 
arrangement may be likened to 
a uniformly equipped regiment 
of soldiers marching with rhyth- 
mic tread. 

A page of display typogra- 
phy composed of a mixture of 
irregular gray and black tones 
is inexcusable in the sight of 
the artistic reader. As combina- 
tions of inharmonious type-faces 
are wrong, equally so are com- 
binations of incongruous tones. 
For the sake of contrast and 
variety in typography, art prin- 
ciples are too often ignored, the 
printer confessing to ignorance 
or lack of ingenuity. Contrast 
is necessary, but it may be had 
without sacrificing uniformity. 
Again making use of a military 
simile : soldiers are marched in 
platoons, companies, battalions 
and regiments that the monot- 
ony of solid formation may be 
broken; type is arranged in 
groups and paragraphs for sim- 
ilar reasons. While an abso- 
lutely solid page of type may 
present a pleasing tone, a slight 
break of the regularity is desir- 
able for reading purposes. Thus 
art makes concession to utility, 
but such concession should al- 
ways be granted reluctanth'. There is classic authority 
for the arrangement of the type lines in Example 20 
of the preceding chapter, but on the majority of print- 
ing jobs it is necessary to compromise with utility and 
emphasize important words, as in Example 19-a of the 
same chapter. The secret of producing artistic typogra- 
phy in these practical times is to pilot the ideas of the 
customer into artistic chan- 
nels ; emphasize the words 
he wants emphasized, but 
do it in a way that will re- 
sult in creditable typogra- 
phy. There is a right way 
and there is a wrong way 



I. Darmstadt 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




of arranging type, and too many typograpliers arrange 
it the wrong way and unjustly blame the customer for 
the result. 

The eflfectiveness of uniformly black tone on a back- 
ground of white is well illustrated on the beautiful book 
title shown as Example 32, in which even depth of 
color is consistently maintained. There is not a weak 
spot on the page ; border, ornament and lettering are of 
equal tone, and the white background is reflected thru 
the black print in agreeable contrast. The Germans are 
masters in their treatment of contrast and uniform tone, 
and he who bewails the limitations of black and white 
printing should ponder over the results shown by this 
specimen from over the sea. 

Now for a practical demonstration of the workings of 
the theory of uniform tone in typography. Example 3.S 
displays four ornaments, each of a different tone or 



EXAMPLE 35 

depth of color. One of the customs when constructing 
a booklet cover-page to be ornamented, is to first select 
an ornament that is appropriate in design and of proper 
proportions. Upon this ornament the page is constructed, 
and it dictates the characteristics of the border and of 
the type-face, and its tone determines the tone of the 
entire page. This is also true of a trade-mark cut fur- 
nished by the customer, altho such cuts are frequently 
so inartistic that compromising is necessary. 

Assuming that a cover-page is to be designed and that 
ornament a has been selected for use on the page, a rule 
border is chosen with double lines approximating the 
strength of those in the ornament. (Example 34.) To 
further reflect the tone and character of the ornament 
several appropriate border units are adapted as corner 
decorations. Selection of a type-face is next in order, 
and of those at hand Cheltenham capitals are chosen 
because of their open character. 




EXAMPLE 33 
depth of tone, used in the construction of the fo» 
Examples 34. 35. 36 and 37 



TONE AND CONTRAST 



49 








«0» «@» «(}»«()»«()» «@» «(}»«()» «o» 



EXAMPLE 36 

The dark gray tone of ornament b is approximated in 
the egg-and-dart architectural border of Example 35, 
and Boston Gothic further reflects the tone. As in Ex- 
ample 34, where the border is brought into relation with 
the ornament by the use of corner decorations, the line 



EXAMPLE 37 

around the inside of the border in Example 35 finds 
response in the lines around the ornament and serves to 
unify the design. 

Ornament c, outlined in a medium black tone, is best 
matched by constructing the bprder of rules that are 



life is one of the most difficult and at the same 
time fascinating themes that engage the human 
intellect. Says John Fiske, The materialistic 
assumption that there is no such state of things 
and that the life of the soul accordingly ends 
with the life of the body, is perhaps the most co- 
lossal instance of baseless assumption that is 
known to the history of philosophy, for we can- 
not scientifically demonstrate the immortality 
of the soul, but the soul accepts its own immor- 
tality, which is to say it is self-respecting and 
recognizes its fitness to live, hence its right to 
live. Immortality is more than continuous exist- 
ence, an everlasting continuation of our present 
life. Immortality is endless existence plus a 
great moral purpose, which contains a true and 
rational theodicy. From the initial dawning of 
life, we see all things working together toward 
one mighty goal, the evolution of the most spir- 
itualquilities which characterize human effort. 
Tennyson's love refused to acknowledge the 
end of love. It reasons out of the depths of our 
own conciousness, and this has always been the 
strongest defenseof the immortality of the soul. 
It indicates a supreme faith in the reasonable- 
ness of God's way of doing things, and it is the 
acceptance of this reasonableness that makes 



life is one of the most difficult and at the 
same time fascinating themes that engage 
the human mind. Says John Fiske, "The 
materialistic assumption that there is no 
such state of things and that the life of 
the soul accordingly ends with the life of 
the body, is perhaps the most colossal in- 
stance of baseless assumption that is known 
to the history of philosophy." We cannot 
scientifically demonstrate the immortality 
of the soul, but the soul accepts its own 
immortality, which is to say is self-respect- 
ing and recognizes its fitness to live, hence 
its right to live. Iraniortality is more than 
continuous existence, an everlasting con- 
tinuation of our present life. Immortality 
is endless existence plus a great moral 
purpose, which contains a true and rational 
theodicy. "From the first dawning of life, 
we see all things working together toward 
one mighty goal, the evolution of the most 
spiritual qualities which characterize human 



e type-face is used on both pages; the 



50 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




strong and clear that reading may be made easy. The 
artist-printer lessens the contrast between print and 
paper by printing with gray ink on gray stock, brown 
ink on light brown stock, and so forth. The utility 
printer gets the maximum of contrast by printing with 
black ink on white stock. As printing is both art and 
business some compromise must be made, and it is this : 
On two-color printing have all reading matter in the 
stronger color and subdue the color of the decoration to 
lessen the contrast between the paper and the print of 
the reading portion of the page (Example 20 of the pre- 
vious chapter illustrates this point). Black print on white 
paper is made artistic by impressing the print firmly on 
antique paper. This roots the print to the paper, and 
the result is more idealistic than that presented by the 
print daintily set upon the surface of glossy, enameled 
papers. 

Lack of artistic feeling among typographers and cus- 
tomers is responsible for unpleasant contrasts in tone. 
A dense black illustration or initial will be set in a page 
of light gray reading matter, or type of black tone will 
be used on a page with an illustration of light lines. 
Great contrast in any detail of typography is not art but 
eccentricity ; this statement may be made plain by a 
comparison. One winter's day when the conventional 
folk of New York were wearing clothing of a somber 
hue, they were startled by the appearance among them 
of Mark Twain in a suit of white. Six months later the 
humorist's garb would have excited no comment, but 
the black clothed mass of humanity around him em- 
phasized the whiteness of his attire, and the conspicu- 
ousness thus produced separated him from his surround- 
ings and made him an object of curiosity. Such things 
are done by great men to show their disregard for cus- 



bler 



.nifoi 



about the same width as the lines of the ornament, and 
separating these rules in the open style of the ink-ball 
illustrations. (Example 36.) Caslon text is chosen as 
the type-face because its pointed strokes are reflected in 
the points of the leaves. There is also a similarity in 
the tone of the letters and leaves. Color could be intro- 
duced into this design by filling the open parts of the 
border and ornament with a suitable tint. This plan of 
connecting the border with another part of the design 
serves to make the page complete, to give unity — a 
quality that is all-important in art. This point may be 
illustrated comparatively in this way : When mounting 
pictures, if the principal color of a picture is brown, by 
selecting a cover stock or cardboard of the same shade 
of brown, the coloi- of the picture is reflected and picture 
and mount are blended in complete unity. 

The dense black tone of ornament d is duplicated in 
the dark-line border filled with black decorative units. 
(Example 37.) Chaucer Text being of the proper black 
tone is used for the type lines. The tone of this example 
approximates that of the German page. Example 32. 

These four examples afford an interesting study in 
uniform tone. 

As the tone or depth of color increases from the 
light gray of Example 34 to the dense black of Ex- 
ample 37, it will be observed that the contrast between 
the print and the paper background also increases. 
This leads to the subject of contrast. What amount of 
contrast is needed on the ideal job of printing? There 
is conflict between art and utility on this question, but 
there need be none. Art demands that the print be a 
part of the paper upon which it is impressed, much as 
the plant is a part of the earth in which its roots are 
buried, and utility demands that the print shall be 







an' she lulu em roun' erboul, 




•T»cll I don' see how dc chillun evah 




keeps Tom hollahin' out. 




Den she iifs em up head downards. so s 




de^ wonc gil livah-grown, 




Bui dey snoozes des ez peaceful n a 




hza d on a stone. 




W en h,t s mos „,gh time fu' w.kin' on 




de dawn o' jedgmenl day. 




Seems lak I kin hyeah ol Gabiel lay hii 




trumpet down an' say, 




•• Who dat walkin' 'roun so easy, down 




on earf ermong de dead ? " — 
■Twill he I.izy up a-tu'nm' of de chilkin ''ffjl^f: 
m de bed. Ifll/'^''''' 




■*-■• ... ^f^'^f^^^ 




■-—^ 





EXAMPLE 41 
The spotted black tone of the border is reflected in 

text. The tone is made uniform by printing the bordei 
light color. Page by University Press, Cambridge 




ANTIQyi VNIVERSAM NATVRAM SVB 
PERSONA PANIS DILIGENTISSIME DESCRIP. 
SERVNT. HVIVS GENERATIONEM IN DV^ 
BIO RELINQyVNT. ALII ENIM ASSERVNT 
EVM A MERCVRIO GENITVM ; ALII LONGE 
ALIAM GENERATIONS FORMAM EI TRIBV^ 
VNT; AIVNT ENIM PROCOS VNIVERSOS 
CVM PENELOPE REM HABVISSE, EX QyO 
PROMISCVO CONCVBITV PANA COMMV. 
NEM FILIVM ORTVM ESSE ATQVE IN HAG 
POSTERIORE NARRATIONE, PROCVLDV. 
BIO. ALIQVI EX RECENTIORIBVS VETERI 
FABVL^ NOMEN PENELOPES IMPOSVERE, 
QVOD ET FREQVENTER FACIVNT, CVM 
NARRATIONES ANTIQyiORES AD PERSO. 
NAS ET NOMINA IVNIORA TRADVCVNT, 
IDQVE QyANDOQVE ABSVRDE ET INSVL. 
SE; VT HIC CERNERE EST; CVM PAN EX 
ANTIQV ISSIMIS DIIS, ET LONGE ANTE TEM. 
PORA VLYSSIS FVERIT, ATQVE INSVPER 
PENELOPE OB MATRONALEM CASTITA. 
TEM ANTIQVITATI VENERABILIS HABE. 
RETVR. NEQVE PRyETERMITTENDA EST 
TERTIA ILLA GENERATIONIS EXPLICATIO: 
QyiDAM ENIM PRODIDERVNT EVM lOVIS 




EXAMPLE 43 

Uniform tone in classic typograpny 

Page by Bruce Rogers 



TONE AND CONTRAST 



51 



CORBETT 


& CROWLEY 


PRINTERS AND BOOKBINDERS 





EDITIONS 1 1 BOOKS 




NOS. 24 AND 26 LOWELL AVENUE 
HYDE PARK, NEW YORK 



EXAMPLE 42 
tration and type-face is he 
School of Printing. Bost 



: blended. Card by 



torn and by others because they are foolish or are adver- 
tising something, but it is common-sense right from the 
Bible to do, when in Rome, as the Romans do (meaning 
that printed work which both attracts and repels by its 
gaudy, unconventional appearance is not nearly so good 
or desirable as the more conventional printed work which 
tastefully and quietly presents its message in subdued 
tones). One man will become widely known because he 
has dived from a big bridge or gone over Niagara Falls ; 
another because he has painted a great picture or cut a 
great statue. The one thrills, the other impresses. It 
may be easier to produce typography which attracts at- 
tention by contrast, but such results do not bring the 
lasting satisfaction that comes from typography thought- 
fully and artistically done. 

Several other points are suggested by Examples 34 to 
37. A page for a cover should be of darker tone than a 
page to be used as a title inside the book ; this where the 
body-type of the inside pages is of the customary gray 
tone. A cover placed upon a book to protect it, suggests 
strength and the typography of the cover should con- 
form to this suggestion. The reason for the uniform tone 
presented by each of the four examples above mentioned 
is another important point. Were the border darker than 
the ornament and type lines, the ornament darker than 
the border and type lines, or the type lines darker than 
the ornament and border, there would not be uniformity 
of tone— the quality so important to good typography. 

The tone of a massed page is of vital importance in 
the typography of a book, and a happy medium is some- 
where between the underspaced black type-page of 
Morris and the overspaced hair-line type-page against 
which the Morris page was a protest. Examples 38 and 
39 show the manner in which the tone of a page may be 
controlled by spacing. In Example 38 the page is thinly 
spaced between words and lines and in Example 39 
the page is doubly spaced, presenting two extremes of 
spacing. 

The tone of the pen-and-ink outline illustration in 
Example 40 is admirably duplicated in the typographical 
treatment accorded the page. The result would not 
have been as satisfactory if there had been no quad lines 
to break the solidity of the page. 

The spotted black tone of the decorative border on 
Example 41 is reflected in the typography of the page, 
a result obtained by using a bold face body-type and 
separating the words with a liberal amount of space. 
However the tone would not be equal printed in one 
color, but by printing the border in a lighter color the 
tones are equalized. Here is a suggestion for obtaining 



even tones. Where one portion of the page is bolder 
than the other, print it in a lighter shade of ink, or if 
any part of a type-page must be in a lighter color, set 
that part in a type-face of darker tone (Example 47). 

Job printers should be interested in Example 42, as it 
is a good presentation of the theory of uniform tone. 
The effect of the open-line illustration is duplicated in 
the spaced Jenson capitals and cross lines. The result 
would have been even better had the small groups on 
either side of the illustration been slightly letterspaced 
and the line at the bottom spaced less. 

Example 43, on the insert, is a classic interpretation 
of uniform tone. The architectural design is formed of 
lines about the same strength as the strokes of the type- 
face and the massed capital letters admit light sufficient 
to give them a tone near to that of the open-spaced 
border. 

Example 44 (insert) is a superb blend of tone and 
characteristics. The delicate light-gray tone of the 
Camelot type-face is closely matched in the decoration 
and border, and altogether this is a perfect exemplifica- 
tion of the subject of this chapter. It is seldom that an 
artist so carefully considers the characteristics of a type- 
face and reproduces these characteristics in so admirable 
a manner as was done by Mr. Jepson in this instance. 

Initials and headpieces should approach closely the tone 
of the type-page of which they are parts. Example 45 
shows such a combination, with the tone of the decora- 
tion just a trifle darker than that of the text portion. An 
initial has other duties to perform than merely to look 
pretty; it must direct the eye to the beginning of the 
reading matter. In the manuscript books of the Middle 



NOTE 

^^r^^HIS volume of papers, tinconneded 
\l^ ^ "^ '''^>' ^''^' '^ '^'^ ^^ better to read 
ic^=^^ through from the beginning, rather 
than dip into at random. ^ certain thread 
of meaning binds them. (Memories of child- 
hood and youth, portraits of those who have 
gone before its in the battle, — taken together, 
they build up a face that "I have laved long 
since and lost awhile, ' ' the face of what was 
once myself. This has come by accident; I had 
no design at first to be autobiographical ; I 
was but led away by the charm of beloved 
memories and by regret for the irrevocable 
dead; and when my own young face (which 
is a face of the dead also) began to appear in 
the well oiby a hind of magic, I was the first 
to be surprised at the occurrence. 

(My grandfather the pious child, my father 
the idle eager sentimental youth, I have thus 
unconsciously exposed. Of their descendant, 
the person of to-day, [wish to keep the secret: 



EXAMPLE 45 
tial and headpiece is lightened t 
Page by Heintzemann Press, B 



52 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



MAKE ALL PARTS 

UNIFORM IN TONE 

WHEN ONLY ONE 

COLOR IS USED 

ON A JOB OF PRINTING 



aaaaQ.aaaaaaaaaaaQ.aaaaaaQaa 



EXAMPLE 46 

Ages, written without paragraphs, the starting point of a 
new thought was denoted by an initial more or less elab- 
orate. The utilitarian purpose thus served by the initial 
is reason for making it a trifle darker than the remainder 
of the page. However, if there is great contrast in tone, 
the page will be difficult to read because of the initial 
claiming too much attention. The efl^ect would be much 
like attempting to listen to one speaker while another 
is calling and beckoning. 

Every rule has its exception and I wish to record one 
in the matter of uniform tone. On a page composed of 
display lines and a large amount of reading matter it is 
an offence against legibility to set the reading matter in 
a type-face of black tone to correspond with the display 
lines, considerable contrast being necessary in such cases 













DISPLAY LINES 

IN TONE SHOULD MATCH 
THE TONE OF THE BORDER 


T TAVE no use for excuses for not 
1 1 doing a thing — there is no ex- 
"*■ cuse for excuses. They weaken 
character; they make a person after 
awhile a walking apology instead of a 
man who has a right to hold up his 
head and walk fearlessly and have his 
word count in council. The world has 
no use for a weakling, with a ready 
tongue for excuses, but unwilling hands 
for work. The best word of advice I 
could give to a young man starting out 
in any business is, avoid the necessity 
for the first excuse. Master the first 
task that is given to you, and master 
the next — don't let them master you. 







I *»¥¥¥»¥¥¥¥¥¥<¥¥¥¥¥¥ WW WtWW W 



EMPHASIZE PARTS IN 

LIGHT COLOR 

WHEN TWO SHADES 
ARE USED 
|J; ON A JOB OF PRINTING 



EXAMPLE 47 

to make reading easy. (Example 48.) Notwithstanding 
this exception made in the case of reading matter, there 
is need of retaining uniform tone between display lines 
and border. 

If a catalog is illustrated (and the majority are) it is 
important to have the illustrations prominent on the 
page, sacrificing tone to utility. The custom is to print 
the illustrations in a dense black and the remainder of 
the page in a gray or brown, causing the illustrations to 
stand out in relief and plainly exhibiting the details — an 
important point when machinery is depicted. 

In advertising composition it is seldom possible to 
have an even tone on the entire page. The New York 
Herald advertising pages are unique in this respect. 
Outline type-faces are used, and all illustrations are re- 
drawn in outline before they arc published. This serves 
to give a uniformly gray tone to the pages, but the ad- 
vertisers are not enthusiastic over the effects. While 
other newspapers may not be able to have a uniform 
page tone, it is possible to have each advertisement pre- 
sent a tone uniform as regards displayed parts and bor- 
der, and the good typographer will secure it. 

Irregular letter-spacing by imitators of Bradley has 
been the cause of many pages of unsatisfactory tone. In 
a displayed page where one line is spaced between let- 
ters, all lines should be similarly spaced. Example 49 
presents a decidedly unconventional letterhead by reason 
of its letter-spacing, but it illustrates the point that all 
lines should be spaced equally. It may be well to warn job 
compositors inclined to imitate the style of this heading. 
There are few customers who would concede any merit 
to such an arrangement, and it should be used sparingly. 







THE 






B O O K B V 


I L D E R S 


SHOP 


2 6 


EAST 


13th 


STREET 


Tele 


phone 


2829 


i8th 


Street 




P R 


I N T I 


N G 




Th 


o m a s M 


aitland CI 


eland 




S u p e 


rintenden 


t 



should match the border 



EXAMPLE 49 
Equal spacing is necessary to obta 



GASTRONOMICAL 
ARGUMENTATION 




EPICUREAN SOCIETY 



EXAMPLE 58 

In -whicli tte ornament, border and 

type-race are in proportion 



13 



5 




W K,c^gas^=^ VW^-iS^— ^y-T 



PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 



SYMMETRY is necessary to beauty. This law of esthet- 
ics is as applicable to typography as to sculpture and 
architecture. Proportion and balance — the things that 
make for symmetry in typography — are obtained only 
by giving the work more attention than seems necessary 
to the average producer and buyer of printing. 

Why should the printer worry about esthetics — about 
symmetrj? What has art to do with printing, anyway.'' 
Questions such as these find too frequent voice in the 
printing trade, coming from the employee whose inter- 
est and ambitions 
end when he 'gets 
the scale," and the 
employer who is 
satisfied merely to 
deliver so many 
pounds of paper and 
ounces of ink for so 
much money. Pity 
the man whose work 
is drudgery and who 
denies that art and 
beauty are meant 
for him. He has his 
antithesis in the 
man who, appreci- 
ating the higher 
blessings, neglects 
to give value to the 
more common and 
practical things. 

There have al- 
ways been two op- 
posing classes — in 
religion, politics, 
art, music, business. 
On all questions one 
portion of humanity 
is "for" and the 

other "against," mostly because of the influence of en- 
vironment upon tastes and interests. Mozart's and Beet- 
hoven's music charms and enthuses and also lulls to 
sleep. One class should try to understand the other. 
Each has good reasons for its preferences, but none at 
all for its prejudices. The painter Rubens gathering in- 
spiration in the courts of royalty, portrayed luxury and 
magnificence. Millet, painting in a barn, pictured pov- 
erty, sorrow and dulled minds. What pleased one found 
little sympathy in the other. During the Middle Ages 
learned men talked, wrote and thought in Latin, and 
when it was proposed to translate the Scriptures into the 
language of the masses these men held up their hands 
in horror. 

Today the book printer looks upon the job printer 
much as the Roman patrician looked upon the plebian, 



EXAMPLE 50 



ng the page 
uld measure 
ts width 



as something inferior. The book printer plans to please 
the few. His highest ideal in bookmaking is a volume 
with uncut leaves ornamenting the book shelves of the 
collector. The job printer's mission is to be all things 
to all men, to fill the needs of the hour. He prints the 
refined announcements of art schools one day and an- 
other day finds him placing wood type to tell the story 
of a rural sale of articles too numerous to mention." 

There should be more tolerance between the book 
printer and the job printer, and also between the printer 
who regards his call- 
ing as a business and 
the printer who re- 
gards it as an art. 
The employer and 
employee who con- 
sider printing only a 
means to an end and 
that end money, are 
as near right and as 
near wrong as they 
who produce art 
printing for art's 
sake and forget the 
pay envelop and the 
customer's check. 
The first starve 
their souls, the last 
their bodies. 

The printer who 
does things artistic- 
ally in an econom- 
ical manner "strikes 
twelve" (in the 
slang of Elbert 
Hubbard). Printing 
need not be shorn 
of beauty to be 
profitable to both 
printer and customer, tho beauty too conspicuous turns 
attention from the real purpose of the printed job — 
which, in the case of a booklet, is the message the words 
convey. An equestrian statue of Napoleon should fea- 
ture the great conqueror, not the horse, but would be 
incomplete with the horse left out. 

Art is essential to printing; so are Uncle Sam's speci- 
mens of steel engraving. The more art the printer 
absorbs the larger should grow his collection of these en- 
gravings. Study of art arouses ambition ; ambition brings 
better and harder work. It reveals in the typographer 
the difference between mere lead-lifting and the artistic 
selection and arrangement of types. The boy who sweeps 
the floor and does his best is nearer art-heaven than he 
who sets type and cares not how he does it. 

The printer who determines to learn about art — who 




EXAMPLE 51 
nother method of det 
length. The length of the page i 
measure fifty per cent more than 
its width. These examples 

portionate margins 



54 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




makes continued effort to 
find the reason why one 
man's work is good and an- 
other's is not, will be sur- 
prised and gratified at the 
new world which unfolds it- 
self as he studies. He will 
find that altho having eyes, 
he has really seen only as 
he has appreciated. There 
is no easy road to the ap- 
preciation of the beautiful. 
Art does not consist merely 
of a set of rules to be ob- 
served ; there are few beacon 
lights placed by those who 
have trod the road. Beyond 
a certain point the novice 
must depend upon intuition 
or "feeling." Great paint- 
ers have been asked their 
method of producing master- 
|)ieces, and have been unable 
to explain. 



EXAMPLE 53 

which vertical lines 

predominate 



In introducing the subject 
of "Proportion" it is well 
first to dispose of book pages. 
In olden times the sizes of books were known by the 
number of folds to a sheet of jjaper about 18 x S-t inches. 
A book made from such sheets, folded once into two 
leaves, was known as a folio volume and measured about 
12 X 18 inches. Folded twice into four leaves, a quarto, 
measuring 9x12 inches. Folded three times into eight 
leaves, an octavo, measuring 6x9 inches. Paper is now 
made in a variety of sizes, which allow of individual 
preferences being satisfied in the making of a book. 
However the sizes do not depart far from the rule of 
proportion which holds that the width of the page should 
be two-thirds its length. 

Examples 50 and 51 illustrate two widely-used meth- 
ods of determining page lengths. By the first method 
(Example 50) the page should measure diagonally twice 
its width. In this instance the width being eight picas, 
the diagonal measurement is sixteen picas. By the sec- 
ond method the length of the page should measure fifty 
per cent more than its width. Here the width being 
eight picas the length is twelve picas. These measure- 
ments may or may not include the run- 
ning titles or folios. 

If only small margins are possible, 
the page (exclusive of running title) 
should be about centered, with a slight 
inclination toward the head and back. 
But when margins are reasonably ample 
the page should set liberally toward 
the head and back ; the margins of the 
head and back (exclusive of the running 
title) should be about the same, the 
outer side margin should be fifty per 
cent more than the back margin, and 
the foot margin one hundred per cent 
more than the back margin. Various 
explanations of this rule have been put 
forward, a few of which are: The old 
book-owner making marginal notations 
as he read, needed wide margins for 
the purpose. Early manuscript books 
were bound on wood, and this wood was 
extended at the foot and used to hold 
the book when reading. Two pages 
being exposed to view were treated as 




one page, 
much as 
double col- 
u m n s are 
now treated 
by placing 
one closely 
beside the 
other. The 
principal 
reason, 
however, is 
that the ar- 
rangement 
has the 
sanction of 
long usage 
and the ap- 
I)roval of 
the best 
book-mak- 
ers since 
books were 
written. 



TYPES OF 

MEDIUM 

WIDTH 



^ 



EXAMPLE 55 
lal page shape, with type 



The job 
printer, it 
is reason- 
able to suppose, is more interested in proportion as it 
refers to display typography. He asks: What relation 
has type, in the shape of its face, to the page of which 
it is a part? And the answer is: A type-face should con- 
form in the proportion of its letters to the proportion of 
the page. Let us thoroly understand this. In Example 
52 there are shown three widths of type — condensed, 
medium and extended. The type of medium width is 
more used than the condensed 
or extended kind, because most 
pages have a proportion such 
as Example 55. From view- 
points of both economy and 
art, the type-face of medium 
EXAMPLE 52 width should be given prefer- 

Three widths of type-faces encc when Selecting type 
equipment. Condensed types 
are properly proportioned for use as headings in the 
narrow columns of newspapers and for narrow folders 
and booklets. 

Many of the laws which are necessary to good typog- 
raphy also govern the other arts. As an instance, in 
architecture it is requisite that a tall and narrow build- 
ing contain a preponderance of vertical lines, a feature 
most noticeable in church buildings of Gothic style 
(Example 54). Because the extent of vertical lines is 
greater than that of horizontal ones in a condensed type- 
face, such a face is proper for a long and narrow page 
(Example 5.S). The proportion of page shown by Ex- 
ample 55 is about 
that met with most 
frequently. Here 
the extent of ver- 
tical lines is in a 
slight majority, 
but it is interest- 
ing to observe that 
in Example 56 
where the page is 
more wide than 
long, the extent of 
horizontal lines is 
greater than that 
of vertical ones. 






PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 



55 



EXTENDED 
TYPES 



ec 



IS' 



It is not always possible to follow out in every detail 
the requirements of proportion. Architects must sacri- 
fice much in the interests of utility and in deference to 
the wishes of their clients. Printers must do likewise, but 
as a rule they travel farther from true art principles than 
do architects. Consider the contrasting proi)ortions of 
the structures in Examples 
.54 and 57. In Example 54 
notice that the openings have 
been made to conform to the 
general proportions, and that 
vertical lines have been mul- 
tiplied to emphasize narrow- 
ness and hight. As a con- 
trast, in Example 57 obser\'e 
the width of the oi)enings; 
how it blends with the gen- 
eral proportion of this struc- 
ture. Now to ascertain that 
typography parallels archi- 
tecture compare Example 53 
with 54, and 5(3 with 57. 

An exaggerated idea of 
the relation of lines to pro- 
portion is furnished by Ex- 
amples 62 (see insert) and 63. 
The vertical lines of Example 

62 run with the length of the 
page as smoothly as a canoe 
floating down stream. The 
horizontal lines of Example 

63 are irritating in their dis- 
regard of proportion. For 




EXAMPLE 59 




EXAMPLE 60 
Tlie type-faces of these two examples 



the eye to take in at a glance both the page lines run- 
ning vertically and the rules running horizontally is as 
difficult as watching a three-ring circus. Examples 59 
and 60 also illustrate this point. 

I have prepared in Example 58 (see insert) a page in 
which not only are the ornament, type-face and page- 
design in proportion, but the characteristics of the orna- 
ment are reflected in the border, and the tone is uniform. 

Irregularity of form is valuable in breaking monotony, 
and in the higher forms of art is essential, but as con- 
tained in Example 61 this feature is inharmonious. Be- 
fore experimenting with variety or getting agitated 
about monotony the typographer should perfect himself 
in the things that make for regularity. When he learns 
to set a job that is harmonious and in proportion then it 
may be well to introduce irregularity — in homeopathetic 
doses. 

There is much uncertainty manifested among typogra- 
phers as to the propor- 
tionate strength of dis- ^^ 
play lines on a page. ''~~ 
A type line is propor- 
tionately large or small 
as it contrasts with its 
environment. Gulliver 
was a giant when 
among pigmies. The 
foremost citizen of a 
country town is con- 
siderably reduced in 
importance when he 
rubs elbows with the 
big men of the cities. 
The homely adage that 
"a big frog in a small 
puddle is a small frog 
in a big puddle," is 
applicable to typogra- 
phy. A display line sur- 
rounded by other type 
lines (Example 64) 
must be made larger 
or by strengthened 
strokes made bolder 
than when alone on 
the page (Example 65). 
The old City Hall in 
New York is claimed 

to be the most beautiful work of architecture in the city, 
but is ridiculously out of proportion with the towering 
office buildings sur- 
rounding it. 

Examples 66, 67 
and 68 are studies 
in the proportion of 
a type-face to the 
page of which it is a 
part. In Example 66 
the page is largely 
covered with type, 
treatment that is 
necessary on poster, 
dodger and other 
printed matter that 
must force its pres- 
ence upon the pub- 
lic. In Example 67 
the page consists 
mostly of blank 
space, the type 
standing modestly 






MISMATED 
TYPES 





56 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



What is thereto be done that the calling of Gutenberg, Aldus 
and Estienne may again resume its place among the fine arts? 

The American Printer 

finds the answer to this question in education— bringing 
knowledge to the apprentice, to the journeyman, to the 
executive, to the proprietor. It has been said that one should 
either play or work, but the truth is that art is work done 
as play, work done for the love of it, pleasure in accom- 
plishment. Where a man's heart is, there is art. Love, 
effort, ambition, — all these have to do with art printing. 



The American Printer 



lade larger thar 



and apologetically in the midst of that space. This treat- 
ment is proper on dainty works of poetry or when the 
demands of extreme refinement are to be satisfied. Ex- 
ample 68 is the happy medium," the compromise — a 
strength of display that will be satisfactory in almost 
every case. This method of arriving at correct treat- 
ment emphasizes the need in the typographer of a 
judicial as well as an artistic temperament. The wise 
judge knows that truth is about midway between the 
claims of opposing counsel. 

Balance is another important subject, as it has a big 
share in making typography good or bad. The builder 
works with plumb-line and spirit-level that his walls may 
be in perfect balance, tho sometimes he is tempted, as 
the printer is tempted, to work away from the center of 
gravity. In Italy there is a building, an architectural 
curiosity — the leaning tower of Pisa (Example 73) in the 
construction of which gravity has been defied to the 
limit, and in Canada only recently, a bridge in course of 
construction on this gravity-defying principle, fell in a 
mass into the river. In typography, safety from blunder 
lies in type lines horizontally centered. Will Bradley, 
experimenting with out-of-the-center balance, ^both suc- 
ceeded and failed. Compositors imitating him generally 
fail. Example 76 is a Bradley page, in which he was 
fairly successful. Balance is saved by the type-lines in 



the upper left corner and by the border surrounding the 
page. Examples 69 and 75 show out-of-center balance 
adapted to a business card and a booklet cover. 

While horizontally the center is the point of perfect 
balance, vertically it is not. Stick a pin thru the very 
center of an oblong piece of cardboard and twirl the 
card ; when movement ceases the card will not hang up- 
righ tly . 
Mark off 
the card in 
three equal 
sections 
and stick 
the pin 
thru the 
horizontal 
center of 
the line 
separating 
the upper 
two -thirds. 
After being 

twirled the card will cease to move, in a perfectly up- 
right position. Example 71 shows a word placed in exact 
center, yet it appears to be low. Example 72 shows a 
line above center at the point of vertical balance. On a 
title-page, business card, and on most jobs of printing 



THE LOUNSBOROUGH 
PHOTOGRAPH STUDIO 

Artistic Portraits in Oil 



316 

Main Street 
Pittsfield 



EXAMPLE 69 
r balance, adapted t( 






The 

American 
Printer 

Large 



EXAMPLE 66 
Type proportionately too large foi 
average page 




EXAMPLE 67 
■oportionately too sn 
average page 



The 

American 

Printer 



Medium 



EXAMPLE 68 
This proportion about right for the 
average page 



.♦1 i«. jM i*i i«j iH m to M ^j t*i ty f*i 
M s«u M i« :- ■ P?l fe 




1*1 .•J fej ^»i W l*j i*j 1*1 L»u ^!*L m m I* 
,*. ii h k m m b m m i% m m & 
r«i ui M i«j 1*1 m M hi m m m m im 



EXAMPLE 62 

la 'wIucL tLe linefl of tte design run in 

the proper direction 

Page by WiU Bradley 



PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SPACING 



SAINT ANDREWS 

CHURCH 

WILMINGTON 



the weight should 
come at this point. 
The principal line, 
or group, should 
provide strength 
necessary to give 
balance. Example 
70 presents a page 
with type group 
and ornament 
placed unusually 
high. The typog- 
rapher responsible 
was, like Bradley, 
testing balance to 
the limit. 

Sometimes the 
customer gets a" 
notion he wants a 
type-line placed 
diagonally across 
the page in a man- 
ner like Example 
74'. Such arrange- 
ments generally 
show lack of imag- 
ination and are 
crudely freakish. 
There are so many 
orderly ways of ar- 
ranging type that 
such poorly bal- 
anced specimens 
are deplorable. 
Spacing is seemingly one of the little things — merely 
incidental to the mechanical practice of typography. 
When the apprentice compositor is told to divide his 
spaces evenly among all the words in a line; not to thin 
space one line and double-thick-space another: to trans- 
pose a two-point lead, or make some other, what to him 
may appear to be trivial alteration in spacing, he judges 
his instructor to be over-particular. Yet the proper ap- 
portionment of space on a page deter- 
mines the tone and the balance and 

aids in giving proportion and emphasis. 
In type-making when a font of type 
is designed, not only is each letter con- 
sidered separately, but in combination 
with every other letter of the alphabet, 
that when the letters are assembled into 
words space may be evenly distributed. 
L. B. Benton in designing his Clearface 
Bold gave special attention to this fea- 
ture and has demonstrated that legibiity 
is increased 




EXAMPLE 71 



o be lo> 



balar 



EXAMPLE 70 

lich the upper type group is uni 

high. Page by D. B. Updike 



of spacing is particularly prominent (Ex- 
ample 79-a). To partly overcome this 
irregularity the companion letters 
should be spaced as shown in 79-b. 
When the letters A T occur together, 
and the space between them should be 
decreased, it is necessary to file the 
upper right of the type A and the 
lower left of the type t. 

With roman type-faces, important 
words are usually emphasized by italics 
or small capitals. The Germans, using 
for body purposes a text letter which 
has no italic or small capitals, space the 
letters to get emphasis (Example 80-a). 
Letter-spaced words thus used look 
neater than italic, and the idea may 
well be adapted to roman types (Ex- 
ample 80-b). 

The relation of lines to proportion, ] 




EXAMPLE 73 





With proper 
space distri- 


% 


bution. Be- 


cause of the 


excessive 


A 


open space it 


^ 
^ 


contains, the 


capital L 


gives the 


^ 


most trouble 


of any letter 


"y^ 


used as an 


tp 


initial. As 




part of the 




word "Mil- 


EXAMPLE 74 


linery"' the 


A disorderly arrangement 


irregularity 



T\^t Jbrtool of 
yrtnttttg N 



t 




EXAMPLE 75 
t balances the design 
by School of Printing. Bost, 



EXAMPLE 76 

Out-of-center balance. Page by 

Will Bradley 



58 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



And Noah was six hundred years old when the 
flood of waters was upon the earth. And Noah 
went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' 
wives with him, into the ark, because ofthe wa- 
ters of the flood. Of clean beasts, and o 
that are not clean, and of fowls, and o 
thing that creepeth upon the ground, there 
went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, 
maleand female, as God had commandedNoah. 
And it came to pass after the seven days, that 
the waters ofthe flood were upon the earth. In 
the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the 
second month, on the seventeenth day of the 
month, on the same day were all the fountains 
of the great deep broken up, and the windows of 



Th< 



EXAMPLE 77 
effect of horizontal lines is 
spacing between words and 



wide spacing 



' MILLINERY 
*MILLINERY 



as i 1 1 u s - 
trated by 
Examples 
62 and 63, 
is also to be 
considered 
in the com- 
position of 
plain read- 
ing pages. 
Example 77 
shows how 
the effect 
of horizon- 
tal lines is 
given by 
narrow 
spacing 
between 
the words 
and wide 
spacing be- 
tween the 
lines. This 
gives a re- 
sult, like 
that of Ex- 
ample 63, contrary to the principles of proportion. How 
this maybe overcome is illustrated in Example 78, where 
there is the same 
amount of space be- 
tween words as be- 
tween lines. This 
treatment not only 
gives better propor- 
tion, but improves the 
tone of the page. 

Adapting this prin- 
ot the "L ciple to display com- 

position, Examples 81 
and 82 are enlightening. Example 81 shows the man- 
ner in which some years ago display lines were errone- 
ously distributed over the entire page, presenting in 
effect the 
faults of 
E xam p le 
77. The 
manner of 
rectifying 
these faults 
is demon- 
strated in 
Example 
82, where 
the lines 
are grouped 
at the point 
of balance 
in the up- 
per part of 
the page. 

The nar- 
row meas- 
ure to which 
these words 
are set ne- 
cessitates 
letter-spac- 
ing. There- 
EXAMPLE81 suiting ap- 

1 obsolete practice of spreading the pearance 
ines over the page is far from 



The 



Art and Practice 



of Typography 



for Compositors 



satisfactory 
yet it en- 
ables illus- 
trations to 
be grouped 
pleasingly 
and makes 
possible a 
squaring of 
the pages 
which could 
not be done 
otherwise. 
It is not 
always that 
results are 
as perfect 
as we desire 
them. In 
New Eng- 
land there 
is a printer 
who, in the example 78 

opinion of The effect of horizontal lines is avoided by having 
those fortu- ^'^ space between words approximate that 

natetohave between lines 

viewed his 

work, is producing typography classically perfect ; yet this 

man goes from his work at the close of the day almost dis- 



And Noah was six hundred years old when 
the flood of waters was upon the earth. 
And Noah went in, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him, into 
the ark, because of the waters of the flood. 
Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not 
clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that 
creepeth upon the ground, there went in 
two and two unto Noah into the ark, male 
and female, as God had commanded Noah. 
And it came to pass after the seven days, 
that the waters of the flood were upon the 
earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah's 
life, in the second month, on the seven- 
teenth day of the month, on the same day 
were all the fountains of the great deep 
broken up, and the windows of heaven 
were opened. And the rain was upon the 
earth forty days and forty nights. In the 
selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and 
Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and 
Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons 





« ♦ .frt 


,«„ .,. ™.m w .,.m .,u<len„ no. onl, to, . bu.to.« 










iZ«g 




TOlcSci. t.. IHcaiciu 




(ibo<l4Io>T<n lint, tn 






it, taS liotlugal 




a,"4ul.<fcVn"b.a"| 




., Kh.01. .nd im ., l.,o.d.nin, .h.„ id.., .h,.(i. 
















o.oho itnb OToo. 






ntoonb otS'" >tn 




^taolfSr'ilfuntoirt 


amll^^'^ix- 


Th. .n.t.uc.lon g.v.n In Ni.u.il Sc.nce d»l. 








on, iwlcfK Mft.m H 







EXAMPLE 80 
Emphasis obtained by letter-spacing, in lieu of italic 

couraged 

because of 
the faults 
that are evi- 
dent to his 



eye. The 
artist's 
ideal al- 
ways eludes 
him and it 
seems to 
him a hope- 
less chase, 
yet he con- 
tinues on 
lest he lose 
sight of it 
altogether. 
It is a good 
sign when 
one recog- 
nizes imper- 
fections ; it 
means that 
he is gain- 
ing ground 
on success. 



The 

Art and Practice 
of Typography 

A Manual 
for Compositors 



EXAMPLE 82 

The correct and modem practice of grouping the 

lines at the point of balance 




IN less than a century, the confines of the city of Buffalo 
have changed from the camping and hunting ground of 
the Senecas to the city second in importance in the Empire 
State, eighth in size and population in the United States, 
and one of the leading commercial cities of the world. 
The growth and progress of BufftJo has been largely due to : 
(I) its geographical location, the benefits flowing from the com- 
merce of the Great Lakes and of the Elrie CaneJ, and latterly 
from the vast railroad systems which extended their lines to this 
point to secure their share of its enormous commerce; (2) to 
the enterprise, progressiveness and public spirit of its citizens 
reflected through its chief commercial organization first known as 
the " Board of Trade " and now celebrating its semi-centennial 
as the " Chamber of Commerce." 

The first commercial organization was founded in 1814 soon 
after the destruction of the village of Buffalo by the British and 
their Indian allies; formed for their mutual protection, for the 
rebuilding of the village, and re-establishment of trade and com- 
merce. This was the second commercial organization to be 
formed in the country, being preceded only by the Chamber of 
Commerce of New York, chartered by the King in 1 768. 

This organization, few in numbers, was largely responsible for 
securing the western terminus of the Erie Canal at Buffalo rather 
than at Black Rock, between which villages in those days a 
keen rivalry existed. 

Early in the 40's the organization having lapsed bto a state 
of innocuous desuetude, Mr. Russel A. He3rwood, in January, 
1844, called together a number of the more influential and 
prominent citizens of Buffalo for the purpose of organizing a 
Board of Trade, and on January 1 6th of that year constituted 
the organization which has since been superseded by the 
Chamber of Commerce. The Board of Trade was incorporated 
March 7, 1 85 7, and conducted its affairs in the rooms donated 




Of 



EXAMPLE 125 

niufltrating the significance or omamentation, 

as applied to a hooklct. 



ORNAMENTATION 



GIVE a child the choice of two toys, alike except that 
one has a flower painted upon it, and he will select the 
ornamented one. This proves the human race has a 
natural liking for ornamentation. When the old-time 
trader visited savajie countries, he took with him colored 
glass and brought back gold. The glass soon after orna- 
mented the somber bodies of the savages, and the gold 
becanif rings and bracelets worn by the whites. There 
are those in this daj- who love the trees and the flowers 
and hear music in the brooks, 
but more of us find pleasure in 
artificially ornamented ball-rooms 
with music blown and sawn and 
hammered from brass and catgut 
and sheepskin. 

Man was created in a garden 
of flowers and trees pleasant to 
the sight, yet he has ever been exa? 

yearning for a new Kden of pure The beac 

gold, wiiose foundations are gar- 
nished with precious stones, forgetting that Solomon in all 
his glory was not arrayed like the lily of the field. Nature 
is the great artist, and man's ornamentation at best is a 
poor imitation of natural things. The trees of the forest 
gave the motive for the stone columns and ornamental 
capitals of architecture, and the plant and animal world 
furnished themes for talented calligraphers in the days 
when books were, literally, written. The blue vault of the 
skies inspired Michael Angelo to plan the great dome of 
St. Peter's at Rome, as the sun furnished a model for the 
Indian while decorating his tepee, and tlie flowers of the 
field have provided inexhaustible color harmonies. 

In the early days of this country most of the inhabit- 
ants devoted their waking hours to the struggle for exist- 
ence, and it has been only within recent years that the 



average man has given thought to art. Many a one has 
thrown oft' his lethargy to discover beautiful things all 
about which he had never before noticed. 

Art galleries and libraries all over the United States 
are aiding greatly in the cultivation of taste for art and 
things beautiful, and the printer to whom these privileges 
are accessible yet who does not avail himself of their ad- 
vantages is much like the man who was lost in the Adir- 
ondacks, not knowing he was but a half-mile from a rail- 
road. China, who could conquer 
the world if she but knew her 
power, continues to sleep as she 
has slept for centuries, while a 
little handful of intelligent 
people on a small island of 
Europe wield an influence that 
is felt wherever the sun shines. 
Wake up from your drudgery, 
brother printers, take less 
thought of food and raiment, 
use your spare time in learning of the things about 
you, of that which has been done before; apply the 
knowledge thus gained and the good things of the earth 
will be added unto you. 

Is ornamentation necessary to art typography ? Ask 
one good printer and he will answer, yes. Ask another 
and he will answer, no. One of the meanings of orna- 
ment as given by the Standard dictionary is : A part or 
an addition that contributes to the beauty or elegance of 
a thing." A paper may be so pleasing in texture as to 
give beauty or elegance to an otherwise plain page of 
j)rinting; in fact, it is sometimes a mistake to use type 
ornaments or other embellishment on an Italian hand- 
made paper. On the contrary, a stock poor in quality 




60 




EXAMPLE 87 



EXAMPLE 88 
The winged ball, : 

much used by tbe Egyptians 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 

his taste ar- 
tistic by his 
abstinence. 
When he again 
began using 
ornaments it 
was with discrimination 
and after study of their 
significance and appropri- 
ateness. 

This leads to the sub- 
ject of motive or reason in 
ornamentation. The styles 
of typography may be gen- 
erally divided into two 
parts, one dominated by 
Roman or Italian influence 
and the other by Gothic 
or German influence. 
During the Middle Ages 
the Gothic influence was 
felt chiefly because the 
pointed style of archi- 
tecture and embellish- 
ment was sanctioned by 
the Christian church. As 
art was practically dead 
outside the church, the 
art-workers absorbed the 
Gothic style. 

When typography was 
invented, Gutenberg's 
first book was based upon 
the Gothic style — the 
type-face a pointed black 
letter, such 



(or color had better be covered with 
decoration to divert attention from the 
paper. 
There are printshops in which all 
ornaments are kept under lock and key ; 
a compositor wisliing to use decoration 
must present good reasons before he 
gets it. Customers have become sus- 
picious of type ornamentation because 
of the peculiar use to which 
printers sometimes put it. A 
young man of my acquaint- 
ance became saturated with 
a desire to do artistic printing 
and had a number of type 
ornaments purchased with 
which to express his ideas. 
When one job after another came from the customer 
with ominous blue marks over the cherished ornaments, 
he realized the necessity of revising his ideas of art. For 
fully a year after this he worked without voluntarily 
using an ornament, meanwhile developing all the possi- 
bilities of Caslon type-faces and appropri- 
ate paper stocks and color combinations. 
It has been claimed that fasting has ~ 

beneficial effect on 
the body ; be that 
as it may our friend 
certainly improved 





1 



EXAMPLE 94 

Ornamentation as used by 

tbe Romans on an entablature 

and a Corinthian pillar, 
showing egg-and-dart, bead. 



XMlOliZ/ 




EXAMPLE 91 
Plain and dignified. 
The Doric pillar 




then used on manuscript 
books, and the ornamentation (done by hand) 
pointed foliage. It was some years after this 
that typography came under the influence of the 
Italian Renaissance and both type-faces and 
decoration assumed tlie Roman style. In the 
old days there was sympathy between the 
various arts and crafts and it worked for har- 
mony in effects. Building-decoration, metal- 
carving and wood-engraving were governed by 
the same artistic motive, and were often done 
by the same man, much as the printer at one 
time was compositor, pressman, binder, type- 
founder, ink-maker and paper-maker, all in one. 
Now, many a job of printing goes wrong be- 
cause the ideas of several people, inharmonious 
from lack of relation, are injected into the job 
during the several stages of its production. 

The relation of typography to architecture 
is plainly shown in the formation of the Roman 
and Gothic alphabets. The letters of the Roman 
alphabet, dignified in their straight strokes and 
symmetrical in their rounded lines, suggest 
features of Roman architecture (Example 106; 
also see Example 43 of a previous chapter). 
In the interesting picturesqueness of the pointed 
black Gothic letter may be seen reflections 
of the graceful arches of the cathedral pointing 
upward like hands in prayer — and the pointed 
leaf ornamentation of the Gothic period. 
(Example 107.) 

Ornamentation is both inventive and imi- 
tative. An ornament purely inventive or one 
purely imitative is seldom artistic. A child may 
make a jumble of lines that altho original means 




EXAMPLE 98 
Damty, elaborate rococo ornament, a« 

applied to a program title-page. 
Compare -Witt tlie cbair. Example 97. 



ORN AM ENT ATION 




nothing : when it is older it may 
draw a flower so realistic and imi- 
tative that little is left to the imag- 
ination. When a flower or plant 
is used as a model in designing an 
ornament it is "conventionalized," 
that is, it is blended with its en- 
vironment. A flower in a garden 
surrounded by other vegetation 
should be as the other flowers, but 
as an ornament on the flat sur- example 95 

f;ice of paper it should be without Square-lined, orna- 

perspective. Example 108-a shows mentUss furniture 

how commonplace an ornament 

looks when its details are carefully shaded in perspective. 
Examples 108-b and 108-c show 
how more decorative an ornament 
is when either outlined or filled in. 
Sometimes shadows are merely sug- 
gested as on tlie fruit basket and 
book ornaments in Example 113. 
The inartistic results of perspective 
on flat surfaces are found also in 
the 'ornamental'" shaded letters of 
the last century. 

In the conventionalized decora- 
tive art of all ages may be found 
tj-aces of the things which have in- 
spired the decorator. The lotus leaf, 
and the papyrus plant (which once 
gave writing material to the world), 
thousands of years ago influenced 
Egyptian design (Example 87). 




EXAMPLE 97 







NEALE, BARR 

^COMPANYan- 

nounce for j^ay I a-na the 
trwo weeks following, the 

Exhibit of a Loan Col- 
lection of Stained Qlass 
vvinaows, ^Rare Potteries, 
ana Barnes Enamels from 
the Barnes Studios, New 
York. Displayed in the 
Barnes Room,Top Floor 




EXAMPLE 100 

Slightly ornamental typography. Compare with chai 

opposite. Design by Will Bradley 



Religion dictated many of the decorative forms in ancient 
art. Tile winged-ball-and-asps (Example 88) was a fav- 
orite device in Egyptian decoration and has come to us 
by way of Roman mythology as the winged staff" of the 
herald Mercury, the libbons on the staflf supplanting the 
Egyptian asps, but later evolving into serpents as in the 
decorative border of Example L25. The work of the best 
artists is full of meaning. The Egyptians considered 
certain animals sacred, and they were reproduced numer- 
ously in the picture writing and ornamentation of the 
time. The sacred beetle as conventionalized Mas much 
used. In Example 125 the cog-wheel of commerce is 
conventionalized as the rim of the ball, which also 
contains a seal. The anchor and rope, hourglass, wreath, 
torch, acanthus leaves, all are conventionalized and 
blended pleasingly in outline drawing. The tone of the 
border approximates that of the type matter it surrounds. 
The acanthus leaf (Example 89) is the model for much 
of the elaborate leaf decoration found on the capitals of 
Corinthian columns and wherever 
rich imposing leaf ornament is de- 
sired. The anthemion (Example 90) 
is a palm-like ornament used by the 
Greeks and Romans and now fre- 
quently found in decorative work of 
an architectural nature. 

It may not occur to the average 
printer that architecture is in any way 
allied with typography ; that there is 
any connection between the ornamen- 
tation of a building and a job of print- 
ing. Both Bruce Rogei's, of the River- 
side Press, and D. B. Updike, of the 




62 

I I I I I I I I M M 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



|>|<|.|i|i|i{' 



o o o o o o 



00000000 



OoOoOoOoOoO 



Merrymount Press, use conventionalized architectural 
columns and arches to ornament title-pages of classic mo- 
tives. The averagetypographer, tho, finds more inspiration 
in the ornamentation that is only an embellishment to ar- 
chitecture. There are several ornamental units that are 
used more frequently than others, and these are the egg- 
and-dart (Example 83) and the bead (Example Si). 
You, who are reading this, are invited to verify by obser- 
vation this last statement. A printer who did so was 
astonished at the eggs, darts, and beads that were tu be 
seen wherever he looked. Cut into the stone of buildings, 
carved into the wood of furniture, used on molding about 
doors and windows, on office partitions, on library lamps, 
in the ceiling panels of restaurants, about the prosceniums 
in theaters, around the mirror in the barber shop — 
wherever he looked there were the ornaments. It is 
remarkable how non-observant the average printer is. The 
hands of artists who lived thousands of years ago — the 
Greeks and the Romans — made these same designs, and 
yet a knowledge of history is counted non-essential by 
most workmen in the printshops. 



Let us apply the egg-and-dart and bead ornaments as 
borders in typography, and notice how admirably they 
serve the purpose. Example 85 shows the egg-and-dart 
ornament perhaps too carefully drawn as to detail; and 
Example 8G demonstrates how the bead ornament may 
be adapted to panel work. 

From early times there seems to have been a triple 
division of taste regarding ornament. In the days of 
Rome these divisions were given expression in the treat- 
ment of supporting columns, the three styles being know n 
respectively as Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The Doric 
column is severely plain, the Ionic slightlj' ornamental, 
and the Corinthian elaborately ornamental. 

The Doric style (Example 91 ) is emblematic of dig- 
nity, simplicity and strength, and appeals to the man 
preferring these qualities in printing. 

The Ionic style (Example 92) represents refinement in 
ornament, and pleases the manable to discriminatebetween 
the severely plain and the over-ornamented — a quality 
of judgment worth cultivating by every typographer. 

The Corinthian style (Example 93) expresses the pref- 
erence of many who delight in ostentation and excess 
of ornament. The elaborate, showy acanthus leaf usually 



sr?* 



ral 



)nalized 



fo] |c^oiz^f^51 [o] [c=ioi=)| [o 



ROMAN 

ARCHITECTURAL 

STYLE 



[o] |c=ioi=d1 [o] [^[^30^ [o 



1 0otntet) S)tple | 



'^f Compare IBorlirrann^rppf '/Fate -/i 



EXAMPLE 106 
Type border of Roman architectura 
Compare straight and curved lin 
the Roman type-face 



forms the chief decoration for the capital surmounting the 
column, and the entablature (Example 94) is particularly 
rich in ornamentation. 

The Doric pillar has been called masculine and the 
Ionic feminine, the sturdiness of the one and the grace 
of the other also being likened to the warlike Spartans 
who emphasized the development of the body, and the 
artistic Athenians 
who especially 
developed the intel- 
lect. 

This diff"erence in 
ideals and prefer- 
ences has comedown 
the centuries to our 
time. While Crom- 
well, plain, blunt, 
and even disapprov- 
ing of sculpture and 
painting, was ruling 
England, across the 
channel Louis IV. 
strutted in corsets 
and on high red 
heels amid gilt and 
glamour and glitter 
in the courts of 
France. 

Monks and nuns 
lived plainly sur- 
rounded by bare 
walls and square-cut 
chairs, and dressed 
in subdued browns 
and blacks, while at 
Rome surrounded by 
the art works of 
Michael Angelo and 
Raphael the higher 



EXAMPLE 107 
of English-Gothic pointed 
are black pointed effects with 
the Gothic type-face 



ORNAMENTATION 




dignitaries were clothed in brilliant reds, gold and white. 

Morris loved an old worn-out house, square-cut furni- 
ture, burlap, and subdued colors ; while the Newljriches 
boast of the magnificence of their mansions, Louis Quinze 
ball-rooms and imported tapestry. 

Only recently two churches had been remodeled. In 
the one was placed ornamental brass railings, lectern, 
pulpit and candelabra, and stained-glass pictorial win- 
dows; the walls were covered with gilt fleurs-de-lis on 
maroon backgrounds, and the entire effect was one of 
cheap magnificence. The other church had been an old 
Colonial structure of square proportions. Dignified ma- 
hogany furnishings were selected, the walls were orna- 
mented in pure geometric designs, pale gold on tinted 
backgrounds, and the windows were made of small panes 
of glass subdued in color, in harmony with the architec- 
ture of the building, with a result that spoke good taste 
and refinement. 

Examples 95, 9(5, 97, 98, 99, 100, indicate the three 
divisions of taste — the plain, ornamentless ; the slightly 
ornamental, and the elaborately ornamental — applied to 
typography and reflected in furniture. The typojrrapher 
should learn that the arts are related, that the styles of 
home-furnishings and architecture influence the styles 
of typography. A few years ago mission furniture was 
introduced and along with it came architecture that 
called for exposed roof supports, s(iuare-cut moldings, 
coarse fabric wall coverings, subdued green and brown 
tapestries. And before they knew the reason, printers 
were using heavy brass rules, rugged type-faces and 
printing on dark-hued anti(iue papers. Example 9() is a 
program page ()rodu(ed under these influences. Compare 
it with the 




EXAMPLE 113 
Type ornament based upon the 




64 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



M^ U^t ^mt it dtttl) l^^n gttlii Bioc Mt Mt tli^ s h 



flrifl|)ltor ftnft lititf t&lOT Hnmi?: M % gag unto boo i 
Holif pur fflf rob g Bl^gg tiff m tdtrt f org? goo^ and s a s 
Brggtortl)?roli> I)ifl) (if gpit f foHg og? tmd pf rgf r ot? goo 



EXAMPLE 115 Oi 



il hand-lettered effect; obtained by initials. 



t let 



ind rule 



o 









SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTE 

FOUNDED 1846 




o 








EXAMPLE 1 



the dainty, elabor- 
ately ornamental 
chair (Example 9?) 
and the title-page 
(Example 98). Both 
chair and title-page 
designs are based 
upon the frivolous 
rococo style of the 
period known as 
Louis XV. (or Louis 
Quinze). In that 
period, shells and 
leaves conventionalized into graceful, golden curves 
were blended with a profusion of roses and other flow- 
ers. Straight lines were avoided, and furniture and 
architecture took on curves even to the extent of causing 
structural weakness. 

Because of the fact that type is built upon horizontal 
and vertical lines, rococo type ornamentation is not suc- 



may have been 
inscription pli 
lines on books 



luggested 




EXAMPLE 117 




EXAMPLE 118 


rnamentation, and blank spaces filled 


FiUin 


blank spaces with ornamentation. 


by decoration. From an old 


don 


; on manuscript books. Page by Gov 


manuscript book 




ment Printshop. Berlin, Germany 



cessful. The pen-and-ink border design (Example 98) is 
a clever adaptation of the Louis XV'. rococo style to a 
modern program title-page. There is not an absolutely 
straight vertical or horizontal line in the border, and with 
the curves and flowers, ribbons, lattice-work and cupid, 
it is very appropriate for the program of an event held 
under the auspices of a Colonial society of women. 

Examples 99 and 100 show a chair and an announce- 
ment page both slightly ornamented to please the sen- 
sible folks who like neither the severely plain nor the 
elaborately ornamental. 

Ornament is secondary to the real purpose of (he 
thing it embellishes; it should not be so lavish as to 
distract attention from the more important object. A 
booklet is issued to convey a message, and should the 
reading matter be overshadowed by ornamentation, this 
purpose may not be accomplished. A "flowery" oration 
may entertain and please an audience, but it does not con- 
vince. In 1896 Bryan stampeded a convention by his 
extemporaneous elo- 
quence and meta- 
phor, but when be 
came to the "ene- 
my's country" and 
faced an audience 
which wanted facts, 
he read his address 
from carefully pre- 
pared manuscript. 

During theMiddle 
Ages, when nations 
were fighting for 
existence and ne- 
cessities of life were 
barely obtainable, 
there was little or- 
namentation except 
in isolated instances, 
but when, about the 
fifteenth century, 
the Renaissance 
came, art received an 
enthusiastic recep- 
tion. Ornamentation 
was indulged in to 
excess, the artists 
using all the classic 
forms and inventing 
new ones. Example 
109, showing wall 
border decoration, 
looks to the printer 
likea specimen sheet 





^M»S^^;S^-^^^^^3{^^^ 






CBurgrr 




Cflpiis) 






» <Ztiuu (ontlllo rt auctoriMK ;icid<nilw 


Cmnrum 


R(gl» BonisslK (didit fridcri(us fiMtf it 


0«rthn3 




16. erat.- un< 


Dfnkftcln. 4(s minlrrcn R.ldif Im jnuftum 


pon Ki.ro 


pon p. 0. Ungr und p. Sdiiftr. eenn 


17. ZfltfdTrtff 




hfHUSflffl 




(PfrlJ9 d 




W. Pmfidini 




B.bUothck 


lu Berlin Pun Cduird Siibiu. (DcrUg von 


p. firhfr u 




\9. D.C jnnft< 


d« MpinirdKn SdiirotiifHKn von Shinkidii 



10. IITinnlungni dcs Seminars fiir Oriralillfdu Spradim 
an itx ftdniglidioi fricdridi - Olilhdnu - anipcrfilit lu 
Berlin, hrtausscgrboi von profdTor Dr. Cduard Sadiau. 
( Somminionsperlag ppn ^nrg Rdnur, Berlin.) 2 Bande. 

21. Cinfuhrung in die (apanifdie Sdirift ppn prpfelTpr Dr. 
RudpirCanjr. (Pertag ppn (D. Spemann, Stuttgart und 
Berlin 




~WxiW 



ORNAMENTATION 



of type borders. This brings to mind that there is always 
the temptation to over-ornament when an artistic job is de- 
sired, and the necessity of advising printers to restrain 
themselves and save a few ornaments for other work. Our 
brethren of the cloth like to repeat the story of the the- 
ological student preaching his first sermon before the Sem- 
inary authorities. He began at "Genesis" and took his 
hearers thru the entire Bible to "Revelation." When 
he had finished an old professor gravely asked what he 
would preach about the next Sunday. 

The famous designer Chippendale, first made his fur- 
niture serviceable and then added ornament, from which 
fact the printer should profit. Have a printed job serve 
its purpose, and ornament it only so far as is consistent 
to this end. 

Ornamentation when used for border purposes has 
two features which may not be apparent to the super- 
ficial glance — regularity in repet tion and variety in repe- 
tition. Example 101 shows repeated strokes of the same 
length. In Example 102 by alternating the length of 
the strokes, the design is made more interesting. Ex- 
amples 103, 104 and 10.5 illustrate this principle in 
rounded forms. In the first there is monotonous repeti- 
tion, in the second there is less monotony because the 
oval form is less regular than the circle, and in Example 
105 by contrasting the forms in both size and shape, 
the design acquires new decorative interest. This prin- 
ciple of contrast and variety is exemplified in most border 
designs. In Example 107 the light scroll lines contrast 
with the black leaves, and in Example lOG curves are 
contrasted with angles. Contrast is sometimes obtained 
with color, as shown in Example 123. 

Ornament as used by the printer may be divided into 
four classes: Ornament based upon geometric lines 
(Example 111), ornament based upon foliage (Example 
112), ornament based upon the inanimate (Example 113) 



St. John's Lutheran Church, liaston, Penna. 

The Reformation 
Festival 



Auspices of the Endress Missionary Society 
and the Luther League 



Friday, October th.rty-f.rs 




EXAMPLE 120. INITIALS 
a^Foliage decoration based on the acanthus leaf 
b— Imitation of mortised wroodcut initials 
c — Modern adaptation of Roman torch 
d-Rugged Colonial style 
-Sugges 



f-Class: 



ind Ro. 



-Plain black and white effect 
-Interlacing foliage. Celtic style 



k-Woodc, 



effec 



sed by Moi 



and ornament based upon the animate (Example 114-). 
The center ornament in Example 111 contains the cross 
and circle, ecclesiastic devices, and its conventionalized 
pointed leaves would also admit it in the group shown 
as Example 112 — ornament based upon foliage. Leaves 
and flowers from the beginning have been a prolific 
source of inspiration to artists. Before the invention of 
typography the decorator of manuscript books reveled in 
foliage, as will be seen by Example 117, and today when 
decoration is added by the process of printing the same 
liberal use of foliage is evidenced (Example 118). In 
both examples should be noticed the custom of filling 
blank spaces with decoration. 

The inanimate (Example 1 1 3) lends itself better for or- 
namental purposes than does the animate (Example 114), 
and the less familiar the subject the better ornament 
it makes. An ornament based upon the animate is 
shown in Example 124 and as will be seen it is not as 



66 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



ThelYY ?RE^S-Seattles Printen 



%^ 



EXAMPLE 121 

applied to letterhead.' Design by 

Harry A. Anger, Seattle. Wash. 

pleasing as the one in Example 121, which is based upon 
the inanimate. 

Initials afford a convenient means of ornamentation 
(Example 120). An initial well chosen as to tone and 
appropriateness often satisfies all demands in this line. 
The mortised Colonial initial indicated by h looks well 
with Caslon roman and printed on antique paper. The 
acanthus design a looks well with old-style antique ; the 
classic design f, with a letter such as the Cheltenham. 
Initials are used in a highly decorative manner in Ex- 
ample 115, after the style found in ecclesiastical manu- 
scripts. The possibilities of type and rule are here well 
set forth. 

Sometimes ornaments in the corners of a plain rule 
border (Example 116) are sufficient decoration. These 




N establishing a school for girls and young 
women at the National Capital, we chose 
\ t> form one of distinctly College grade, as 

; , offering the most inviting grade and field 

.!^ u --_ -: for school work in the city. The wisdom 

of such choice has been fully attested. Education may be 
distinguished as Primary, Academic, College, and Univer- 
sity. The place of the College is between the Academy 
and the University. This place we occupy — offering also 
some years of Primary and Academic work in our Prepar- 
atory School. 

Every young lady, if possible, should have a College 
education, no matter what her work in life may be. Only 
a few women will, or can, enter the professions — except 
that of teaching, and for that the College may prepare. 
All who can, should first do the College work, and then, 
if a higher or a professional training is desired, go to the 
University for that. 

The mission of the Young Ladies' College is to fully 
prepare young women for their places in the home and in 
society. Its work is necessarily more extensive than the 
Academic and distinct from it; and, necessarily, less exten- 




effects, pre- 
valent just now 
in typography, 
may have been 
suggested by 
the corner bolts 
with which 
brass plates are 
fastened to 
walls. 

In the book- 
let decoration 
(Example 122) 
the artist has 
taken his motive 
from the word 
"Washington" 
making the cap- 
itol dome and 
its supports the 
central figure in 
the design, 
which is Coloni- 
al in character. 
Drawing a line 
down thru the 
center of the 
design it will be 

found that with a few minor exceptions the right half is 
a duplicate in reverse of the left half. This effect is fre- 
quently found in decorative work, as it gives balance and 
differentiates between illustration and decoration. An 
illustrative design, showing an actual scene, would not 
be so artistic. 

Wall paper and linoleum designs are made in patterns 
that repeat at intervals and for this reason answer the 
purpose of decoration. 

Example 119 presents a program page, which, while 
attractive, has but one ornament, an ecclesiastic design. 
The arrangement of bands above and below the main 
display assists in forming a decorative effect. The origi- 
nal type portions of these bands were in orange. 

Type ornaments in use today come more from Gothic- 
English than from Italian sources. The reason seems 
to be that classic architectural ornament does not have 
the interest for the average person that the old Eng- 
lish designs have. The type ornaments cast by Caslon 
as well as his type-faces seem not to stale with age. 

In closing this chapter it may be well again to warn 
the printer not to over-ornament. The relation of orna- 
ment to typography is well covered in the caution of an 
experienced architect to a novice: "Ornament con- 
struction, but do not construct ornament." 



of booklets and catalogs 











COOK PRINTING CO. 




lOiK. S. BROAD^M'AY ::; LOS ANOELES 


o 

Si 

sn 
P 


lOINAL AND .^-^ 

FECTivE DE- — ^^aar^ — ^ 

ONS IN FINE _^ JB^^^^^V 

RINTING ^"^^^^^^ *^ 


^ 



EXAMPLE 122 

ation applied to the modem booklet 

-TKomsen Co., Baltimore, Md. 




a 
.2 






wo ^ 



< 






IS S 



Qui 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 



GOOD TASTE, a quality essential to the successful pro- 
duction of all kinds of printing, is of great importance 
in the typography of books. In the matter of good taste 
most of us are specialists— we perfect our judgment in 
some one respect and let it remain erratic in others. A 
musician or other artist may stand high in his class and 
yet, perhaps, show poor taste in dress and manners. 

A person of good taste is necessarily conservative. He 
weighs all new things in the balance of judgment, and 
allows enthusiastic faddists to push him off the sidewalk 
rather than join the crowd and shout with it. He knows 
the fickleness of mobs and remembers that in a week 
hosannas have been changed to shouts of bitter invective. 



The merchant catering to the whims of fashion ever has 
unsalable stock on his shelves. In the days of militant 
Rome the crowd which one day cheered Sulla, the next 
day crowned Marius with laurel. 

The natural tendency of humanity is radical. The 
conservatives are in the minority, yet their influence is 
greater because their opinions are generally based upon 
facts, and are seldom biased by prejudice. The natural 
tendency of job printers is radical. Left much to their own 
whims and fancies they produce printed things which 
may please only for the moment. The test of gold is not 
in its appearance when purchased, but in years of wear. 
Because a job of printing is made for short service 



THEOCRITUS 

TKAKSLATED L\TO EXGLISH VERSE 
BY CHARLES STUART CALVERLEY 



Houghton Mifflin & Company 
Boston and M'nu Tori 



JOHN 


GREENLEAF 

MEMOIR 


i 

WHITTIER 


AND SELECTED 


POEMS 




BY BLISS PERRY 




m 








YORK 


HOUG 


HTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 









EXAMPLE 128 
Title-page ot a book oi claasic poems 
uce Rogers. Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mas 



EXAMPLE 129 
tb a nineteentb century motive 
Riverside Press, Cambridge, M 



68 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Memories of a Hundred 
Years 



EDWARD EVERETT HALE 



VOLUME II 



MEMORIES OF A HUNDRED YEARS 

CHAPTER I 

THE ORATORS 

MODERN AMEltlCAN ORATORY 

THE cant phrase of conventional conversation 
says that the age of oratory is over. I do 
not believe tliis. The couditious are changed. 
The methods are changed. But it is as true as 
it ever was that if a man wants to lead men, he 
had better be able to tell men what he wants. 
And it will be well for him and them if he can 
tell them this, so that they .shall believe him and 
remember afterward what he has said to them. 
William McElroy, who is himself no mean 
judge, told me that George William Curtis once 
said to him that the iii.>-f !■ ;n.i i h.iM- ]Ki>sage in 
modern oratory, the pa- u . iiit is best 

worth rememlKTiiig, i> tl jiij- .'!I known 
and often cited in Weiklo Liin.i>>jirB oiation at 
Dartmouth in 1838. Carlyle speaks of that ad- 
dress as Iving on a counter in an Oxford book- 



3 type-fac 



EXAMPLE 131 
itle-page containing old-style type-faces and the 



is no reason why it should not be as well done as book 
composition is required to be. All the art-reasons in 
book typography are equally applicable to job typogra- 
phy. The two methods should not be judged by separ- 
ate standards — a thing is good, or it is not. At the 
present time educational work is elevating the standard 
of job typography and the job compositor, drawing closer 
to his book brother, is beginning to notice the faults and 
flaws in the latter's work. 

The book typographer, like the lawyer, is governed 
by precedent. When the legal man presents an argu- 
ment he cites Doe v. Doe, and Smith v. Jones, and with 
each new discovery of precedent is increasingly happy. 
The common law under which we in America are gov- 
erned originated in England centuries ago, and the radi- 
cals who would dispense with this law catalog themselves 
as anarchists. The conservative man is constructive. 
When a new thing has been proved good he believes in 
adding it to what has already been constructed. The 
radical is destructive in that he would destroy what has 
been constructed and set some new thing in its place. 
Attics hold masterpieces which have been discarded for 
new, frivolous things that from an art standpoint are 
worthless. 

William Morris set out to change book typography, 
and in contrast to the typography of the day his ideas 
may have seemed radical. What he really oifered was 
the good things found in the works of the old masters 
of Venice and Nuremberg — typography and decoration 



which had withstood the test of centuries. Book pages 
produced fifty years ago by Pickering and Whittingham 
look well today ; not because they are old, but because 
they were in good taste then, and are in good taste now. 
Pages set by their contemporaries in condensed roman 
look abominable now, because they were contrary to true 
art principles then. 

The book industry in America is tremendous — so much 
so that because of its magnitude quality in typography is 
likely to be lost sight of. In New York City in one year 
six millions and a half books are read or consulted thru 
its public library system! Could the monk, with his mere 
score of books chained to shelves, have had a vision of 
this, what would have been his thoughts? Or, Benjamin 
Franklin, as he founded the first circulating library? 
Andrew Carnegie, ridiculed when announcing his inten- 
tion to use his wealth in providing buildings for public 
libraries, lived to see himself acknowledged a benefactor 
of mankind. 

Next to providing books is the necessity of providing 
good books and of printing them according to the laws 
of art and good taste. Continual association develops a 
taste for the things associated with. If the majority of 
books are poorly composed or poorly printed, they will 
unconsciously be taken as standards of book style by the 
reading public. The style of book typography, averaged 
in this way, is today far from flattering. It is rarely 
that the reading pages, title-page and cover harmonize in 
style and motive. On the average volume the text-pages 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 



69 



•??:«;?: «iy:^;.^«;-T<yv^ ^^ -^^t, r^^ ^^ r^^ 

I THE duke! 



decides! 




miu9 ^u my^9 iu 9 iu ^ u ^ t»- tit »' t^ - i^ - ,it » 



Two pages of c. 



EXAMPLE 132 



The Duke Decides 



CHAPTER I 

The Man ■u.ith the Mandate 

y 

AT six o'clock on a ]^Iay evening, at an 
uptown corner of Broadway, in New 
York City, the bowels of the earth opened and 
disgorged a crowd of weary-faced men and 
women who scattered in all directions. They 
were the employees of a huge "drj--goods 
store," lea\-ing work for the day. It was a 
stringent rule of the firm that everjone draw- 
ing wages, from the smart managers of depart- 
ments and well-dressed salesladies down to the 
counting-hotise drudges and cheek-boys, should 
descend into the basement, and there file past 
the timekeeper and a private detective before 
passing up a narrow staircase, and so out by a 
sort of stage-door into the side street. 

The great plate-glass portals on the main 
thoroughfare were not for the working bees of 
this hive of industry — only for the gay butter- 
flies of fashion by whom they lived. 

The last to come out was a young man 

dressed in a threadbare suit of tweeds, that 

[9] 



Typography by the Hi 



i, Boston, Mas 



seem to have been set in any face that chanced to be on 
the composing machine at the time; the title-page is in 
some type foreign in style and design to the face used 
on the body of the book, and the cover (generally the 
only part of the work given artistic attention) is designed 
without regard to what is on the inside. The whole effect 
reminds one of a box of berries with only the healthy 
members of the family in view. Many a time I have 
picked up a book in artistic binding only to lay it down 
disappointed at the typographical treatment of the in- 
side pages. Even a book should be honestly what it 
seems, and not a wooden nutmeg. 

The book-page reproductions used in connection with 
this chapter may prove more valuable if each is consid- 
ered separatelv in the order of its appearance. 

Examples 120 and 127 (Insert). — The title-page and 
an inside page of a book which in its way is a model. From 
the viewpoints of art, legibility, good taste, typography, 
printing, and binding, the book is almost perfect. The 
classic restraint of the Italian school and the human in- 
terest of the Gothic are here blended harmoniously. 
George French is a lover of lower-case letters, and from 
the label-title on the cover to the last paragraph of this 
volume not a line has been set in capitals. The type- 
face is a handsome old-style roman based upon the Cas- 
lon model, and in the book itself is printed upon a hard 
hand-made paper in a dense and clear black ink. The 
only decoration used in the book is a part of the chapter 
initials, altho decoration is suggested in the use of brack- 
ets on each side of the page numbers. Only two sizes of 
type are on the title-page, and the chapter headings 
cling to the type-page in a manner that helps the tone 



effect of the whole. The reproduced pages are shown in 
the actual positions of the originals. The margins of a 
full reading page measure five picas at the fold, six picas 
at the head, seven-and-a-half picas at the outer edge, 
and eleven picas at the foot. The type-page covers 
slightly more than one-third of the surface of the leaf 
upon which it is printed. The type-page in proportion 
measures diagonally twice its width, a point illustrated 
in Example 50 of a previous chapter. 

Example 128. — A reduced facsimile of the title-page 
of a limited edition of classic poems, produced at the 
Riverside Press under the supervision of Bruce Rogers. 
This typographer stands foremost among those in Amer- 
ica who are giving themselves to the work of steering 
the printing craft back to the waters in which it sailed in 
the days of Aldus Manutius. Bruce Rogers came to New 
England from Indiana with no technical knowledge of 
typography, but artistic talent soon enabled him to 
gather the details, and since 1900 he has been design- 
ing books for the Riverside Press that have brought him 
fame and raised the standard of printing in America. 
The product of the house of Houghton-Mifflin Company 
is supervised by Mr. Rogers, hence books with the im- 
print of this company are rarely anything but the best 
examples of typography. Printers would do well to make 
a study of them. 

Example 129. — There is one feature of Bruce Rogers' 
work which stands out prominently, and that is his re- 
gard for the appropriate. The literary motive of a book 
gives the cue for its typographical treatment, and he 
prints as if he were living in the period so presented, 
and influenced by its tastes. The "John Greenleaf 
VVhittier" title-page suggests a product of the middle 



70 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



1 1 


^ 




IN LIGHTER VEIN 




A COLLECTION OF 






ANECDOTES, WITTY SAYINGS 






BON MOTS, BRIGHT REPARTEES 






ECCENTRICITIES AND 






REMINISCENCES OF 






WELL-KNOWN MEN AND WOMEN 






WHO ARE OR HAVE BEEN 






PROMINENT IN THE 






PUBLIC EYE 






COLLECTED, EDITED 






AND PRESENTED TO THE PUBLIC 






JOHN DE MORGAN 






"^^ 






PAUL ELDER ^COMPANY 






SAN FRANCISCO AND NEW YORK 










u 


1 


u 



IN LIGHTER VEIN 



you're a daft idle body, who goes moan- 
ing about the hills, and has not wit 
enough to raise a field of oats." The 
child had heard the opinion so often 
that she was well able to repeat, even if 
she did not understand it. 

ELLA Wheeler Wilcox is the 
author of an epigram which will 
live through the ages. It is bright, 
truthful and terse. She writes: " Divorce 



:ape t 



hell. 



hoever uses it always smells of 
smoke afterward and usually bears scars 
and bruises for life." 

THE Emperor William of Ger- 
many got a sharp rebuff at a Court 
ball some little time since. At a review 
he had reprimanded the old General 
von Meerscheidt for losing his presence 
of mind at a critical moment. " If your 
Majesty thinks that I am getting too 
old, I beg of you to allow me to 
resign." "No, no," replied the kai- 
ser, "you are too young to resign. 
Indeed, if your blood didn't course 
through your veins quite so fast, you 
would be a more useful army leader." 
On the evening of that day the kaiser 
met the general at a Court ball. The 



li_L 



EXAMPLE 134 
Two pages, tlie typography of which sho^ 



T H 1 



MILLIONAIRE'S SON 



business for literature, but one could hardly marry 
on such a prospect, and with such a father as his 
in the background. Moreover, an engagement at this 
time would be more than hkely to defeat it^ own ends ; 
yet, after such a scene, his duty to Alexa became 
imperative. What was to be done? 

He had gone no further than this question when 
her note came. So great was his confidence in her, 
his reliance in her judgment, that at once he dashed 
off the reply, to assure her of this. In first receiving 
the note he had been relieved, crediting her with some 
of his own difficulties, and reading between the hues 

if we see more of each other, it must be on a calmer 
footing." 

It was as if Alexa herself had come to the rescue. 
But after he had re-read the note five or six times, 
doubt crept in, and doubt on a vital question. Per- 
haps, after all, she did not care. Perhaps the note 
was to say, " I was momentarily carried away, and 
showed more than I felt." This was horrible, and 
worse than separation. Yet how could he ask her if 
she loved him, and yet tell her in the same breath 
that every monition of prudence was against their 
engagement ? Was ever man in more hideous dilemma ? 

Business was unendurable under these conditions. 

He left the office early, and made posthaste for 

Whistle's, delighting her hugely by a request for 

lunch. After he had eaten, his energy rose again. 

225 

EXAMPLE 136 

A text-page in modern roman 

By Colonial Press. Boston, Mass 



tion comes through achievement alone; that 
the building of character from habit is 
wrought out only through the play of the 
individual will. Stultify the will, prohibit its 
play, and you have at once destroyed its power 
of growth. The principle of life is movement, 
and stagnation is death. So that if a thing has 
no play, you may be sure it has no life. 

So, too, if you will follow the trail of the 
word into meaning of playfulness and amuse- 
ment; perhaps you will not be far wrong if you 
declare that play means health. Play is the 
fine flavour of the spirit, the expression of joy. 
Just as we gain freedom for the play of our 
powers, we gain enjoyment in the playfulness 
of spirit. The animals play, and man in a 
normal, healthy state takes the universe for his 
playroom. To be a doleful, puritanic, unso- 
cial Pharisee is to be a degenerate. A sour 
visage means debauchery of the soul, as truly 
as other appearances indicate bodily intem- 
perance. To keep the Ten Commandments is 
not the whole business of man, not his whole 
244 
EXAMPLE 137 
A text-page in old-style type-faces 
By Colonial Press. Boston. Mass. 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 



71 



nineteenth century, when Whittier lived, and 
Example 128 is imbued with the spirit of the 
Greek Theocritus. But two sizes of tjpe are 
used in the Whittier page, and these are ap- 
portioned according to the importance of the 
wording. 

Examples 130 and 131. — Two pages from 
a book issued by a prominent publishing- 
house and printed b)- a prominent press. 
They are reproduced for the purpose of point- 
ing out a fault common to a majority of books of 
the present day — in harmonious typography. 
While the text pages are consistent in the 
use of plain modern roman, the title-jiage 
with no regard for the face used on the text 
pages is composed in Caslon roman and mod- 
ernized old-style. It would seem that, true 
to the title, the printer had aimed to present 
three representative type-faces used during a 
hundred years. And to make matters worse, 
the cover contains an elaborate twentieth 
century design ! Why do not publishers real- 
ize that these things are wrong.^ Why do 
not printers realize it? After the six hundred 
pages of this book had been set in modern 
roman, the cost of setting a title-page also in 
modern roman would have been ridiculously 
small. Printers doing work for publishers 
should provide display faces to match their 
machine letters, or else when buying matrices 
of a body face, assure themselves that display 
faces may also be had. Artists, too, should 
be cautioned to make their design not only 
after the motive suggested by the literary 
contents of the book, but also after the typog- 
raphy (which should of course be based upon 
the literary motive). 



In Merry Mood 

A Book of Cheerful Rhymes 



By 

Nixon Waterman 



Forbes & Company 



Cfje Centti Cfjapter. 



//ot3l) USree came to "Piay a Ccme for tSe Hing <£9 
Queen. .And. ofSoxju tSe King vuaj' notpieaj'ed <iuit/> 
tSe yfluj-ie. ^Iso more about 7(_ol/e "Polie. 




e the three Musicians appeared be- 

e King and Queen, the entertainment 

I end, and only the few people 

who waited to see the donkey riding of 

\ Rolie Polie remained in the park. 

Upon Mr. Poodle hearing that Rolie Polie 
proposed to give a performance, he hurried off to find the 
little clown, and put an end to his plans. "There is no 
telling, your Honor," he said to the Mayor, " what that little 
clown of mine may do; he is apt to be up to all kinds of 
tricks, and if he once gets astride his donkey and tries to 
perform in this park, something serious is sure to happen." 
75 



Page from a 



n by Will Bradley 



Title-page in lower 



Examples 132 and 133. — Two pages in style composite Col- 
onial and modern. The careful typographer left to his own 
judgment would have inserted a half-point rule all around the 
inside of the ornamental border (this would have blended the 
border with the inner cross rules); but the unfinished effect 
here presented is perhaps just what was desired. Relation 
between the reading pages and the title-page is established thru 
use of type of the same series and also by adapting the flower 
decoration to the running head. Certain books lend them- 
selves to decoration ; this is one of them, because it is of the 
entertaining sort. Serious books, such as those on the sub- 
jects of law, medicine and science, should have no decoration. 
The wise book typographer will not use decoration unless he 
comprehends just what he is doing. 

Examples 134 and 135. — J. H. Nash, who designed the 
typography of the book of which these two pages are a part, 
produced results that are exceptionally good from a typo- 
graphical point of view. The border as seen in Example 134 
was used on the title, introduction and contents pages, and 
the border in Example 135 was used thruout the text pages. 
The crossed-line border effect was even adapted to the frontis- 
piece. The title-page is an excellent example of consistent 
typography ; not a line of lower-case is to be found on the 
page, and prominence is proportionately given the title of the 
book and the names of author and publishers. The reading 
matter is set within six points of the rule border, that the 
page should have but one margin. If the space between type 
and border were larger it would give the appearance of another 
margin. The initial letters assist the reader in locating the 
beginning of each story. 

Example 136. — This page is in a style associated with the 
modern novel and was set on the linotype in eleven-point Scotch 
Roman ; the lines twenty picas wide, leaded with two-point 



72 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




CHAPTER III 

IN WHICH I SEE A NEW KIND OF FOG 



w 



£ had bread a 
pper. 



Sally ? " said I, a 



I milk and hot gingerbread 
noticed with satisfaction 
n on the milk. I did not 
a little girl. 

imbed my bread. 

V," answered Cousin Sally. 

' Kitty corrected. 



a red c 



1 that 



I ! 



"I r 



she 



nilk." 



"She's what yoi 
rejoined. 

" I dor 
doesn't have cream on hei 

" Doesn't have cream on her milk ! " exclaimed 

Kitty. Cousin Sally's face turned red and she 

looked at me sharply ; she thought that I was 

finding fault with the milk she had given me. 

27 



EXAMPLE 140 
Harmony iin tone of type-face and d< 
Typography by the Trc 



New York 



leads. The running head is in capitals of the body let- 
ter, separated from the reading page by a half-point 
rule, and the page number is centered at the foot. 

Example 137. — A good example of modern book com- 
position, set on the linotype in twelve-point Caslon old- 
style, the lines twenty picas wide, separated by four 
points. The running head is in Cathedral text, a black 
text letter suited to a book of this kind. An amount 
of space equal to a line of type and the leading follow- 
ing it, has been placed between the running head and the 
reading page. 

Example 138. — An intei-esting title-page, neat and 
refreshing in its departure from the conventional page 
of modern roman capitals. Here Caslon lower-case is 
spaced to allow a plenteous amount of white background 
to show thru. The tone of the page would be improved if 
the device were in outline instead of silhouette. The 
upper type group has been made to conform to the tri- 
angular shape of the device. Altogether the page is 
well suited to the volume of which it is the title — a 
book of rhymes. 

Example 139. — A page from a book for children, writ- 
ten and illustrated by Will Bradley. The type-face is a 
wide, legible letter and was especially designed by Mr. 
Bradley. Each chapter is begun with a line of old Eng- 
lish black letter, followed by several lines of highly dec- 
orative italic. The illustrations are interpreted in the 
grotesque decorative style that Bradley does so well. 
The running heads and page numbers are in the italic. 

Example 140. — A page notable for the harmony be- 
tween the tone of the type-face and decoration. The 



RECORDS OF SHELLEY, H\'RON 

AND THE AUTHOR 

BY EDWARD JOHN TRELAWNY 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

GEORGE EDWARD WOODBERRY 

VOLUME ONE 




COMPANY 



EXAMPLE 141 

A title-page of classic design 

By William Aspenwall Bradley. New York 

illustration has been treated by Beatrice Stevens in a 
semi-decorative spirit, and is very effective. The capitals 
of the body matter are used for the "Chapter III" line, 
and smaller capitals for the descriptive line under it. 
The plain initial is more effective than an ornamental one 
would have been. 

Example 141. — A title-page of classic design. The 
anchor and dolphin, originally the device of Aldus, as 
enlarged in outline has much to do with the effectiveness 
of the page. The dignified beauty of this page makes it 
worthy of close study. 

Example 142 (insert). — -This is presented merely as a 
suggestion in the adaptation of old title-pages to present- 
day work. By referring to the chapter "Typography in 
Colonial Days," it will be seen that the Midsommer 
Nights Dreame" title-page, printed in 1600, inspired 
the arrangement of the one here presented. 

Example 143. — This is a page from one of the Roy- 
crofters' serious efforts in bookmaking. It was printed 
in dense black ink on white stock, the large text initials 
standing forth in pleasing contrast. 

Example 144. — This is a page from a book by Theo- 
dore L. De Vinne, and probably presents his personal 
ideas in book typography. Notice the spacing around the 
sub-heading, and the treatment of footnotes. The first 
ine under the sub-heading is not indented. 

Examples 145 and 146.— D. B. Updike, of the Merry- 
mount Press, is responsible for the typography of these 
pages, which are a portion of a book containing the cere- 



Heroes of 

Revolutionary Times 
in America 

The Glories and Sufferings of the Men in 

Buff and Blue, from Lexington to Valley 

Forge and Yorktown 

By 

James Sheldon Wallace 




Published by the Society of Sons of American Revolution 



EXAMPLE 142 
Adaptation o{ an old title-page to modem purposes 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF BOOKS 



73 



gbt jWan of feorrotog 



Treatment of suhhead'mgs 



JiiSUS had sisters who grew up and 
were married at Nazareth. He also 
had brothers. For them he had Httle 
regard — family ties were nothing to 
him. Like aU men over whose birth 
there is a cloud, he recognized only 
the kinship of the spirit. So we hear of his 
asking almost contemptuously, "Who is my 
brother ? ' ' He had two cousins, sons of Marj' 
Cleophas, sister of his mother, who were very 
much attached to him, and called themselves 
"the brothers of our Lord." His earnest, 
thoughtful ways set him apart from the rest 
and he was regarded as strange and different. 
They did not understand him — they could not 
— and e%-idently had little faith in his unusual, 
strange and peculiar ways. 
^■■^p^HE word Galilee means "mixed." 
£W\ It was evidently so used because 
A I of the extremely varied population 
^^^^ which inliabited the province. 

There were Egyptians, Syrians, 
Greeks and Jews — the latter being somewhat 
in the majority. Many were reckoned as Jews 
who had simply married into Jewish families; 
for a Gentile to become a Jew, no particular 
rite was required. The assumption is that Jesus 



135 

The publisher may not consent to what he calls a 
needless waste of white paper. In some books the 
chapters are as brief as they are in the Bible, under 
which condition the new chapter must closely fol- 
low the previous chapter. To prevent unsightly 
gaps of white space, it is often necessary to fivernui 
many pages previously made up. Paragiaphs iiui;-t 
be made longer or shorter by a wider or narrowi-r 
spacing of lines, and an unequal amount of blauk 
must be put between the chapters. Hymn-books 
and collections of desultory poems in diffei-eut 
measui'es often require similar treatment. No fixed 
nile can be laid down for the amount of blauk be- 
tween chaptei-s, but it must be large in the sump- 
tuous and small in the compact book.' 

SUBHEADINGS 

Subheadings, of the same class, intended to relieve 
the monotony of plain type, should be in the same 
face and size of tj-pe throughout the book. For 
a subheading of one or two lines only, the small 
capitals of the text are commonly used. For sub- 
headings of three lines or more, italic lower-case of 



By the R. 



EXAMPLE 143 
•page of a de luxe vi 
)ycrofters. East Aui 



mony of marriage as per- 
formed in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. The 
type is a special letter 
based upon early forms. 
The book was printed in 
black and vermilion. Mr. 
Updike, with Bruce Rog- 
ers, believes that the way 
to improve typography in 
America is to do typog- 
raphy as well as it can 
be done. He established 
the .Merrymount Press in 
1898, and was the first to 
import the beautiful letter 
now so popular, known as 
Scotch Roman. L nlike 
Mr. Rogers, wliose ener- 
gies are confined to one 
publisher, Mr. Updike 
plans books for many 
publishers. 

Example 147. — A page 
byT. M.Cleland, who de- 
signed the Delia Robbia 
type-face. A clever adap- 
tation of foliage decoration 
to the historic crossed- 
line border. 



Text-page frc 



EXAMPLE 
ook by De Vinne. Note 
les. subheading! 



and foot! 



Ex.AMPLE 148. — This book has a French motive and 
Bruce Rogers has reflected it in the use of a style of page 



C <^?e Jform of iiofemni^otton 
of ORaftimonv: (Zoitttin wit? 
a Crrtificote of flpocriajfr 






(C9e fotm of .Sofemnijation of 

C" Jit t^e ba^ mb time appointed 
for Solemnisation of (Xfattif 
tttonp, t^e pet6on$ to 6e mattieb 
6§aff come into tf^e 6ob^ of tfje 
C^urc^.ot e^aff 6c teab^ in eome 
pcopcc f^onee, wit? t^cic ftienbc 
onJutcigPoure; anb t^ete'etanbf 
ins toeetfjev, tfje &)anon tfje cig^t 
Sjanb^anb t^e Woman on tfje (eft, 
tfie flPmietec efiaff ea?, 
a^^-^6JtmC^ beloveb, we 
1 lace satfjeteb toget^ee 
*^^-^ fjeteintfjeeisfjtoflSob, 
anb in tfje face of t^ie compony, 
to join tosetfjet tfjie ei^an anb 
tfjie Woman in fjoff e^atrimonf; 
-w$ic$ if an tjonouraBte eetate, 



EXAMPLE 145 EXAMPLE 146 

Two pages from a small ecclesiastical book. By D. B. Updike. Boston, Mas 



74 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE 
WORD AT ST. KAVIN'S 



BLISS CARMAN 



THE MONADNOCK PRESS 

NELSON 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 




CORNEILLE 



Dame-de-la-Garde. He was a man of 
great self-esteem. A modern critic 
dubs him ' Scudery le capitaine Fra- 
casse.' The fortress of which he had 
charge stood upon a high rock. The 
Marquise de Rambouillet said that 
she could not imagine de Scudery in 
command of a fortress which was situ- 
ated in a valley. She used to picture 
him in the act of living up to his con- 
ception of his importance, ' with head 
touching the clouds, his look fixed 
with contempt upon all beneath him.' 
Scudery declares that in penning 
his criticism he is not making a satire 
or a defamatory pamphlet, but a few 
'simple observations.' He does not 
distinguish accurately between libel 
and criticism. He says of the Cid 
that ' the subject itself is absolutely 



EXAMPLE 147 
Clever adaptation of foliage decoration to the historic crossed-line boi 
By T. M. Cleland. New York 

heading closely associated with French books of the last 
century. The ingenious printer may approximate the 
appearance of these headings by combining certain floret 
ornaments with brass rule. The type-face used in this 
instance is one made by the old firm of Farmer, Little 
& Co. Typographers producing special edition books, to 
avoid types that have become commonplace thru extens- 
ive use by printers generally, have fonts cast from old 
matrices, import type from foreign countries, or design 
special faces themselves. By these methods their pro- 
duct is given individuality and made different from the 
mass of printing. 

Custom has developed a law for the arrangement of 
the several parts of a book. There is first a blank leaf 
known as the fly-leaf, followed by a leaf with the title 
of the volume in small type slightly above center or 
placed toward the upper right corner. The next leaf 
contains the title-page, which usually gives the title of 
the work, name of author or editor, place of origin, name 
of publisher and date of issue. On the back of this leaf, 
slightly above center, is the copyright notice, and in 
the lower center or right corner the imprint of the 
printer. The table of contents and the table of illustra- 
tions follow, taking as many pages as are necessary. The 
preface, or author's introduction, is next, after which 
another half-title or a frontispiece may be inserted ahead 
of the first chapter. The dedication, at one time occu- 
pying a page in the fore part of the book, is now little 
used. The index is inserted in the rear of the book. 
This rear-index is not found in novels, but in books on 
technical subjects and those used for reference purposes. 
It is customary to number book pages with Arabic 



EXAMPLE 148 

Text-page with a French typographic motive 

By Bruce Rogers, Cambridge, Mass. 

numerals beginning with the first chapter, all 
pages in advance of the first chapter being num- 
der bered with lower-case Koman numerals. The page 

numbers, when at the foot should be separated 
from the type page by the same amount of space 
used between the lines. There is tendency among inex- 
perienced printers to place the numbers too far from 
the type page. 

There is a rule that the running title should be sep- 
arated from the type page by space equivalent to a 
quad line of the size of body-type used, altho the best 
typographers prefer only about half that amount of space. 

Pages containing chapter headings are lowered at the 
head below the regular page hight. The George French 
book (see Example 127) shows a lowering of five picas 
space. Other books show more or less this amount of 
space, but five picas will be found a pleasing distance. 

When initials are used the space between them and 
the type should be the same, both at the right side and 
foot of initials. 

The position of a book page should be toward the 
binding and the head. In elaborate books of wide mar- 
gins this inclination should be great, but in the conven- 
tional book of narrower margins it should be less notice- 
able — say six points toward the binding and eighteen 
points toward the head. 

The use of an em-quad between sentences on a book 
page is encouraged bj' many printers, but the new- 
thought compositor uses two three-to-em spaces or less. 
By referring to Example 127 it will be found that George 
French favors use of the same amount of space that sep- 
arates other words in the same line. The capital letter 
seems sufficient indication of the beginning of a sentence. 
In the first book printed from separate types (see repro- 
duction of page from Gutenberg's Bible in the chapter on 
"The Origin of Typography") there was no space used 
between sentences, the period in the judgment of the 
printer separating the words sufficiently. 




m 



7 



^E] 



BOOKLETS 



THE word "booklet," the literal meaning of which is 
a diminutive book," has been found convenient by the 
printer and the advertising public to denote the numer- 
ous bound bits of printed matter used in advertising. 
"Brochure" and "pamphlet" are two other names some- 
times applied to this class of printing. A booklet is sup- 
posed to have a cover, which generally consists of heavy 
paper now to be had in generous variety of colors and 
finishes. 

The chap-books sold in the seventeenth century, con- 
taining abbreviated stories, were, perhaps, prototypes of 
the booklet, but as now used the booklet is a modern 
conception. It is a result of that growth and develop- 
ment which has taught the mass of consumers to be par- 
ticular and discriminating, and fo demand quality and 
artistic workmanship. When the "dodger" or hand-bill 
ceased to be effective as a publicity auxiliary to the 
newspaper, the booklet was born. The laws consider a 
few placards or the publication in one or two obscure 
newspapers 
su ffi ci en t 
notification 
to the public, 
but the gen- 
eral adver- 
tiser knows 
the futility 
of such obso- 
lete mediums 
and gets his 
message to 
the public 



n o t ^ 1 

G r e. e. n 






PA5ADE-nA 
CALIF-ORniA 
U • 3 -A 



by 



doz 



m ethods — 
traveling 
salesmen, 
newspapers 
and maga- 
zines, cata- 
logs, book- 
lets, circu- 
lars, posters, 
novelties. 



■ar a 



rds 



EXAMPLE 149 
r-page by Norman Pierce. Los Angeles 



electric 
signs, etc. 
Next to the 
salesmen 
and samples, 
and the cata- 
log, thebook- 
let affords the 
most com- 
plete presen- 
tation of the 



business message. To an extent its mission is educa- 
tional ; it introduces the business house, gives authori- 
tative answers to questions that the prospective buyer 
would naturally ask, explains advantages and gives rea- 
sons for superiority. The booklet is best if written in a 
style that is non-technical and treated by the artist and 
printer in a manner that will interest the recipient. 

The booklet is used as a medium for publicity by rail- 
roads, cities, hotels, real estate companies, banks, cloth- 
iers, educational institutions, printers; manufacturers 
of automobiles, musical instruments, cameras, and tools 
and implements of many kinds. If one wishes intelli- 
gently to purchase a piano or other expensive article he 
obtains a booklet on the subject, and whether he buys 
or not depends largely upon the impression obtained 
from the booklet; if it is well written, carefully illus- 
trated and handsomely printed, these things will exert 
influence in favor of a sale. The printer's share in pro- 
ducing such a booklet is large, altho he is called upon 
to work in 




EXAMPLE 150 

and photograph 
Winchell, New York 



76 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 





^-m. 


/^ 


T ^^Ij^IfIII 


M 


r ^itK.ii_^ 




^ Quality is not simply i^*ly3 
^a case of money; the ^ V 


rV^^I 




sEH 


printer who is equipped for poor work, 






or the mediocre, cannot at any price 




/(^^^P 


produce anything better than he and 




v^^Ri 


his employees are trained to do, or than 




R' 


his plant is equipped for producing. 




■ 


Every good advertiser once in his 
life has probably over-reached the mark 
of good buying, and these very men, 






who have paid for their experience, 
form the present backbone of the 






demand for fine printing. 

A good print shop must have not only 
a perfect mechanical equipment and 






'I 


employees trained for the production of 






1 


%^ ^ high-grade work, but must be 

l^ifiM^ equipped to anticipate a fin- 
W^ ished productThis means a 






i 




1 



learns something of his tastes and preferences. This 
printer then plans as many as a half-dozen dummy book- 
lets, giving the customer a variety of choice in paper, 
illustration, decoration, typography, size and price. It is 
seldom that the customer is unable to decide on one of 
the dummies submitted, and those not accepted are 
placed in service when an order is in sight from another 
buyer of printing. Of course for the average job it would 
not be profitable to prepare more than one or two dum- 
mies, but for the high-class booklet the extra effort can 
be made to pay dividends. 

To properly plan a booklet the commercial printer 
must know something of the principles of art and of 
good book typography. Booklet printing is really the 
connecting link between job printing and book printing. 
Theunconventionalityof job typography and the dignity 
and conservatism of book typography may be blended in 
the booklet. 

Booklets may be divided into three classes: illustra- 
tive, decorative, and purely typographical ; and these 
three classes are well represented in the specimens re- 
produced in this chapter. 

Example 149. — A cover-page by Norman Pierce, one 
of the most original booklet designers of America. His 
decorative work contains little or no perspective and much 
is in the style known technically as wash-drawing. The 
lettering in this design was printed in gold, flat on the 
surface of the cover stock. The sheet was pebbled after 



EXAMPLE 151 



Designed by Herbert W. Meyer. New York 

not fit the decoration. I have in mind an instance in 
which the artist laid out sixteen pages of marginal illus- 
trative decoration, and the writer supplied only half 
enough copy. To overcome the deficiency the printer set 
the text matter in eighteen-point type, but even with 
that large face the spaces left for the reading matter 
were only partly filled. If the writer was unable to fill 
the space the artist should have decreased the number 
of decorative pages or else planned his decoration to 
cover more surface. 

Those houses which have made a success of booklet 
printing produce a job that is harmonious and complete. 
Reading matter, illustration, decoration, paper, ink and 
color treatment, all blend on their booklets. There is a 
central motive around which all concerned in the make-up 
of the booklet weave their ideas. 

Altho such a condition is ideal it is not absolutely 
necessary for a printshop to have under its roof a com- 
plete equipment for producing every detail of a booklet. 
One of the successful producers of booklets — an artist 
with associates able to interpret his ideas — had a palm 
in his artistic suite of offices which he enjoyed showing 
to visitors who asked to see the "plant." Then there is 
the head of a large printing plant who manages to pro- 
duce high-class booklets. He has artistic ideas and de- 
pends upon the open field of artists and engravers to 
develop and perfect his plans. He manages to meet a 
prospective customer and from conversation with him 



I r.f(.'./4rrj|r. 




^Tlofe/ <3^ronfenac 

THE FRONTENAC is located on Island Fronle- 
nac. St. Lawrence River. New York, in the heart 
of the Thousand Islands, and overlooks an unrivaled 
panorama ot river, islands and woodland. It is recog- 
nized as an ideal summer resort hotel, thoroughly modern 
and convenient and is favored especially by families who 
desire ease and comfort. 

The main building and annex contain over three 
hundred and fifty luxuriously furnished rooms, the major- 
ity being en suite, and all commanding extensive views 
of the river and islands. There are one hundred private 
baths, together with numerous general baths on each 
floor. The buildings are lighted with electncity and 
warmed by steam and open lires; they are well equip- 
ped with elevators, numerous stairways and exits. The 
plumbing and fixtures are the best and no expense has 
been spared to make this hotel the finest of its kind. 



EXAMPLE 152 
mbination of photograph, band-lettering and type 
By Morrill Press. Fulton, N. Y. 



BOOKLETS 



Tl 



flie opposite page, is a 
odel hotel. Opening off 
intended for flie use of 



THE cafe. iUust 
unique feature 
&e Palm Ro 
l>o& ladies and gentlemen. 

Architecturally, it is one of flie most admirable 
rooms of its kind, iie beauty of &e mammo& fireplace 
being especially noticeable. 




EXAMPLE 153 



New York 



printing. A competing house, imitating the 
Pierce style, embossed the gold letters, 
thereby departing from the chief motive of 
a style which calls for flat effects. 

In Fierce booklets illustration and decora- 
tion predominate over typography, but all 
three as a rule blend harmoniously. The art- 
ist is the chief factor in the production of 
booklets of this kind ; he must have imagina- 
tion, a certain carelessness of touch in draw- 
ing and a fine sense of color blending. 

Ex.\MPLE 150. — Edward Everett Winchell 
designed this booklet cover for the Matthews- 
Northrup Works. Mr. Winchell's style of dec- 
oration, entirely ditferent from that of Mr. 
Pierce, is that of carefully drawn solids or 
outlines. Mr. Pierce bases his decorative 
motives upon the style of the Japanese; Mr. 
Winchell upon the style of the Greeks and 
Romans. The cover shown is unusual in that 
a photograph of the building, printed upon 
both front and back covers, serves as the de- 
sign. This plan of printing a design upon 
both front and back covers, adopted by sev- 
eral of the leading booklet printers, has prac- 
tical value in that the booklet can be identi- 
fied whether lying upon its face or back. When 
the design does not extend over both pages 
it is merely duplicated for the purpose. The 
main part of this example was printed in dark 
yellow-brown and the sky warmed by a tint 
of orange. The motive established on the 
cover, of using illustration decoratively, is car- 



77 

ried to the inside pages, the initial letters 
being drawn upon small photographic repro- 
ductions of sections of the building. 

Example 151. — This page is from a booklet 
designed in a humorous style by Herbert W. 
Meyer. The grotesque illustrations serve to 
picture the points of the story and also act 
as decoration. The typography blends well 
with the art work. 

Example 152. — This is the first reading 
page of a booklet issued in the interests of a 
summer hotel. .About three dozen photo- 
graphs were shown in halftone, most of the 
pages containing two — one at the head and 
one at the foot of each page. Enough descrip- 
tive matter was furnished to fill the space be- 
tween the halftones, which were without the 
line around the edge generally placed there 
by the engraver, supposedly for the protec- 
tion of the plates. The best printers are 
ordering these lines left oft", as without them 
the prints are more artistic. 

The halftones were printed in a dark olive- 
green and the print was made even more 
effective by an egg-shell finish given the 
paper after printing. This method of slightly 
roughing paper after printing is much used 
on booklet work. It not only hides slight 
defects in presswork, but gives a soft, artistic 
finish to the printed sheet, and especially im- 
proves gold-bronze printing. 

Examples 153 and 154. — Two facing pages 
from a booklet designed by Edward Everett 




EXAMPLE 154 
a page when the photograph is of other proportions 
Note treatment of caption 



78 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Winchell 
and pre- 
senting the 
attractive 
features of 
a large New 
York hotel. 
There is 
but a small 
amount of 
descriptive 
matter, 
c o n fi n e d 
mostly to 
two pages 
in the front 
of the book, 
yet the 
treatment 
is such that 
more words 
would have 
spoiled it. 
The plain 
rule border 
gives uni- 
form shape 
to the pages 
and pleas- 
ingly con- 
trasts with 
the liberal white space inside. In Example 153 the de- 
scriptive matter is grouped at the head of the page in 
Avil, a handsome old-style roman type-face. The vign- 
etted edges of the halftone fading into the surrounding 
white space is effective. Example 154 demonstrates how 
an illustration which is out of proportion to the page 
may be placed to get good results. The caption set in 
capital letters slightly spaced, is in keeping with the 
squared style of the page. Compositors should study the 
position of this caption. Many would be inclined to 
center it 




npanies a line or page 



EXAMPLE 155 
Adapting a photograph to a cove 
Simple, but effectiv 



r-page design 




EXAMPLE 156 
Effective results by simple 
r by Bartlett-Orr Press. New York 



ony is avoided which alway 
in dead center. 

Example 155. — This cover-page presents a result ob- 
tained by adapting a photograph to purposes of design. 
The halftone is made larger than the booklet size so that 
when the booklet is printed and trimmed the picture- 
design may completely cover the surface. The title may 
be lettered on the photograph or engraved on the half- 
tone after it is made. There are artists who object to 
lettering placed in a design or picture where it has 
no visible means of support, and their objections may 
extend to lettering as here used. As in architecture 
there should be structural reasons for every line of a 
building design, so typographic or kindred designs should 
be held together by related lines and groups. The de- 
signer who violates these principles may have argument 
on his side in the fact that modern architecture accom- 
plishes queer things, such as theater balconies without 
pillars and steps without visible support. Then, too, illu- 
minated advertising phrases are constantly seen stand- 
ing out from the night like stars in the sky, and stream- 
ers float above city streets seemingly attached to nothing. 
Still, a booklet cover should be basicly artistic rather than 
freakish. The method of providing a cover-design dem- 
onstrated by the page under consideration is satisfactory 
for many purposes and has possibilities in many ways 
for adaptation to booklet printing. Type forms could be 
designed for use in conjunction with photographs, thus 
confining almost the entire production of a booklet to 
the printshop. Of course in selecting and preparing a 
photograph for such purposes its composition must be 
considered so that balance may be secured. 

Example 156. — ^Here is a strong and eff'ective cover, 
made so by simple means. The design was printed in 
dark gray and gold on light gray stock. The border, 
which reaches to the edge of the paper, contains char- 
acters shaped like crucibles, about which articles the 
booklet tells. Here is an eff'ect that may be easily ap- 
proximated by any printer. A border such as this could 
be cut out of pressboard, which, mounted on an old 
electrotype block, would serve for a short run; for a 
long run it could be electrotyped. But these simple 
effects must be handled properly or they will not look 
right. The Bart- 
lett-Orr Press did 
this, and it is to 
such printers that 
the buying pub- 
lic turns when it 
desires simple 
designs. It is the 
little fellow with 
slight knowledge 
of designing who 
produces "elabo- 
rate" effects; the 
more he learns 
the less elaborate 
are his designs. 
Example 157. 
— Lettering has 
an important 
place in booklet 
designing, along 
with decoration 
and illustration. 
This example was 
printed on hand- 
made paper and 
the deckle-edges 
and rough sur- 
face of the paper 



Fads(f 
Fables 



ABOUT 

"Printin 

with a Mor; 



^ 



example 157 

A hand-lettered cover-page 

By Blanchard Press. New York 






announcemem 

Cour0e0 of 
3n0truction 

in 

IRral estate 

fall 1900 






TL\it mtst feidf 

ounff 99cn'0 C^tistian 

*a9Soctation 

318 Wittt 57tt) dtrrrt 
Citp of ntto Pork 



'»!1 



^«««n«sg«SKS«aai 



EXAMPLE 158 

An (rtterwise good typograpliic page tkat 

is too dainty for tLe purpose 




EXAMPLE 159 
More appropriate treatment or the cover 



BOOKLETS 



79 



blended with the careless finish of letters and border. 
There was a further blend of the hand-lettering and the 
Casion type-face used on the inside pages. The lettering 
was based upon the Casion model, which is standard for 
old-style effects. Here is a hint for printers : Distinction 
will be added to booklets otherwise printed from Casion 
type if the cover and display headings are hand-lettered. 
This may be done with good results by setting them first 
in Casion type. After the type has been arranged satis- 
factorily take a print in blue tint on paper suitable for 
drawing with ink. The letters may then be traced free- 
hand with black india ink over the blue print and any 
desired ruggedness or variation introduced. As light blue 
ink will not reproduce when a zinc etching is made 
the blue proof need not be carefully adhered to. Colonial 
effects require variety, hence italic and small capitals 
should be introduced in such lettered designs. 

Examples 158 and 159 (Insert). — These two specimens 
are shown to illustrate the paradoxical case of a good speci- 
men which is not good. Example 158 is that specimen; 
it is good from a typographical viewpoint — type-face, 
border and ornament harmonize, the page balances, the 
color combination (in the original : brown and green on 
green onyx) is harmonious — but fails in that it is not ap- 
propriate for the purpose for which it was intended. The 
printer set out to give his customer a handsome job — one 
of which he would feel proud and one the customer 
could not but praise. A press proof was taken, that 
none of the good points should be missed, but despite all 
this careful preparation the customer pronounced judg- 
ment against it. The type was too dainty and decora- 
tive, he said, and the general appearance more appro- 
priate for a booklet other than one on the subject of 
real estate. It was finally decided to have the cover let- 
tered and this was done by F. W. Goudy with the result 
shown by Example 15J>. The surface of the paper close 
to the edges was utilized by the artist and the lettering 
made large and legible. The words "Real Estate" were 
not only made large but were given additional promin- 
ence by outlining the letters and printing within them 
in white ink. Comparison of the two 
specimens proves the customer to 
have been right. Study the speci- 
mens, reader, and judge for yourself. 

Examples 160 and 101 (Insert). — 
These specimens demonstrate that it 
is possible for printers to adapt typog- 
raphy to plates already made, and to 
use one design on every page of a 
booklet. It is reciuired with a border 
of this kind, to unify the page and to 
preserve the tone, that the reading 
matter be set closely to it. The ty- 
pography, too, should have sufficient 
strength to stand with the border. 
When selecting a type-face for such 
purpose the characteristics of the 
border should be studied ; here Old- 
style Antique blends well with the 
style of decoration found in the bor- 
der. If a border is of strong tone, as 
in this instance, by printing it in col- 
ors subdued with white, an effective 
result is obtained. 

The printer will do well to study 
this matter of adaptation. From the 
very nature of his work, making 
designs with cast characters, he is 
limited where the artist is not. 
Nevertheless it has been proved by 
printers who have surmounted these 
difficulties that artistic results are 



B/WK^OFFICE 
BUILDINGS 




EXAMPLE 162 
Lettering and decoration in rich, ref 
By F. W. Goudy, New Yor 



possible with type alone — and are also possible when 
harmoniously combined with ornaments and decora- 
tion. Of course stock cuts and ornaments, if inharmoni- 
ous should not be used. The type foundries have a 
large assortment of artistic borders and ornaments, and 
material for booklet decoration can be had from this 
source at small expense. Then, too, by patronizing some 



ABOVT 

BOYS 




ROGERS, PEET 
& COMPANY 




WHATEVER wc send 
on approval, whether ps 
for or not; but we do n 
send a number of articles 
for the selection of a single one. 

Responsible persons by giving proper 
references may have goods charged on 
monthly account and shipped subject to 
out rules of delivery. In all other case» 
we send by express with bill for col- 

Dt livery: 

All purchases are delivered free with- 
in 1 oo miles of this city, and to such 
further poinu on each line of railway 
as do n. 



Mail orders if t 



1 the loo-milc 



.....^ and fiilly paid in ad- 

ince, arc delivered free to any part of 
,e United States. Charge orders are 



e goods bought and paid for 



80 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 















LEGEND 

THREE-HANDLED 

LOVING 

CUP 









Tboi 



EXAMPLE 165 
refined cover-page. By Munder- 
sen Company, Baltimore, Md. 



good engraving 
house, artists' de- 
signs may be ob- 
tained at reason- 
able prices ; but 
while engravers 
will finish your 
dra w i ng s and 
complete your 
ideas, it is well 
for the printer to 
be able to design 
his own booklets 
and give the en- 
graver close in- 
structions as to 
what is wanted. 
Many customers 
have been disap- 
pointed when 
"leaving it to 
the engraver," 
because the en- 
graver cannot in- 
terpret another's 
ideas without 
getting an understanding as to what they are. Leave it 
entirely to the other man only when you are willing to 
accept his ideas. 

Example 162. — This is the cover of a booklet which, 
excepting two photogravure prints and this design, was 
set in Caslon type. The booklet was printed in black and 
vermilion on Japan vellum, a rich and dignified combin- 
ation. The cover-design is by F. W. Goudy and is char- 
acteristic of all 
his work. The 
style of letter- 
ing is that pe- 
culiar to the 
P a b s t type- 
face, also de- 
signed by him. 
Examples 
163 AND 164. 
— These pages 
are from a 
booklet de- 
signed and 
printed by 
Will Bradley, 
who is more 
prolific in 
ideas and more 
radical in the 
manner of 
their presen- 
tation than 
any other art- 
ist or anyother 
printer could 
be or would 
dare to be. 
This booklet 
was produced 
by Bradley in 
1899 while 
connected 
with the Uni- 
versity Press 
and when his 
Colon'al style 
was at its high- 



dmtt in 

Printing 

W1907 



(SliristiQn %ison(ition 
318 ®lf5t57tl) Stmt 
(Sit^ of %t\o ^ml 



est point 
of popular- 
ity. This 
style has 
waned, and 
advertising 
booklets as 
a class have 
become 
more con- 
ventional ; 
some claim 
also that 
they have 
d eterior- 
ated — a r e 
mediocre. 
The trouble 
may be that 
every print- 
er is not an 
artist and 
every artist 
is not a 
printer. 
Bradley is 
both and 
that per- 



plains why 
he is able 
to accom- 
plish much more 
shown are from a 





HlINTRODVCTIONliy 




"1 1 7 E have renovated our 
VV Show Rooms and are 
displaying a very full line of 
our Plumbing Goods m an 
attractive setting so as to 
render inspection and selec- 
tion a pleasure to our patrons. 
You will be cordially wel- 
comed at any time, and we 
feel confident that you will 
find our goods, our prices, 
and our attention to your 
wants entirely satisfactory. 


! 


m 


^^^^^^^M 
^^^P 



EXAMPLE 167 
Typography in imitation of hand-lettering and ( 
thruout for headings. By 



EXAMPLE 166 

Page in renaissance panel 

By Gregson 6f Crosby. Bostoi 



than the rest of us. The two pages 
booklet done for Rogers, Peet & Co., 
and printed 
thruout in 
black and ver- 
milion. The 
title "About 
Boys," was 
probably en- 
graved in 
wood, as was 
the hour-glass 
ornament; the 
remainder of 
the page is in 
Caslon roman. 
These pages 
may seem de- 
f e c t i V e to 
those whose 
idea of beauty 
in printing in- 
cludes dainty 
tints and 
curved lines. 
As pages of a 
booklet of the 
"nice" or "el- 
egant" kind, 
they would 
no doubt be 
out of place, 
but as parts of 
a booklet 
printed on an- 
tique paper in 
antique inks 
and bound in 
antique style, 
the typogra- 



donmrnPrintms 


11 _JJtL[ -I^JIjL-. IJIIIL season's course of lec- 




a Ci*^iQ < ">' ''''"^- ""^ " *'" ^ ^^' 


HIt m ~-^iouZ'\^^''^ 


f^ jjil l|U r devoted whoUy to printing, 




V^i^^^S^^viE thoroughly practical. The 


lectures will be given by men of experience in 






by exhibits. In last season's course for instance, 


some of the chemicals used in ink-making were 


shown in the lecture on that subject, and their 


effect on various grades of paper demonstrated; 


during the lecture on paper-making a piece of hand- 




those present the very best possible first-hand in- 




This course is not for the purpose of making 




time devoted to the lectures. Neither is if merely 


for beginners, altho employers would do well to 


encourage their apprentices to attend the course. 


The main idea is to give such instruction as will 


help enlarge the knowledge of those already 


printers, and add to their earning capacity. Men 


allied with the business of printing, but not di- 


rectly engaged therein , would also find the lectures 


worth while. "The man who knows" is the man 


who gets along best in business life in this age. 


Ust year's class included apprentices, joumey- 




fhe course will again be under the direction of 







EXAMPLE 168 
'he condensed black let 
,. New York 



To You 

Who Are Interested 

in Helping Mankind to 

Help Themselves 



t 



The 

Washington Association 

for the Prevention and Relief 

of Tuberculosis 



BOOKLETS 



81 



^rospectufi; 




The American 

Gjrrespondence School of 

Typography 

36 Easi Twenty-second Street 
Nrv, York C«y 



phy should not 
be other than an- 
tique — or Colon- 
ial, as it is better 
known. The 
printer who nar- 
rows his type 
work to a single 
pet style and 
does no other 
kind also narrows 
his field of use- 
fulness. There 
are those who do 
this and succeed, 
but they are ex- 
ceptionally tal- 
ented and do per- 
fect work. There 
are those, too, 
who narrow their 
endeavors to the 
con V en t ion a 1 
style— like the 
man at the meet- 
ing whose abil- 
ities limited him 
to seconding 
the motion" — 
and fail to pro- 
duce anything 
above medioc- 
rity. I have in 



ical p u r - 
poses. The 
type-face is 
Pabst, a 
standard 
art roman. 
Example 
166.— This 
page pre- 
sents the 
entire read- 
ing portion 
of a booklet 
d e si gn ed 
fora plumb- 
er's supply 
house by 
Gregson & 
Crosby. 
The design 
is an inter- 
esting in- 
terpreta- 
tion of a 
renaissance 
panel, the 
type por- 
tion in 
French Old 
Style being 
so spaced as 



BEj^^l 


I^H^IK'. 



ByFr 



EXAMPLE 170 
esign all in type-founders" material 
ink L. Crocker, Jersey City, N. J. 



EXAMPLE 169 
Pleasing u»e of lower-case and 

color. By Augurte Giraldi, New York 



those who work 
by rule of thumb, 
whose knowledge 
of their craft does 
not extend beyond the four walls of the room in which 
they work, whose ambition as apprentices was to get 
the scale," and having got it settled down to a routine 
existence the most exciting fea- 
tures of which are the whistle 

and the pay envelop. The rea- 
son these men do not succeed 
is because of competition — 
there are so many others doing 
work just as they are doing it, 
which suggests this truth: 
"The poorer the work the more 
competition; the better the 
work the less competition." 
Poor printing means poor prices 
and poor wages ; good printing 
means good prices and good 
wages. 

Example 165. — This is the 
cover-page of a dainty little 
booklet in black and vermilion 
on Japan vellum. It is sug- 
gested for pages which should 
be treated in a style dignified, 
neat atid refined — and most 
pages will be benefited by just 
such treatment. A border de- 
sign such as the egg-and-dart 
is approved by the most cul- 
tured people; it is a classic 
combination much used in archi- 
tecture and is being adopted by 
the best printers for typograph- Title-page ii 



to blend with the decorative border. The initial "W," 
however, is too dark for the lettered word "introduc- 
mind printers of tion;" if no initial were used, the first line beginning 
the old school, evenly at the left, the tone would be still better. 

Examples 167 and 168. — These two pages are shown 
as specimens of results obtained by the exclusive use of 
type founders' material. The border and initial are imi- 
tative wood-cut effects and the condensed text (named 
Chaucer) is a clever adaptation of hand-lettering. Use of 
the same style of letter as on the cover, for the headings of 
the inside pages, gives the entire booklet a sense of com- 
pleteness that would not be 



The 
Mae Benson School 

Applied Design 

for Men ©Women 



54 Madison Avenue 
New Tork 



present were the pages not 
thus related. The condensed 
type-face, too, is in proportion 
to the shape of the pages. 

Example 169.— This is the 
title-page of a booklet by Aug- 
uste Giraldi, one of the pro- 
moters of the American Cor- 
respondence School of Typog- 
raphy, later incorporated with 
The American Printer. It is a 
good example of the use of 
lower-case. The ample white 
space and the border in red 
form a pleasing contrast. 

Example 170.— That type 
founders' material affords op- 
portunity for almost limitless 
effect is demonstrated by this 
specimen. The crossed lines 
were made of brass rule and 
the horse ornaments were sawn 
to get the effect shown. The 
letters were red inside of black 
outlines ; the trappings of the 
horses were also in red. The 
inner parts of the crossed rules 
were in a cream tint, and the 
entire design was printed on a 



82 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE 

ART PORTFOLIO 

A SELECTION FROM THE INTER 

NATIONAL STUDIO OF ONE HUN 

DRED PLATES OF THE BEST 

CONTEMPORARY ART RE 

PRODUCED IN COLOR 

PHOTOGRAVURE 

a HALF-TONE 



JOHN LANE 

NUMBER is I FIFTH AVENUE 

NEW YORK 

1901 



EXAMPLE 172 
ing specimen of the fan-shaped title-page 
By A. F. Mackay. New York 



THIRTY 

5UMMLR MORNING5 

IN THL 

BOY5' VACATION 

SCHOOL 



EXAMPLE 174 

Commendable use of capitals on a typographic page 

By W. A. Woodis. Blanchard Press. Worcester. Mass. 



dark gray-brown paper. This gave a subdued tone tliat 
is pleasing to the artistic sense. 

Example 171. — The stylish, decorative and legible 
Caslon type-face almost invariably gives good results on 
booklet printing. This page by Lee L. Crittenden is 
admirable for the use of small capitals and italic in com- 
bination. 

Example 172. — Mr. Mackay has produced in this title- 
page an unusual arrangement, even in tone and consist- 
ent in the use of Caslon capitals. To obtain the desired 
shape words were divided and hyphens omitted, expedi- 
encies that should seldom be resorted to on commercial 
printing, as 
~ customers 

are likely 
to object. 

Example 
173.— This 
is the first 
inside page 
of a book- 
I et, the 
stock of 
which con- 
sisted of a 
thin straw- 
colored 
Japan ese 
paper, 
printed on 
one side 
only. The 



heavy, 
rough, dark 
green paper 
contained 
only the 



The Anti-Waste-Basket Idea 

Dedicated to the man who means 
well and wants to do well— who 
wants to know the good of anything 
and everything — who, when he knows, 
makes that knowledge serve him 




EXAMPLE 173 

Unconventional arrangement of a booklet p 

By Corday ^ Gross. Cleveland. O. 



waste-basket illustration printed on both front and rear 
in gold ink set into the stock by a heavy impression. The 
simplicity of the typography accords with the treatment 
as a whole. 

Printers will accomplish the most in booklet printing, 
as in other branches of the craft, if they live in an artis- 
tic atmosphere. Sir Joshua Reynolds, the great English 
painter, said: "The more extensive your acquaintance 
is with the works of those who have excelled, the more 
extensive will be your powers of invention." Thatis the 
reason painters haunt Italy and other art centers where 
the works of the old masters are accessible. The printer 
should take journals such as The American Printer, 
devoted to the art of typography, for these journals 
bring to the great army of craftsmen specimens of the 
works of famous printers and of those who are doing 
their mite in the cause of good typography. 

The helpful atmosphere of the trade papers could be 
supplemented by specimen booklets for study purposes. 
These booklets could be obtained by writing to the 
printers producing them, or to the advertiser, and many 
could be had from retail houses selling the articles ad- 
vertised in the booklets. 

The printer must learn more than he now knows about 
art or he will become only a caddie in the game of book- 
let printing, with the artist and ad-writer making all 
the hits. The printer is depending too much upon the 
artist and too little upon himself. The possibilities of 
type arrangement have not been exhausted and never 
will be, yet many workers at the printing trade act upon 
the assumption that good printing is impossible without 
the artist's initiative and co-operation. Many a good job 
of printing has been spoiled by inferior lettering or 
decoration. 

Withal, there is nothing more ideal than a good printer 
and a good artist working together to produce perfect 
printing. 



Q - -g 



pq 



h ^ 



h h f^ 






C/D C/D C/3 C/D C/3 >> fe 

. c^ Tj5 uS CD r-I od 05 



CO 00 OO 




S-li 



CATALOGS 



RL'SKIN, enumerating three branches of arehilectural 
virtue, requires of a buildin<j (l) That it act well, and do 
the things it was intended to do, in the best way ; (2) 
That it speak well, and say the things it was intended to 
say, in the best words; (.S) That it look well, and please 
us by its presence, whatever it has to do or say. 

These three retiuirenients can as well be applied to the 
catalog, which to the printer is a book or booklet contain- 
ing an illustrated list of articles offered for sale : 

( 1 ) The catalog should ail well; it should be constructed 
in a manner fitting the purpose for which it is issued. If, 
say, it contiiin a list of plumbers' supplies and the book is 
to be handled by rugged men, it should be bound in strong 
stock of a color that will not easily soil. If it contain a 
list of jewelry, and the book is to be iiandlcd by dainty 
women, it should be bound 

delicately in light stock 
sewed with silk floss. 

(2) The catalog should 
speak well; the illustrations 
should be faithful presenta- 
tions of the articles to be 
sold, and the descriptive 
matter should be well writ- 
ten, accurate and complete. 

(3) The catalog should 
look well; the type-faces, 
paper, ink and binding 
should be harmimious; the 
illustrations and descriptive 
matter arranged with regard 
to balance and proi)ortion, 
and the treatment as a 
whole should be pleasing 
and interesting. 

There was a time when 
catalogs were printed with- 
out attention to these 
things, or if the first two 
requirements were complied 
with the third was ignored. 
It will necessitate no effVjrt 
for the reader to recall the 
days when merchants had 
no orderly plans for display- 
ing their wares — when the 
average store-room and 
window looked like a curi- 
osity shop. They were the 
days when the catalog was 
a heterogeneous collection 
of woodcuts and type-faces, 
packed <m the pages to the 
very edge of the paper. 

Now many show-win- 
df)ws and sales-rooms are 




EXAMPLE 176 
Artistic treatment of a glove catalog 
signed by Hall-Taylor Company, Milwaukee 



delights tt) the artistic eye, and similar care and taste are 
shown in printing the catalog. 

The catalog is a portable show-case and from it the 
custonur niakts selection, often witliout seeing the article 
itself. I'lusf facts make it vitally essential tiiat goods be 
disi)la.\ t(l iiivitin;;l.\ and in good taste. Display an article 
l)rt)perl.\ and it requires fewer words to sell it. 

Take a girl of plain features, dress her handsomely and 
place her on a stage amid beautiful colors and lights, and 
a dozen millionaires will want to marry her — an extreme 
illustration of the power of attractive (lis])lay emphasizing 
the necessity of playing up" tiie ordinary to create the 
desire of possession. It is also possible to make an imi)res- 
sion by seemingly contrary methods. It is told of .losepli- 
ine that, wishing to gain the admiration of Napoleon, she 
appeared at a reception in 
a gown of pure white, with- 
out ornaments. The con- 
trast with the elaborate cos- 
tumes of the other women 
and the elegant furnishings 
of the room was such as to 
bring words of compliment 
from the emperor. It should 
be remembered, however, 
especially by the typogra- 
pher, that mere plainness 
of dress did not win Joseph- 
ine her triumph, but artis- 
tic simplicity, which is quite 
different. A block of marble 
rough-hewn from the quarry 
is plain, but carved into 
classic statuary is more than 
that. 

An important tenet in 
catalog printing is that at- 
tention must be given to 
the manner of presentment 
or the catalog will not en- 
tirely fulfil its purpose. 
This manner may vary with 
the article catalogued, as 
treatment suitable for one 
thing may be unsuitable for 
another, but the re()uire- 
ments of Ruskinapjily to all. 



Example 175 (Insert).— 
How should a jeweler's cat- 
alog be treated? Not many 
printers could give a satis- 
factory answer to this ques- 
tion, yet in the specimen 
pages here shown Edward 
Stern & Co. have done so. 



84 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 



CATALOGUE 

OF A 

MEMORIAL EXHIBITION 

OF THE WORKS 

OF 

AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS 



NEW YORK : MDCCCCVIII 



EXAMPLE 177 
Title-page of catalog of exhibits 



CATALOGUE 



(Obverse) Bust ofU^ashington, side view, head in 
profile, directed left ; Continental costume. At the 
right, the fasces of magistracy, forming a border 
about the edge, thirteen stars. 



PHILIP MARTINY, W 
AND COPYRIGHT BY 
CAUDENS 



>DELLER. DESIGN 



(Reverse) Upper half, an American eagle, with 
wings spread, claws holding arrows and olive 
branch bearing shield with legend E PLVRIBVS 
VNVM. Lnuer left, coat of arms of New York 
State. Thirty-eight stars forming border. 

TO COMMEMORATE THE INAVGVRATION 
OF GEORGE WASHINGTON AS FIRST PRE- 



MITTEE ON CELEBRA 



,t by Mr. Frederick S. If ail. 



EXAMPLE 178 
Both pages by D. B. Updike. Boston, Mas 



Treatment more pleasing and ap- 
propriate cannot be imagined. 
Daintiness, simplicity, refinement 
and art are combined in this cata- 
log and every detail is essential 
to the effect as a whole. Omit the 
touch of orange and there is a 
depreciation of twenty per cent; 
omit the pressed border, another 
twenty per cent ; print the pages 
in black instead of gray, another 
twenty per cent; print the illus- 
tration directly on the stock (using 
coated paper thruout) another 
twenty per cent. This would leave 
but an ordinary job of printing 
with only twenty per cent of the 
effectiveness of this one. 

Tell the average customer the 
cost of printing a touch of color 
such as on this example and he 
will decide it not worth while. Yet 
the value of color is not in the 
quantity used — more color here 
would have spoiled the catalog. 

Example 176. — This firm has 
gloves to sell and in a particularly 
pleasing and artistic manner cata- 
logs them for the information of 
the buying public. By means of 




EXAMPLE 179 
Page from sewing Tnacbin< 
By Mattbews-Northrup Works. 



the four-color process the gloves 
are shown in their natural colors, 
and placed in the "spot light," 
as it were, by the gradual fading 
away of the dark background about 
them. A general talk on the sub- 
ject of gloves is carried from page 
to page, while the number and 
description are placed in smaller 
type directly beneath the articles. 
Examples 177 and 178.— These 
pages are from a catalog of articles 
on exhibition but not for sale. 
D. B. Updike is responsible for 
the typography, hence the pages 
afford an interesting study. The 
catalog is printed in four sizes of 
type, altho a cursory view of the 
pages would lead to the impression 
that a less number is used. Thereare 
three sizes of capitals and one size 
of italic. A fact that makes the 
catalog unique is the absence of 
roman lower-case. It is difficult to 
realize an eighty -two-page book 
without roman lower-case, but here 
is one. The title-page (Example 
177) is composed in three sizes of 
capitals, all closely related in size, 
and corresponding to the sizes used 



CATALOGS 



on the inner pajres. The important 
words, "Catalogue," "Menn)rial 
Exhibition," and Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens" are set in a size-larger 
face than the minor words "of a" 
and of the works of," altho the 
difference is but a point. The small 
wiH)dcut isappropriate with the classic 
style of the tjpe composition and 
the harmony is further enhanced by 
printing in a clear black ink on thin 
white antique paper. Example 178 
shows a page from the body of the 
catalog, the features of which are 
worth noting. All lines excepting 
the exhibit number are set flush at 
the left, and the paragraphs or 
groups are separated by space. The 
title of the exhibit is set in the 
larger capitals ; the descriptive mat- 
ter in italic lower-case, and quoted 
words in the smaller capitals. Punc- 
tuation at the ends of lines is some- 
times omitted and sometimes used. 
The rule adopted by modern typog- 
raphers, to omit punctuation points 
at the ends of display lines, leads to 
nice distinctions when a page such 
treated. The size of the leaf of this 
inches, the type-pages measuring 2% 
the type-pages not being of regular 







EXAMPLE 180 

Page from badge catalog 

By Edward Stern 6/ Co.. Philadelphia 



85 

at the head is % inch ; at the binding 
edge % inch ; at the outer edge 1^ 
inches; at the foot 1% inches or 



c 179. — This shows a page 
from a catalog of sewing machines 
and sewing machine parts. The 
workings of the machine are pic- 
tured in such a realistic manner that 
the effect is almost equivalent to a 
demonstration on the machine itself. 
The border does not force itself on 
the attention, yet furnishes the dec- 
orative element to the page. The 
type matter, in Caslon roman, is 
stylishly arranged in harmony with 
illustration and border. 

Example 180. — Badges of honor 
or insignia are here illustrated and 
described in black and white with- 
out ornament. Some individualitj' is 
given the page by the lettered lines 
at head and foot. 

Examples 181 and 182. — Speed- 
indicating apparatus is displayed in 
this catalog. The effect presented 
by instruments illustrated in half- 



as this one is to be tone on a dark square background, surrounded by a deep- 
catalog is 4% X 7% red border, is a pleasing one. The border is just strong 
xSVi inches or less, enough to balance the illustration. The treatment of the 
length. The margin type-page (Example 18l) is simple, yet unusual. Many 



TYPE B 

This instrument is designed for belt drive 
from horizontal shaft. 

Approximate total height, 20" 

Range of scale, according to purchaser's 
specifications. 




EXAMPLE 181 
These trvo facing pages 



ided for their strong treatment 



By Matthews-Northrup Works. Buffalo, N. Y. 



EXAMPLE 182 
md pleasing use of color 



86 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



17 

SONGS AND SONNETS OF PIERRE 
DE RONSARD. 

Selected and translated by Curtis Hidden Page. 

400 copies, published June, 1903. 

Priee, ;jf4.oo, net. 

Edition exhausted. 

18 

FIFTEEN SONNETS OF PETRARCH. 

Selected and translated by Thomas IVentworth 

Higginson. 

400 copies, published October, 1903. 

Tall \6mo. Price, $^.00, net. 

Edition exhausted. 

J9 

MY COOKERY BOOKS. 

By Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 

300 copies, published December, 1903. 

^arto, illustrated. Price, $20.00, net. 

Still obtainable. 

20 

THE HISTORY OF OLIVER AND 

ARTHUR. 

Originally written in Latin. Translated into French 

w I 5 1 1 and into German by Wilhelm Liely in i 5 2 1 . 

I^ow done into English by William Leighton and 

Eliza Barrett. 

300 copies, published December, 1903. 

Siuarto, illustrated. Price, $1 5.00, net. 

Still obtainable. 



EXAMPLE 183 

Classic style of book-catalog typography 

By Bruce Rogers. Cambridge, Mass. 

printers would have placed the reading matter near the 
center of the page and in doing so have made it com- 



monplace. Smaller type, too, would have impaired the 
effectiveness of the page. 

Example 183. — This is a Bruce Rogers page, from a 
catalog of books. The style of type arrangement, it will 
be noticed, is the same as that used on Example 178, ex- 
cepting that the number is placed flush with the other 
lines at the left. Both Updike and Rogers make use of 
this classic arrangement and both are masters of it. In 
this example, unlike No. 178, punctuation points are 
placed at the ends of all lines excepting the number, 
altho on the title-page and other displayed headings 
none is used. There is no roman lower-case on this cat- 
alog, and altho occurring in italic lines all figures are 
upright. 

Example 184.— The treatment of this page is a new 
idea in catalog illustration. A halftone plate has been 
made from a combination pen-and-pencil drawing, pro- 
jecting the automobile into the foreground clear of the 
details of its surroundings, which, however, have sug- 
gestive value. This treatment gives a two-color effect and 
is recommended for catalogs on which but one printing is 
desired. 

Example 185. — This page is notable because of the soft 
blend between the illustration and type-page. To get this 
result two impressions were necessary. The illustrations 
were printed in black ink, and true to their name produced 
a halftone, or gray tone. The type matter printed in gray 
ink matched the prevailing tone of the illustration — the 
principle here involved being the same as when mounting 
a picture the dominating tone or color is duplicated in the 
mount. The vignetted edge of the halftone in this catalog 
page is an important factor in securing the proper blend. 

Examples 186 and 187. — The logical arrangement for 
catalog pages seems to be that of illustrating the article 
on one page and devoting the facing page to its descrip- 
tion. This plan has been artistically carried out in the 
examples under consideration. In the original the metal 
work and the 
rays of ligiit 
on the half- 
tone page 
were tinted 
with buff, and 
the same color 
used for the 
rule border on 





EXAMPLE 184 
1 pen-and-pencil drawing, emphasizing the car. Automobile catalog 
by Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo. N. Y. 



EXAMPLE 185 

Use of the vignetted halftone in a tool catalog 

By Little y Becker, St. Louis, Mo. 



CATALOGS 



87 




The Tuerk Alternating Current 

Deflector Ceiling Fan with Electroliers 

Type D 



EXAMPLE 186 
Illustrative and descriptive pages faced each other in this effec 



the tjpe-page. It is essential from the viewpoint of good 
advertising on a catalog that the name of the article ad- 
vertised or that of the firm issuing the catalog be placed 
on each page. It will be noticed this has been done here ; 
on the halftone it ai)pears in white letters in the upper 
right corner, and on tlie type-page is oddly arranged at 
the head inside the parallel rule border. The page num- 
ber or folio appears inside the border at the foot of the 
page. The small vignetted line illustration suggests the 
article placed in use. 

Example 188. — Here is a page depending mainly on its 
typographic treatment for effectiveness. The title is 
strong, yet pleasing, placed as it is between rules. There 
is wisdom in setting the bilk" in a size of type that is 
easily read. If a person is interested he will also read the 
matter at the font of the page. It is frequently noticeable 
that a catalog or jjage advertisement set all in one size 
of type U)oks flat and unattractive. By enlarging the 
forepart a size and reducing the remainder a size, contrast 
is introduced and interest added. The camera illustration 
is a neat one and acts well the part required of it. Com- 
positors will notice that the edge of the camera and not the 
edge of the vignette is aligned with the side of the type- 
page. This is a jxiint overlooked by some in setting type 
around cuts. Vignetted edges and insignificant projections 
should always extend into the margin, and the main por- 
tion of the illustration aligned with the side of the type- 
page. 

Example 189. — A Bradley page always has interest for 
the printer; this one is no exception. In Example 183 is 
seen how Bruce Rogers treats a book catalog page, but 
here we have treatment radically different. But then it 
is for a different purpose. The Rogers i}age goes to a 
selected list of bibliophiles and its dignified exclusiveness 
is fitting ; but the Bradley page goes to a larger class of 
readers, lovers of pictures and modern art, and this purpose 
is expressed in the arrangement. There is contrast of size, 
of capitals and lower-case, of old English Gothic and old 
English roman type-faces, and above all the initials glare 
at you — but you are not offended, you rather like it. 



There is no space between paragraphs ; this is a feature 
of much of Bradley's Colonial typography, and is men- 



No. 2 Brownie Camera 

THIS camera IS an ampli- 
fication of the No. I 
Brownie, taking larger pic- 
tures and with greater capa- 
bilities. 

Truly remarkable pictures 
have been produced bv these 
instruments, in the hands of 
school children, while work 
of the highest character has 
been done with them b)- ex- 
perts. They are as simple in operation as the No. i Brownie 
and are truly ser\iceable and reliable cameras. When fitted 
with the Kodak Portrait Attachment, good-sized bust portraits 
of excellent quality may be made. Equipped with rwo finders, 
and covered with fine imitation leather, the No. 2 Brownie is 
attractive and substantial in appearance, and in every respect 
fully merits the remarkable popularity it has attained. 




IN DETAIL F°r 






.ding. Size of Camera, six 4x3 J 
- :d 4i-inch focus. Shutter, 



Printed by Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, N. Y. 



88 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



ANEW book containing 85 of Mr. Gibsons latest drawings, in- 
cluding the studies of English Society recently exhibited at the 
Fine Art Society in London. Printed entirely from new plates 
. on beautiful paper made especially for the book, and hand- 
somely bound in white vellum and imperial Japan, bearing the imprint 
of one of the most charming figures Mr. Gibson has ever drawn. Large 



copy ei 



ing by Mr. Gib 






Pnc. SS-O 



e. $10.0^ 



SIX LARGE PHOTOGRAVURES AND COPPER ETCH- 
INGS COMPRISING MANY OK THE BEST KNOWN CHAR- 
ACTERS FROM DICKENS' WORKS, PORTRAYED IN MR. 
GIBSON'S HAPPIEST MANNER. THESE ARE THE FIRST 
ENTIRELY ADEQUATE REPRODUCTIONS THAT HAVE 
BEEN MADE OFTHE DRAWINGS OFTHIS POPULAR ARTIST 
ARE PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR FRAMING ON AC- 
COUNT OF THEIR SIZE AND STRENGTH OF TREATMENT. 
AS actual reproductions of the artist's work these plates are far 
in advance of anything heretofore attempted, each proof being 
carefully printed by hand. The large size of the prints and the 
- exquisite care with which they have been reproduced make 
them the best examples of Mr. Gibson's work which can be obtained 
They are printed on heavy deckle edge plate paper, 16x20 inches, and 
enclosed in an artistic portfolio. Price, $5.00 

There will also be an Edition-df.-Lijxe of the portfolio, each print 
being on Japan paper, numbered and signed by Mr. Gibson. This edition 
will be limited to i 50 copies, and orders will be received at $10.00 each 
until half the edition is sold, the right to advance the price at that time 
without further notice, being reserved. 

Single Proofs from the portfolio. Pric. 

Artist's Proofs, signed by Mr. Gibson. 



ice, $10.00 
tee, $2.00 each, 
ice, $4.00 each. 



EXAMPLE 189 
Book-catalog page by Will Bradley 

tioned as a hint to compositors setting this style of work. 
Example 190. — Rubber {joods form the subject of this 
catalog, which vividly presents likenesses of the goods 
themselves. A pleasing salmon tint was used for the rule 
borders and introduced in the halftone print. The effect- 
iveness of this page is due mainly to the work of the en- 
graver and 
pressman. 

I iM 1 \] V 1 1 \ II I M I M I inM ^^^ border, 

1 1 1, 1^ , , V „ \\ opened at the 

II ^1 L n I I I s 1 outer side of 
the page, 
permits side- 
notes to be in- 
serted. The 
page number 
and name of 
manufac- 
turer appears 
in small tjpe 
in the head 
margin. 

Example 
191 .—An- 
other Brad- 
ley page, this 
one from a 
catalog of 
boys' wear. 
The articles 
are displayed 
squared 




li 



o f 



EXAMPLE 190 

From a catalog of rubber goods 

By Matthews-Nortbrup Works. Buffalo, N. Y. 



spaced capi- 
tals. Colonial 
style, the 



prices appearing under them in small size. The woodcut 
ornament fits in with the motive merely as decoration, 
unless the red apples ma.v count for appropriateness. The 
style of this page is acceptable coming from Bradley, but 
compositors in general should beware of it. Where few 
mav succeed in producing a presentable page, manv will 
fail. 

Examples 192 and 193. — These two pages are from a 
catalog of wire screen. In the original the section of 
screen shown in Example 193 was in black, and the figure 
of the man was in light olive, thus throwing the screen 
into prominence. The makers of the best catalogs realize 
that the article 's the thing" and always aim to give it 
proper emphasis. The tabular matter in Example 192 
looks well entirely surrounded with rule, and with the 
descriptive matter alongside makes a pleasing page. The 
manufacturer's name and address panelled at the head of 
the pages is disposed of attractively. The page numbers 
were made too small ; their position at the foot of the 
pages toward the fold is good, however. 

Example 194. — -Mr. Nash's work is generally distin- 
guished by parallel rule border worked into various attract- 
ive designs, and he has accomplished results by these 
methods not thought possible by the average typographer. 
The specimen shown is an example of the possibilities of 
the parallel rule combined with a handsome type-face. 
The ornaments introduced into the upper corners reflect 
the character and tone of the border and type-face, and 
the display lines in capitals lend further harmony. 

Example 195.^ — The reproduction of this page fails to 
suggest the pleasing appearance of the original. The il- 
lustrations were printed in black and were brightened at 
several points with yellow and blue tints. The border 
was in light green. 

Example 196. — A feature that adds much to the qual- 
ity of this page is the introduction of an imaginary por- 
tion of the building architecture, thus freeing the organ 
illustration of the usual store-room atmosphere. A faint 
orange tint overprinted a portion of the illustration, in 
the original. The 
double line bor- 
der was also in 
orange tint. 

Example 197. 
— T his page 
shows yet an- 
other treatment 
of a book catalog. 
Type-faces (ex- 
cepting the run- 
ning title) and 
border blend har- 
moniously. The 
border has a 
Christmas motive . 

Example 198. 
— The printed 
advertising mat- 
ter of financial 
houses is gener- 
ally treated se- 
verely and inar- 
tistically ; in fact, 
such printing has 
been so common- 
place that the 
little book under 
con sid eration 

gives pleasure 

and satisfaction EXAMPLE 19 1 

to the lover of Page from catalog of boys' v 

the artistic. The By Will Bradley 



SCOTCH TAM 
O'SHANTERS 



r O Q. U E I 
RATING 



DOUBLE-BAND 
WINTER CAPS 

DouUt-bind winttt cipi . . 1 1 .00 «nd < l . jo 

BLUE GLENGARRY 




CATALOGS 



■T r L E R C O M I 





Facing pages f re 



sen. shoxving tabular treatment and u 



orifrinal cover was printed in black and yellow-brown 
tint on yellow-brown Italian hand-made paper. The in- 
side leaves were of bufF-tinted paper that blended with the 
cover. Scotch Roman was the type-face principally used. 
Example 199. — The treatments accorded catalog covers 
are interestingly varied. There is scarcely a limit to the 
possibilities of attractive designs for such purposes. This 
cover is unusual in composition, especially in the position 
of the fan motor and the lettering. The coloring of the 



page included reds, greens, browns and blues. The panel 
containing the lettering would have been more pleasing 
had the "l906"" not been injected into it. 



•r. both books and men, speaks to you directly and intimately in the* 
rteen clear, strong, confident essays on real essentials- 
He writes of Beauty. Life. Religion. Philosophy. The World-Message 
irk. Health and Happiness and great kindred s&bjeas with a sanity 
ir insight and grace of diaion that are at once a rerelation and a del ight 



WHERE DWELLS THE SOUL SERENE 

philosophy that Mr. Kirkham has expressed in this volume of thii 

ements of Freedom, The Idea of Religion. The Signifieanc 
jght. Ethical Relations. Wealth, and True Aims are among the 



as to believe in C. 



EXAMPLE 194 
talog page, with parallel line bordi 
gned by J. H. Nash. New York 




^ c,.„.u,.„. 




s 



•>li5I®lC?I®'5?:®M®SS;®ISICiS®K'i4 



EXAMPLE 195 
Page frotn automobile catalog in colors 
By R. R. Donnelley fe? Sons Co.. Chicago 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




this cliajrt 



EXAMPLE 199 

Cover of a motor catalog 

By Matthews-Northrup Works. Buffalo. N. Y. 



>:r^ 



€[agter Day 0txWt^ 



Qfjttrcl) ot Our JI(orti 



,/^::^^>^^yrc_ 



mm 



%mk 



mm 



C|)eiDormng)6>erlJtieat lOo'doife 



€ift €[bentng jBerbite at 8 o'riotfe 



jgpecial fPugJcal Program 



t3l)e fPeggtal) 



EXAMPLE 200 

Program cover page in 

ecclesiastical style 




a 



V 



^Fl 



PROGRAMS 



"LET all things be done decently and in order." These 
words t)f Paul, while possible of wide application, have 
peculiar sijjnificance applied t«> the program. The pro- 
gram exists because of recognition of the necessity of 
orderly procedure "where two or three are gathered to- 
gether." Historically the program has come to us frcmi 
the early tinies when all knowledge was transmitted by 
word of mouth. Church services are the result of evolu- 
tion from ancient ceremonies, and other exercises t\)r 
which programs are used originated in the far past. 

Pn)grams familiar to printers could be divided into 
four classes : Programs of sacred services, dance programs, 
banquet programs, and programs for various entertain- 
ments. In this order they will be considered. 

The historical side of the program of sacred services 
should not be overlooked. It is a mistake for printers to 
produce church programs in the same style of typography 
employed on secular forms. Church programs, more than 



©orning jSraper. ttje r^olp communion 


anD Sermon 


Organ prtluCc 


Offcrtotf ant^tm 


CuDd Oflcnnry lor Ej'ter Day. 
















1 Caatet anthem 


^■"^^■rSh*^ ^.t^^ 






Proper IHilms li . Iv.u. Cxi. 


Er5£r?J^ii°^i£ 


Gloria patrf 










Ce 3^cum Lauliamuti 


IL'mS .1™!° J s 6 I Cor «»•»• 






guWlatc ©CO 


ol- J. 




a«tlpti(m 


5nttott ant^era 


• Pr^« Cod from ""o"'^^^ ^^^^ 


'° ^i^'^"'^'^ '"'".''R'Sb^'s 


^nctust 


Chr.st^~».-.^..=^»^ 


'-f^- *'"^'" 




(Juc^arigtic 




Hymnlio. Brown 


toi CH«aT ^n svjjc ^i)"^^*'!^ ,^ ,^ 


©lotia m Cjrtelgig 


6l?tte eietwn 


'"''■ '^'""'" 


PUm Sotig. - - - - Wirrtn 


^unc ©(mitti« 


©lortaCibl 




PUu. Song. ... - Coonod 


lattegjitonal 


^rmnlii 


"^mo.mn" ^''"'"'- '"'''f^ll.vin 






Rimbaall 


©toan jSositluDe 


^cmum br t^c Hrctor 





any other line of printing, offer 0])i)<)rtimit> for artistic 
treatment, and their production is ]>l(asurc to tlic artist- 
printer who believes significance is an iiii|)(>rtant cKmcnt 
in good typography. 

The key to the proper treatment of ecclesiastical print- 
ing lies in the old manuscript books written in the mon- 
asteries. Black ink was commonly used for the main 
portion of books, and vermilion, a red eartli ( nihrica) for 
titles and important parts of the text. In tiie writing of 
Missals (containing services of the celebration of mass), 
of Psalters (cntainiim tin- i)salms), and of Books of Hours 
(containing |)ra\ trs aiul offices for the several hours of 
the day), maitt-sc crosses and uncial capitals were written 
in vermilion. Uncial cajjitals are now made by several 
type foundries as Missal initials, Caxton initials, Sylph 
initials, etc., and maltese crosses are easily procured. As 
black text letters were also used (m these missals and 
psalters, the tyjie-faces now known as Caslon Text, 





fxm lIMon— Exodus, iht Twcllih Clupitr. Tweniy-riehi Vtrstj 


«.«««.-. c c..,- 


bnent IrtWn— Sj.m M«thew. ihr Twmir^i 


MhOao,., 




l.U«-u,C 




Jor4.« 


cum am*^.-" A..W. Tho. *.. s>«P«. ■ 




S,..«r 


4IU61VM 




SKtintr 



M ESUS li«J I tb7 Krrors now Jbm livM lom bam know^j 



Ijolr Communion 



I Nb nam. O Fuher mi 



Tte on. Iivt. pure, imm 






EXAMPLE 201 



EXAMPLE 202 
ing An almost perfect specimen of church program printing, showing 



92 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY 



HOLY WEEK 



AND WEDNESDAY 



GOOD FRIDAY 



EASTER-EVEN 



WEDNESDAY EVENING PREACHERS 



EXAMPLE 203 
issic treatment of church progra 
By D. B. Updike. Boston, Ma 



Cloister Black, 
Flemish Black, 
etc., being 
copies of these 
early text let- 
ters, are ap- 
propriate faces 
for display 
portions of 
church pro- 
grams. Text 
letters were 
long ago dis- 
continued for 
body purposes 
in English 
printing, 
hence they 
have become 
unfamiliar to 
the general 
reader and it 
is not desirable 
to use them for 
such purposes. 
A roman letter 
such as Caslon 
is the best 
companion for 
these black 
text letters. 

The Church 
of England, 
the American 
branch of 
which is known 
as the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, deserves much credit for the modern 
development of an ecclesiastical style of printing. Because 
of the custom of using red ink in forms of service, for the 
parts giving direction as to the conduct of the services, 
these parts have become known 
as rubrics." It is necessary 
to mention to printers gener- 
ally that when colors are used 
on programs or books of ser- 
vice the "rubrics" should be 
in red. This treatment is il- 
lustrated in the page from the 
marriage service shown as Ex- 
ample 146 in the chapter on 
' Books," which also shows 
an uncial initial. When only 
black is used it is customary 
to set the rubrics in italic. 

ExAMPLE200(lnsert).— This 
title-page presents a modern 
interpretation of the historic 
ecclesiastical treatment. The 
black type-face is Caslon Text, 
and is a copy of one of the 
early manuscript letters, as be- 
fore mentioned. As pointed 
Gothic has become the ac- 
cepted style of church archi- 
tecture, so pointed Gothic 
type-faces have been adopted 
for church printing by typog- 
raphers who know. Uncial ru- 
bricated initials as used on this 
title-page are known commer- 
cially as Caxton initials. The Generous margin 











©erbiceg in Oebication of 




tfje Qorttmingter Qnibf- 


terian Gfturcl) :: Dctoaorfe 


DECEMBER 


_ 




1 



e Crittenden. New York 





^ 


QOME, Holy Spirit, God <mi Lord I 

On the MieverVS "ojwu'r" 

To .trengthen, save, and make a. whole. 


S iWe w"* do°s?^eo ISfte"^'"' 
Th^toThy p™ise""Lid7he°saDg. 


Thou strong Defence, Thou holy Light, 
Teach UB to know our God aright, 
The Word 'oTlitl mi trnTh i^pSt : ' 


But jSia for ol't MastOTOwnf ' 


He"? S to wait with°rS.dy flTt" ' 

r.5L','^sfgSru':?^i'ihT=-' 


Sllh^t aTdTeaTrTX/r.urse , Au.en. 



red lines 
which are a 
l^rominent 
part of the 
page have 
historic sig- 
nificance. 
Now grown 
to possess 
decorative 
value, they 
originated 
thru the 
necessities 
of writers of 
manuscript 
books, and 
were orig- 
inally guide 
lines for 
writing. 
They desig- 
nated the 
position of 
the page 
and the 
lines of let- 
ters. With the ancient churchmen the maltese cross was 
the symbol of Christ and today also these crosses have 
that significance, altho to a great extent they are now 
considered merely as ecclesiastical decoration. The square 
device in the center is in the Celtic style of ornament. 
The significance of the design lies in the decorative cross 
and the letters I. H. S. (lestix IIoMiiniin Sahdlor, Latin, 
meaning "jesus Saviour of Men"). It may be well to sug- 
gest that treatment of church printing should be varied 
sometimes with the denomination for which the work is 
done. The majority of clergymen will be pleased with print- 
ing treated in the accepted ecclesiastical style, jet there are 
some, prejudiced against ' high church" liturgies and 
emblems, and others with individual ideas of what is ap- 
propriate, who must be con- 
sidered. The writer recalls an 
instance in which the cus- 
tomer, an Episcopal clergy- 
man, objected to what he 
called a Latin" cross, used 
as an ornament on a title-page, 
and was satisfied when a mal- 
tese cross was substituted for 
the purpose. Many church jjro- 
grams which now appear com- 
monplace would take on a 
churchly aspect if rubricated, 
even tho that be possible only 
on the title-page. 

The example under consid- 
eration (No. 200) it will be 
noticed, is constructed on 
squared lines, a shape dictated 
by the large decorative device. 
While the page as arranged is 
interesting and fairly harmoni- 
ous, the pointed letters in the 
type lines would blend better 
with a device of the pointed 
Gothic kind, or, again, the 
squared device would be in 
closer harmony with a squared 
type-effect such as could be 
obtained with roman capitals, 
e pleasing EXAMPLE 201. — This page 



PROGRAMS 



93 




>^„A.^ 



EXAMPLE 206 
card by Edward W. Stutes 
Spokane. Wa^h. 



presents an excel- 
lent suogestion for 
the arranorement of 
a program in which 
numerous small 
titles appear. If 
each title were set 
in a measure the 
full width of the 
type-page, as is fre- 
quently done, the 
matter would not 
come into one 
page. The arrange- 
ment as shown not 
only economizes 
space but gives 
symmetry and 
tone, which other- 
wise would not be 
had. The i>ortions 
in red are well se- 
lected tV>r printing 
in that color. There 
is artistic value in 
the shape formed 
by the vertical divi- 
ding rule and the 
page heading. 

E.XAMPI.E "202. — 
This page has not 
the compactness of 
the preceding one, 
yet esthetically it 
is more pleasing. It is an almost perfect specimen of 
church-program printing. As already mentioned, the hor- 
izontal red lines and the black text letter used for titles 
have an ecclesiastical motive. Careful dispositit)n of blank 
space has given a pleasing tone to the page, which is also 
helped by the position of the second stanza of the hymn 
at the f(M)t. The type-faces are harmonious, the use of 
black text, 
• old style 

roman and 
italic afford- 
ing a pleas- 
ing variety. 
B >• inclu- 
ding in the 
color the 
initial let- 
ters and the 
title "Holy 
Commu- 
nion," all 
parts of the 
page are 
blended 
and Mated. 
Example 
203.— The 
printer may 
be naturally 
curious to 
know how a 
typogra- 
pher such 
as D.B.Up- 
dike, who is 
known to 
specialize 
on ecclesi- 




THE DANCES 




UocoBventional 



astical ty- 
pography, 
t r e a t s 
church 
programs. 
Here is an 
Updike 
page, from 
a program 
of Lenten 
services, ar- 
ranged in 
the simple, 
classic style 
of typogra- 
phy that he 
and Bruce 
Rogers ren- 
der so well. 
As will be 
noticed the 
main por- 
tion of the 
type-page 
is aligned 
at the left. 
The man- 
ner of using 
capitals, 
small cap- 
itals, lower- 
c a s e and 
italic is an 
interesting 
study. 
While ex- 
amining the 
page it is 
enlighten- 
ing to note 
that A.M. 
and P.M. are 
in small 

capitiils and that no space other than furnished by the 
period is placed between these abbreviations or the de- 
grees D.D., Ph.D., etc. 

Example 204. — This is the title-page of a small pro- 
gram which was in booklet form, a page being devoted 
to each event on the program. The title-page is in missal 
style, with cross rules and uncial initials. The spaced Pahst 
capitals at the foot are not sufficiently strong in tone to 
balance the upper part of the page. Perhaps tlie effect 
would be better had the missal style of treatment been 
extended to the lower jX)rtion of the i^age. 

Example 20,5. — This is the second page of a small pro- 
gram used at the laying of the corner-stone of a new 
church building. It would have been possible to get all 
the type matter on one page, but crowding into small 
space is often done at the sacrifice of beauty and this 
program profits by the liberal margins. The rule lines at 
the head were used to obtain uniformity of page width 
and hight. The outline t\pe ornament gives ecclesiastic 
dignity to the i^rogram. The two-line initial at the begin- 
ning of each hymn adds style and finish to the typography. 

The dance program is a far step from the church pro- 
gram. The contrast between the subdued and reverent 
atmosphere of the house of worship and the gaiety and 
frivolity of the brilliantl.v lighted ball-room emj)hasizes 
the necessity of printers using their best jwwers of dis- 
crimination in treating the various programs that come 
to their shops. 



EXAMPLE 207 
Page from a booklet pr 
By C. R. Beran- Denve, 



Colo. 




THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



The dance 
program 
should be 
dainty. White 
seems to be 
more accept- 
able than a col- 
ored stock on 
which to print 
the order of 
dancing. The 
type and ink 
treatment 
should be neat 
and delicate. 
If a bold type- 
face be used it 
should be 
printed in a 
light shade of 
ink, such as 
gray, pale 
blue, pale 
green, and the 
like. It is pos- 
sible for print- 
ers to produce 
attractive 
EXAMPLE 209 dance pro- 

The decorative border on a banquet program grams with the 

Design by Edward Everett Winchell, New York material gen- 
erally found in 
the shop, yet stock folders may save wear of the thought 
machinery and probably be more satisfactory to the cus- 
tomer. Young people are imitative and may be suspicious 
of a dance program which does not resemble those they 
have seen before ; it has got to look like a dance pro- 
gram. " For fifty years or 
more dance programs have 
consisted of folded cardboard 
with tassel and pencil dang- 
ling therefrom. The stock 
folder is to be had in a vari- 
ety of designs printed or em- 
bossed on the first page, ap- 
propriate for many occasions. 
However, there are shown 
three typographic dance pro- 
grams. 

Example 206. — An Indian 
border was used around this 
dance card, but its strong 
lines were softened by print- 
ing in gray and red. White 
stock was used. In the head- 
EXAMPLE 211 liri^j instead of the custom- 

Page from a booklet-program ary periods, dots are centered 
By Will Bradley decoratively. Artists often 



place a dot or 
small orna- 
ment between 
words of a let- 
tered design 
for the purpose 
of benefiting 
the tone. More 
often practi- 
cally no space 
at all is placed 
between words 
if in lower-case 
beginning 
with capital 
letters. 

Example 
207. — A part 
of an outing 
program, this 
page carries 
the style of all 
the other 
pag 




^^5^^W^^. ^'OVj^2_l907y^^_ 




^^-^g<«^. 




EXAMPLE 210 
A balftoned decorative backgrouT 
By Griffitb-Stillings Press. I 



gards border 
and head 
panel. It illus- 
trates the effectiveness and economy of uniform border 
treatment on a program. There are very few programs 
that would not be benefited by decorative borders in 
color. But one border need be set in type, duplicates 
being obtained by electrotyping. If there are to be only 
a few hundred programs, two borders may be set in type 
and printed on all the sheets, running only two pages on. 
If desired, a hand-drawn decorative border could be en- 
graved and afterward duplicated by electrotyping. 

Example 208. — There is nothing conventional in the 
design of this dance program. It is different from most 
others. The rule lines extend to the border, and the 
heading "Dances" sets slightly to the right of center, 
supported underneath by the 
graceful flower ornament. 
Punctuation is omitted. This 
page is recommended for 
dance cards, when the printer 
desires to have the job ex- 
clusively typographic. 



In the banquet program 
the printer has great oppor- 
tunity to make use of his in- 
ventive faculties. No other 
kind of program allows of 
such varied treatment. There 
is no limit to the shapes, the 
type arrangements and the 
color treatments that are suit- 
able for banquet programs. 
An association of leather mer- 
chants holds a dinner and 
the members may find beside 
their plates a program bound 
in a miniature hide, the sheets 
of the program attached by a 
leather thong. 

Bankers meet and the pro- 
gram may be in the form of 
a check book. 

For an athletic association 
an oval-shaped program, 
suggesting a football, will 
"score." 





A*.^»*.«>*^ 


f 




^E^^ 




\ 

« 


^^^ 


1 


1 


« 


0.„-H.^ 


J 




M«.T-WW.-fU-j^. 


1 


B..1.J SJ~.. -«. IU»^ ,^_ 




-;— -•^.T^c. 


} 


1 


0™.,.Jdl, 


I 






i 


i^a.^ 


I 


1 

ff 


B 


\ 




Bir 



EXAMPLE 213 



ANNUAL MEAL &' TALK 
CITY EDITORS' LEAGUE 

m 

a 





BLUE POINTS 



LITTLE NECKS 



CONSOMME JULIENNE 
BISCUITS 

SAUTERNE* 

BOILED SALMON 
SAUCE HOLLANDAISE 

SHERRY- 
SWEET BREAD PATE 

QUEEN STYLE 

WHITE SEAL' 



STRING BEANS 

ICE CREAM 



POMMES AU FAIT 
ASSORTED CAKES 



MADEIRA' 

ROQUEFORT CHEESE TOASTED CRACKERS 

COFFEE 

*Tl>c wet ftuH may he had at the bar at regular raUi 



EXAMPLE 214 

Suggestion for a menu page, 

introducing a tit or run 



PROGRAMS 



95 



By D. B. Updike. Boat 



N e w s - 
paper pub- 
lishers will 
appreciate 
the menu 
list pre- 
sented as a 
papier- 
mache mat- 
j rix of the 
tjpe form. 
Commer- 
cial travel- 
ers would 
be pleased 
were their 
banquet 
^ programs 

s designed in 

imitation of 
a mileage 
book. 

A liter- 
ary society 
dinner 

would be 

appropri- 
ately graced 
were the 
program 
printed on parchment and wound around a wooden or 
ivory roll, as ' books'* were bound in ancient times. 

Pyrography could be blended with typography in pro- 
ducing odd effects in banquet programs. One way of 
getting results by this method is to print the menu page 
on a piece of soft wood, say a quarter-of-an-inch thick, 
and then, by means of the pyrographic writing tool, burn 
a decorative border around it. Type ornaments and bor- 
ders could be printed on the wood as a guide for burning 
the designs. 

Many effective menu forms could also be evolved with 
the assistance of the bookbinder. Pulp board covered with 
an artistic cover paper makes a handsome background for 
mounting the menu page, which should be printed on a 
harmonizing stock. Italian and Japanese hand-made 
papers are particularly suitable for such work and when 
the style of 

typography is 

made to blend 

with the stock 

MuiT.Es c*rt coo SrS2S~£ the effect is 

TO.TVE . L7fi»A»cit.t Z^J^llZ^- rich. Domestic 

O.L-ETTE DE cZ^K D HUIT.ES » r.jl^ j_. „» m 3 n U f a C t U r " 

'■'■"'*'■ ers, too, make 

.LOSE BE SAVAWAH PL.Na.EE, » — — .;— .^ — ^ largC HnC of 

coMCDii.Es artistic i)apers 

AO.EAU EK CAMEtOLlE A LA .^w._«.w- appHcablc tO 

- the purpose. 

KUUE OE TEME DE .E»UDE E X A M P L E 

TE..A,E« A.^ MA»LA«D -^^ 209.— ThlS 

5o.iET A^ IC1.SCH ----.^.w— -— . pagc is from a 

C»»A.D TtTE .OOCE. MAIS F.IT -'~£ZT'-'— bOOklct'PrO- 

sALADECTirroNADE gram, and is 

cLAct DE FAMiAisiE ■ ~,„.,-. companion to 

►ETnrsKju.s F.urTs cAr« noti -- rs . rj g:g^ Example 125 

inserted in a 

preceding 

chapter. It 

; sets forth the 

EXAMPLE 217 ^^^^ «^ ^^e 

Dignified style for menu page decorative bor- 

By the De Vinne Press. New York der on pro- 



grams. The 
arrangement 
of the type 
matter is the 
customary 
one. The 
minor dishes 
are set in small 
type, while 
the damp stuff 
from the wine 
cellar is repre- 
sented at the 
left in rubri- 
cated text let- 
ters. 

Example 
210.— A half- 
toned decora- 




ti V 



back- 



Blue Points on Half Shell q ,' 

Cream of Fresh Mushroom 
Filet of Beef, Larded •JZ';^ .", 
&,uterne ^"?;;tr.,. 

Sweetbreads en Casserole 



Salade du Saison ^ ^','«i"-Am™', Tij t 
Potato Ices Fantasie 
Assorted Fancy Cakes and Pasti 
Bon-bons-Salted Almonds 
Black Cotfee 



By Charles Ed-ward Peabody, Toronto, Ont. 



ground in olive 
was a feature 
that lent value 
to this page, 
which is one 
of a number 
of similarly 
treated pages 
in a booklet- 
program. The 
classic panel 

design makes a good background for a menu page. The 
idea is applicable in many other ways. 

Example 211. — This chapter would be incomplete with- 
out one or two Bradley specimens. Here is an idea in 
menu printing born while he was with the American Type 
Founders Company in 1905. It took the form of a small 
booklet 2% by 4% inches, eight pages and cover, and 
each page was devoted to one of the dishes on the menu. 
Below the name of the dish was a chap-book ornament. 
Altho the small booklet Jias been little used as a form 
for menu purposes, is has possibilities for development 
that should not be overlooked by the printer. 

Example 212. — Here is a novel banquet program. Each 




96 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Mtm 


Little Necks 


Consomine Printaniere 
Olives and Radishes 


Plank 


■d Fresh Mackerel, Sauce Colbert 
Duchesse Potaloes 


Filet Mignon of Beef, a la Richelieu 
New Bermuda Potaloes 


Lettuce Salad 


Ice Cream Cake 


C 


ackers Coffee Cheese 


Rossbach Water 


CominentaJ Cigars 




EXAMPLE 219 

sal style adapted to a me 

By Will Bradley 



Example 
2 14. (In- 
sert) — Sug- 
{^ested for a 
menu page 
in two col- 
ors. Banquets are occasions of gaiety and enjoyment, and 
humor is appreciated. Displaying choice drinks i)romi- 
nently, and then in a note at the foot calling attention to 
the fact that they may be had at the bar at regular rates, 
is a bit of fun that has not been widely perpetrated. 
Typographically the page is refined yet is sufficiently dec- 
orative to appeal to a large class of customers. 

Example 21.5. — A classic menu-page by Updike. Roman 
capitals and italic lower-case only, are used. Perhaps this 
is the way Aldus would set the page were he alive today. 
The page as a mass is symmetrical. 

Example 216. — This page is from a program used at a 
master printers' banquet, all pages being treated in a 
style appro- 
p r i a t e 1 y 
humorous. 
The word 
"Stock" 
tops the 
page in- 
stead of 
the usual 
Menu," 
"Make- 
up" heads 
the list of 
officers, and 
in this man- 
ner were 
the guests' 
funny- 
bones agi- 
tated. 

Example 
217.— Here 
is a program 
for those ac- 
customed to 
eat in a for- 
ei gn lan- 



EXAMPLE 222 
Refined entertainment pro| 
By D. B. Updike. Bosto. 



m-page 



ax 



'enu 



artistic 
treatment 
simulating 
woodcut 
decoration 

suitable for many occasions is i)resented by this page. The 
four initial letters give the ai)pearance of a decorative 
heading and blend well with the border. It is appropriate 
that capitals should be used thruout the page and that 
the type-face should be Old-Style Antique. The florets 
dividing the dishes distribute the color pleasingly. This 
program having been used by an organization of mechan- 
ical engineers, explains the queer wording of the grocery 
list. 

Example 219. — Bradley suggests another good arrange- 
ment in this page. It is simply constructed, jet possesses 
interest and style. The original was in black and light 
brown inks on buff antique stock. 

Example 220. — This page has the merit of being 
unique 
while con- 
taining ele- 
m en t s of 
the ai-tistic. 
The impor- 
tant dishes 
are set forth 



Q liicken with Fresh Okra 
P'Uet of HaUbut Vot-Pie 
/9weet Bread Pate, Queen Style 
liarded Beef Teaderloln ; 

(Parisienne 

0ttiffed Tomatoes 



Boiled Philadelphia Squab 
I- rozen Pudding, Richelieu 



;^ 



EXAMPLE 220 
Unique arrangement of a menu page that has 



dishes ap- 
pearing in 
small type 
grouped at 
the right. 
Uncial in- 
itials blend 
with the 
Old-style 
Antique 
type. The 
horizontal 
rule and the 
large flower 
ornament 
play neces- 
sary parts in 
obtaining a 
balance. 



trcdj feljoUi ©iimtr 


^^..!™1^^ 


•RtliSdW Olives Radishes Ceieby 


&OUP Deep Sea Turtle 


JTISI, Baked HAL.Bt/T^ ^ 8^,o„c^■p. 


»OMt Fillet of BEEF,LARDED,JlftA.*room 
Sauce M.^,j p„„«,. 


Cntxa Chicken CiiouuETTES, Cream Sauce 


S«»rt Fkozen Podding 


Macaroon Ice Cream 


Assoeted Cakes 


j^ Cheese 
». CorPEE 





PROGRAMS 



97 




n>ROgRJ.MMS 



I 

QUARTET FOR TWO VIOLINS, VIOLA, ^ 
VIOLONXELLO IN G-MINOR, opus 27 G 

A Vn poco Andante— Allegro mollo ed agitatn 

B Romance— Andantino 

C Intermezzo- Allegro molto marcalo 

D Finale— Lento, Presto al Saltarello 



PIANO SOLO 

BALLADE, A-FLAT Chopin 

MR. HEINRICH GEBHARD 
III 
VIOLIN SOLO 

A ROMANCE, OPUS JO Lalo 

B MOTO PERPETUO, OPUS 3+ Ries 

PROFESSOR friLLr HESS 

IV 

QUINTET FOR PIANO, TWO VIOLINS, VIOLA, 

AND VIOLONCELLO IN A-MAJOR, opus 81 

DvoiAK 



Tbese t 



EXAMPLE 223 
from an entertainment progra 



I by Bruce Rogers, Cambridge. Mass.. 



ial tor study 



Example 221. — The treatment of the titles at the left 
side and the symmetrical arran<jement at the foot of this 
example are hijrhly commendable. The details of the 
entire page denote the finished t \ j)o;jrai)her. The com- 
bination of capitals and small capitals is pleasing. 

Programs for 
entertain- 
ments and ex- 
ercises, while 
not allowing 
the unre- 
strained work- 
ings of the 
fancy that 
those for ban- 
quets do, are 
yet proper ve- 
hicles for car- 
rying artistic 
ideas. The 
program 
should be artis- 
tic. The com- 
monplace jjro- 
gram is a dis- 
appointment 
to the intelli- 
gent auditor 
and an evil 
in that it in- 
fluences the 
public taste 





Program 


P«nJ 


l^^JL-" ^ 


March 






Association Orchestra 


Invocation 


Re». Edward A. Horton 


Address 






Hon. Franklin G. Fcssenden 




A-omi. J^„ of .6, Scj,™, Co-,, 


Seleaion 






Association Orchestra 


Conferring 


of Degrees 




Hon. James R. Dunbar 




Pr«<l»: E«=J=g U. School Corpor.d=. 



EXAMPLE 225 

Program page in lower-case 

By Stetson Press, Boston. Mas 



towards mediocrit.v. The printer who cannot produce a 
good entertainment program has need to study art prin- 
ciples and observe the artistic programs being produced 
by others. A few productions of this kind are here shown. 



Z^d 




THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Souttfi Beaton. Jfitef programme fo 
j 6e tenbeteb in rtEtinify Ctjutcfj on Jfciftay 
i ing €)e«m6ct tfje eiytKiitlJ, JI.©. &)i)uuiv 

J ffif nebictue (^ii partw 

^Ui((oda 

i| Cffottti O magnum <X)fettv'mm 

mptattotiat 

J Cdmmae ^ong: "flfo ue i« 6otn Cmmanuer 

§1Riebet. arc. 

3 JiQepCert* ^ong. (Offe ^o?«mian Carof) 

I 6.prif ffcieon, l£»fotia in fy«f«i«. Jfrom t^c 

I a?i660 bi papat a)at«ffi 

|^(Bojart 

I 3^ntroit onl> l&.f rif efdeon. JFrom t^r IRequiem 

lojae* 

|$ac9 

Oefcctione from ttje CBcietmoe ©tatocio, 
parte i an6 ii 

T^ S}(£ ewcttpt« from t?* worhe of fljojatt 
vJL anb :3Bac? wiff 6« venbtteh wit? orc?«6< 

I fraf accompaniment. 3in t()e former t$e corni 

i bi 6a66etto, or 6aeeet^l)orn6, in tf/e fatter t^e 

I o6ot Vamore, 6ot? inettumcnte now ofmoet 06* 

I eofrtf, 6ut caffeft for in t^c originaf ecoree of 

i t?e works, wiff 6e uecb. 













Cfjaratters l^eprrtenteb 




m 






Rahab 






^I'Lt^L"^!^'"'"'*' ^""'^ 






Amnon of Jericho 






Lover of Rihab. 






Nathaniah 












Zeman 






Salmon 






foshuT" .° py'w'j'e'^ich"' ''' 






HOREB 






His companion spy, 






Amorah 












Asenath 






YULEIKA 





EXAMPLE 227 
Program in Gothic style 
By Merrymount Press. Boston, 



Mas 



Example 222. — A refined program-paffe by Updike. 
In the orifjinal the border was printed from a copper in- 
taglio plate on smooth-surfaced hand-made paper, the 
reading- portion being printed clearly and sharply from 
type. Updike's work is noted for the clearness of the 
print. Just enough ink is carried 
to prevent the print being called 
gray. Of course the type must 
be clean and unaffected by wear, 
the ink well ground and the im- 
pression firm. 

Examples 223 and 224. — These 
two pages by Bruce Rogers should 
have interest for every printer 
who loves good typography. The 
zinc reproductions of these pages, 
also that of the preceding ex- 
ample, fail to present the sharp 
print of the originals. Roman 
lower-case is absent from this 
program. Rogers and Updike, 
with Aldus, have demonstrated 
that roman lower-case is not es- 
sential to tyi>ography. Perhaps 
that is why their work has dis- 
tinction — other printers set most 
of their type from the roman 
lower case. 

On the title-page the features 
of particular interest are the long 
s in the word ' 'music, ' ' the swash 
italic capitals and • the woodcut 
ornament. 

The program-page is interesting 



EXAMPLE 229 

Neat treatment of a program 

By B. A. Thunberg. Boston, M. 



in its construc- 
tion and its 
details should 
be studied 
closely. 

Example 
2 2 5.— This 
page shows 
admirable 
treatment of a 
brief program. 
The various 
sizes of type 
are well dis- 
tributed, and 
the consistent 
use of roman 
lower-case is 
pleasing. 

Example 
2 2().— The 
type in this 
page over- 
printed the 
decoration 
which was in 
pale orange 
and pale 
green. The 
decoration Mas 
approj)riate in 
that the pro- 
gram was for a EXAMPLE 228 
meeting held „ A well arranged page 

, „ ... Dy Stetson Press, Boston, Mass. 

on the racinc 
Coast. 

Example 227. — The Gothic style dominates this i)age. 
Excepting the two uncial initials, only one size of type 
has been used. That fact alone is interesting, as the re- 
sult is remarkablj' finished. 

Example 228. — The list of characters in a dramatic en- 
tertainment is here displayed in an unusual manner. It 
is so easy for comj^ositors to set copy such as this in the 
conventional type-leader-tjpe 
method, but this compositor has 
arranged it to conform to the pro- 
jjortion of the page. 

Example 229. — A neat page in 
Caslon type, additionally effective 
because of the contrast of black 
and white. The border was orig- 
inally printed in light blue. 

Besides the kinds of programs 
treated in this chapter there is 
another often met with by the 
printer — the program containing 
small advertisements. The theater 
program is the most common of 
this class, and in its design there 
is little if an J' art. The advertise- 
ments are usually set inside of 
shaded panels, composed of heavy 
rules at side and foot, an arrange- 
ment that crudely forces the ad- 
vertisement upon the attention. 
There may be value in this, but 
to the refined and artistic eye 
such effects are repulsive. It is a 
pity that artistic typography is 
not prevalent on theater pro- 
grams as they exert large influ- 
ence in forming public taste. 











Forefathers^ Night 

Social Hou» 
KiKOSLEY Hall, fhom 4-30 

SUPPE. 

Fo.D Hall, 5.30 

Topic for Discussion: 

Inbtrilantt of the Modern Pilgrim" 

Music BV THE Empire ORCH1..RA 







W^ ^^ve displayed on 

oar coonters an excep- 

tionalH rare and stylisli 

line of woolen fabrics 

for Men's Topcoats. Our 

buyind agent bas Just 

tiirae4 from London 

d Paris witb exclusive 

^iesigns for tbose wbo 

desire tbe lat^t style in 

iported fabrics* These 

goods are recommended 



Kennetb B €0. 




s 



^H 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 



PUBLICITY seems essential to success in every business 
and profession. Because of lack of publicit.v success was 
denied to many a genius who went to his grave unap- 
preciated. The public is interested in the man who does 
things, but this interest is obviously confined to the 
man who it knows does things. The great men are adver- 
tised men. The great deeds of history are those adver- 
tised by poets and historians. Shakespeare made famous 
many ancient characters, and the most famous acts of 
the American Revolution are those performed near the 
homes of poets and writers. We would, not be familiar 
with the rides of Paul Revere and "Phil" Sheridan had 
they not been advertised by poet and printer. 
• Recently in New York an influential art society recog- 
nized the work of a mural painter by awarding him a 
medal. But the artist remarked that the recognition came 
too late in life for him to "use it as a help to live with," 



which proves that in the heart of the most proud and sensi- 
tive artist there is a feeling tliat he needs publicity — 
recognition, if that word is less offensive — in order that 
his life work may be successful. 

It is fashionable for i)rominent persons to employ press 
agents, and goings and comings and doings are told the 
public at every opportunity. In the days before the devel- 
opment of newspapers and other typographical mediums 
for advertising, the people depended upon the public 
crier to make all sorts of announcements. He would at- 
tract a crowd by sounding blasts with a horn or by ring- 
ing a bell, and then make known his message. 

The modern representative of the crier is the printed 
announcement. It is not confined to any definite size or 
shape, yet often consists of only one page, printed on 
card or paper stock. 

The announcement form may be considered the most 




AN ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE 
CURRIER PRESS © NEW YORK 
Verett R. Currier and 
FredVV.Goudy announce 
the establishment of The 
Currier Press at i 14 East 
enty-eighth street. The 
Printers are men of long 
experience and training who have made a 
study of the history and uses of printing, 
and seek to apply to modern requirements 
some knowledge of the principles which 
made the work of the early masters so pre- 
eminently satisfying and enduring. Mr. 
GouDY, as a designer of letters and book 
decorations, has a wide reputation. Mr. 
Currier has been associated with leading 
master printers, notably, D. B. Updike of 
the Merrymount Press (Boston), and for 
the past two years with Bruce Rogers at 
the Riverside Press in Cambridge. 
With a small but highly efficient equip- 
ment it is hoped to produce printing the 



ment, more especially, church printing, 
music programmes, announcements for pub- 
lishers and merchants, catalogues of art 
colledions and private libraries, and sim- 
ilar work, in which quality and character 
are desired. 




ROOM 306 : TEL. 466 I MAD. SQ^ 
I 14 EAST TWENTY-EIGHTH ST. 






EXAMPLE 232 
md artistic announcement folder, printed in black ink on brown-tinted 



100 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



D 



ring of The 
t $5.00, p 



gB: At the first 
kbuildcrs, Monday, F 
ption for membership was fixed a 
in advance, and exclusive of the [ 
rrrAt present the club numbers one hundred and ten mem- 
bers, and it is planned to add to the present quarters a large 
room for writing and lounging, and ultimately to take the 
• • " - The Bookbuilders 



hich w.ll be Kprci 
cerned in the practical a) 



ding. 



room has been well decorated and comfort- 
ably furnished, and the club is indebted to two of its members, 
Mr. Alexander Drake, of The Century Co., and to Mr. Dan 
Beard for the loan of many antique utensils and pictures. 
I'ififThe popularity and good fellowship of the lunch hour 
grows daily, and the rapidly increasing though carefully selected 
membership bids fair to put the club itself on a very lure 
foundation. 

ririTThe committee is anxious to print the club rules and Use of 
members, and therefore asks you very kindly to send in your ap- 
proval of the arrangementMO far made, and to enclose your sub- 
scription (check is preferable) with the form herewith attached, 
payable to the treasurer. 

Fraternally yours. 



The C" 



MARCH SATURDAY NIGHTS 



;prfntci) at Cl)c 'Boolibuiiactis 
^^op being J5umbtr ^cfarntj 
ribt fm^ abcniic /Jcto porR 
ta iHarcft Nineteen li)iinDteD 



F. H. HiteAoe 

Chiir 

J. T. Utodliy 

W.S. B<.«r/5 
W. A. Ne/wor; 
I. H. Offord 



EXAMPLE 233 

Announcement in Colonial style 

By A. F. Mackay, New York 



personal of the printed mediums of publicity. 
It presents a direct, individual appeal or invita- 
tion, and the recipient, influenced by this fact, 
is likely to give it more careful consideration 
than some other form of advertising. Recog- 
nition is flattering to all of us, and upon 
receipt of an announcement we are apt to feel 
pleased that our patronage or personality is 
thus recognized. 

The printer is depended upon by most 
customers to furnish suggestions for the phys- 
ical make-up of the announcement, and is 
also frequently asked for advice in regard to 
the phraseology. This places a responsibility 
upon him that he cannot well ignore, and he 
should be able to respond with proper sug- 
gestions. Being thus qualified to assist the cus- 
tomer has many times led to further and 
profitable business. The printer possessing 
the confidence of his customers has an asset 
of great value. 

The most common form of announcement is 
that printed from roman, gothic, text or scrijit 
type-faces in imitation of engraved intaglio 
printing. The styles of this form of announce- 
ment change slightly with the fashions in 
copperplate effects. Printers desiring to do 
such work would do well to obtain samples 
from one of the leading society stationers and 
follow them closely in arrangement, spacing 



of words and lines, and size and kind of stock. 
This class of work allows of no original or dec- 
orative treatment. If other forms or treatments 
are desired a standard art type-face, such as 
the Caslon, should be used. Many compos- 
itors err in combining copperplate-engravers' 
faces with rules and borders, or in other ways 
misusing them, for such results are neither 
flesh nor fowl," as the saying goes. 

There may be those who do not agree with 
this view, clainxing that while engravers' type- 
faces are imitations of another process, there 
are other type-faces which are also imitations 
in their way, notably the Jenson face, which 
is based upon the lettering of Italian manu- 
script books, and Cloister Text, which is based 
upon the lettering of German manuscript books. 
The difference, however, is this: Typography, 
altho originally an imitation of the work of the 
letterer and illuminator now "stands upon its 
own bottom'* as an art and craft. Type-faces 
based upon the old letters are not mistaken for 
hand-lettering ; they do not deceive. On the 
other hand, the engravers' faces are imitations 
and are meant to deceive. The printer is flat- 
tered if one rubs the face of a job printed by 
him to ascertain if it is an intaglio print. Imi- 
tation of engravers' work, however, is gen- 
erally of a kind that allows of no such doubt ; 
it is not good imitative work, neither is it 
good tyi)ography. 



JTools :feagt 

Himiteti Ctiition Be lujce 

indje 

Boofilmiltiers; 9[llej> 

i^atutDa? tl^t last bap of fH&x^ at 6:t3 sifiarp 

»aj!23!&^ tour tetbed, beet gltln, carfis an& 
'» b(ll(arD0 an& bring ^ucmagnffFiiiganD 
i bimCnlsftins glaMca, ann micromctets anS 
c caltpcTS, ant) rules an!) guagee, aiiD ecalcg 
' anO balanceg, aiiO trr anB Determine t^e 
^^, ^J (oolbaluc of rout nc(gl)l)or'B boolibuHDing 
SS^^JTr^ calibre. < i » cfbet? JD "B f todl come to 
Wi£<^T T ,^j jgQQ jtgmj, jfjagt fgm of fun, figbtanB 
ferorttr anB eberr fool t^lng bf eayg or Doeg tolll be fool? for-, 
glbttt. >" < ■< Jfor tftlg one nlgtjt ebcrt square © 13 f todl 
babe t^c gubUnic opportunity of ebotofng bfmacif (n bid true 
clown color*. '♦ < f Cbe early © 'B f -0)111 gtanB a tbance of 
jetting a clown tocBtail but be Will Ijabe to ma6c it bintfeU. 
i,[v: : net 

^\)t -BooftbuilDcrB reserbe tbc rtgbt to aB. 

bance tl)c price of ebery seat after 

tbe feast i)as begun. 




^^ 



EXAMPLE 234 
Odd treatment of 
By T. M. Clela 




mvM\\ 

mptiim of 
JaJrifs for 

^ilorini 




S^flornm^^^liarfm^ 



Attractive announcement pafje, lettered by George A. Sims 
Courtesy of the Ruskin Press, New Orleans, I^. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 



101 



LADIES 



DAY 



YOURSELF AND LADIES ARE IN- 
VITED TO HELP MAKE MERRY 
AT THE OPENING DINNER OF 
CLEAN AERIE NUMBER SIX AND 
SIXTEEN AT EAGLEHURST ON SUN- 
DAY THE TWENTIETH OF AUGUST, 
NINETEEN HUNDRED AND FIVE. 
AT ONE OCLOCK IN THE AFTER- 
NOON. MUSIC BY KEATING S FULL 
ORCHESTRA. SEVENTY-FIVE 
CENTS PER PLATE 




oi 



EXAMPLE 235 
nd aymmetrical arrange 
in announcement page 



Of course, it is easier to set announcements in tlie con- 
ventional copperplate style than to work out an art-effect 
with honest type-faces. The first method does not require 
brain exercise, while the second does. If tlie customer 
requests a copperplate effect, {rive it to him as closely as 
you can; that is good business policy, and is in accord- 
ance with the sound advice to "Do your best, no matter 
what the circumstances," and reminds one of the old 
rhyme : 

If I were a cobbler, it would be mv pride 

The best of all cobblers to be. 
If I were a tinker, no tinker beside 
Should mend an old kettle like me. 

But, whenever possible, get on higher ground. If you 
must be a tinker, be a good one, but rather be a i)roducer 
of new things than a builder of patches and something 
that is "as good as new." Printers should test their earn- 
estness with tasks that develop their art instincts and, 
along with proper financial return, bring that satisfaction 
that comes from work well done. 



Ex.\MPLE 230 (Insert). — Dark stock presents difficulty to 
the printer. Black ink on white stock is an easier problem 
than white ink on black stock, in spite of the claims of 
impractical theorists who are enthusiastic for the latter 
combination. Yet, artistically considered, the effect of 
black on white is not pleasing. The careful book printer has 
his paper slightly toned with color. The artistic job printer 
softens his inks to lessen the contrast. On a dark stock 
contrast between ink and paper is likely to be small — too 
small unless careful attention is given to the selection of 
inks. The darker the stock the lighter the ink required. 
Light ink, unless absolutely opaque, is affected by dark 
papers, much as if a small portion of dark ink were mixed 
with it. When light is not reflected by the paper it must 
be by the ink priiated thereon. The exam])le under con- 
sideration is printed in colors lighter than the stock. A 
type-face with heavy strokes was selected, that sufficient 
color would be impressed on the stock. It is well to keep 
in mind that types and borders of strong lines should be 
used when printing on dark papers. Hairlines appear 
weak, if seen at all. The arrangement and design of this 
announcement form is adaptable to mailing cards, blot- 
ters, folders and like purposes. 

Ex.\MPLEs 231 AND 232. — These are the first and third 
pages of an announcement originallj' printed in black ink 
on brown-tinted, hand-made paper. The type-face, Caslon, 
was sharply impressed into the stock. It may be advi- 
sable to state here that all Caslon romans are not alike. 
The face usually sold by typefounders has the descenders 
shortened, that the letters may conform to the system of 
alignment now in general use in America. This shorten- 
ing of descenders, seemingly a trivial matter, affects the 
general appearance of the type-face. Attempts to "im- 
prove'" the Caslon face are apt to end disastrously to the 
effectiveness of the letter. It has characteristics that are 



THE NATIONAL ARTS CLUB 

ASKS THE HONOR OF YOUR COMPANY IN THE CALLEI 
119 EAST NINETEENTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 
BETWEEN TWO AND SIX IN THE AFTERNOON 

FEBRUARY I9TH TO 28tH AND 

BETWEEN SEVEN AND TEN IN THE EVENING 

THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 20TH AND 2 I ST AND J 

JNDAY AND TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 24TH AND 25T 

V AN EXHIBITION OF ADVERTISING ART 



EXAMPLE 236 
c arrangement based upon the architectural inscription 
plate. By Benjamin Sherbow, Nct*- York 




Clf vou tntrnd to ittomt this 
^ummpF, tuhy not itvmQt to liaur 
onr of OUF df roratops rail and stt 
gou Piaht auiap— Ijpujm bp com- 
pptpnt to offPF, suggpst and shoui 
90U nrni tuaps and idpas that 
uiill IntPFPSt and ronoincp pou 
that uip haop porrp (arilttp (o; thr 
handling ot this rlass o( luork 




EXAMPLE 237 
Typography suggesting the thought 
reading portion of the annou 



102 

essential to its 
beauty, and 
shorn of any 
of those char- 
acteristics it 
loses attract- 
iveness pro- 
]>ortionately. 
This an- 
nounce m e n t 
folder is of a 
quality seldom 
attained in 
printing, de- 
pendin"' as it 
does upon de- 
tail in tyi)eset- 
tinj>- and press- 
work. Tiie re- 
production can 
not ])resent 
tlicse points, 
because the 
finish of the 
pap 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



c 1 e a r n e s 



of 



tlie i)rint, the 
the 



'M 




^ 


a 

n 
tt 

ti 

^•> 

>4 

f-4 


^•^^ -^ ,„ color rfr.c« .nd v.^- b.«.mir„ 

njr> (globes 

■ cludinj • d«lic»te cobr for wtning 

OX^ r^^tr:^t-or 

•■•^ -^ ,ng MS. .nd comfort <o .h. weitrcr 

^.^Haccfii 

i3/^ l'v:"l,e'„n«. .n^r^TlTw 

^UF> ^anbkerctjiefs 

^2^ i:,r^d-r:t;ir„.t,r„ 

•■•^ •^ Arm..,»n Uc. edge., very d.«,.y 

Eobertgong 

S>pecial S>ljokDina 
for CMttt 


{•4 

1-4 
«-4 
t-4 
1-4 
1*4 
^4 

%% 
%% 
X% 
%% 

t*4 

^4 

1-4 
^4 
t-4 

r-4 

t-4 


^ 




^ 



idopted V 



spacinji' 
apportionment 
of margins, 
the tone, all 
counted in the 
finished result. 

Example 
2 3 3 . — T h i s 
circular-an- 
nouncement 
in its original 
form was 9% 
X 12% inches 
in size, the 

paper upon which it was printed being gray-green laid 
handmade. The positions of the groups of type matter and 
the sizes of margins are features worthy of study. Other 
points of interest are : the treatment of heading and ini- 
tial, the use of florets beginning each paragraph, and the 
committee signatures. The last-named lines are set in 
italic lower-case with roman capitals, Aldus style. The 
border was printed in dull red, close to the edge of the 
paper. 

Example 234. — This meeting announcement is of the 
same series as the preceding example, but, set all in black 
text letter without border, the effect is quite different. 



i"^ ^"^"^ o°^'^ ^m^m m^'^ 



M. WE%mE1l & CO 

CJILL JlTTeKTIOK 'CO 'UH^I'H 
S6L6CTIOU^ OF KI'D QL0V6S 
FO'R W^OJW(55V:. WHICH mCLUDE 
'CHE V^SW^ST IT>6JS /5V: 
COLOnrnQ yi3V:T> STITCH lU^Q 
WITH JK yl<MTL6 Vjni6TY 
OFTH6 ^0116 STJ'PL^ STYLES. 
FOU OUT'DOO'R US6 T)U%I^Q 
THE WI5\CT6'R S6J SON. yl 
CO^M'PL^Te LI0\C6 OF WOOL6K 
GLOV£S J1KT> KIT> QLOVeS. 
LIIACET) WITH FLEECE. WOOL. 
SILK on FWR. JTiE SHOWU^. 
ATTENTION IS JLSO INVITED 
TO'CHEITICHOICE JND VARIED 
SELECTIONS OF ^EN'S J1NT> 
WOMEN'S HOSIE%Y, WHICH 
INCLWDE STYLES OF SOT H 
"PLjlIKJIND EMS%OIDETiED 
SILK AND CjISH^ETiE. JLSO. 
CHILDREN'S 'PLAIN AND 
RISKED SILK HOSIERY. 



^^^^%IZ CvV-:_ Cv}2L^iw*^^ 



ttracters. An idea that could I 
)fit to many jobs of printing 
by Will Bradley 



1^' 



's 



a Social anu IBanqutt toill bt Sell) bp tfjc fetopers 
of t|)c aaiotlti intfif a^ootisi) leioom. l^otd Stpofcane. 
JfciDap ebcninB. fi^arcS ttoentpmintf). ninttfen Ijun 
Wxt\i anU 0fben. from 0f£=t6itt? to tcn=tf)ittp o'clock 
^titt one Dollar anli f iftp cents pet plate : gou ate 
coctiiallp inbiteti to join boitf) U0 on tl)e abobe bate 

2, ^'i 



EXAMPLE 240 

n panel style 
ard W. Stutes, Spokane, V 



EXAMPLE 239 

n treatment, yet from an advertising 
>biectionable because of illegibility 
Page by Will Bradley 

The peculiar black and gray tones of the Caslon orna- 
ments blend well with similar characteristics presented in 
the massed black letter. The page was printed in ver- 
milion and black on buff laid, hand-made stock. The 
effectiveness of this style of announcement is due not 
alone to the typography and stock, but to the generous 
size of the sheet used — good paper and plentj- of it. This 
announcement was mailed without envelops, the double 
sheet being folded into thirds and the lower end inserted 
into the upper end. 

Example 235. — While unconventionality controlled the 
planning of this announcement page, the arrangement is 
sufficiently conventional not to antagonize those 
customers who prefer to sail near to the shores 
of formality. The grouping of the page is such as 
to make it conform to the customary size of the 
folded invitation. The arrangement of the large 
group is symmetrical, and its tapeVing lines blend 
with the shape of the illustration. 

Example 236. — From the viewpoints of art and 
dignity an announcement card such as this one is 
always in good taste. Its style is classic, being 
arranged along the lines of an architectural in- 
scription plate. The border is the reliable egg- 
and-dart pattern and the type-face is Caslon. 
Capitals are essential to best results in this sort 
of design. 

Example 237. — The point about this page that 
pleases most is its appropriateness. It is good 
advertising, as it is good art, to suggest by typo- 
graphic treatment the thought expressed in the 




MESSRS. JOSEPH AND ALEXANDER BONZET 
ANNOUNCE THE OPENING OF A BOOK SHOP 
AT THE CORNER OF THIRD STREET AND 
ARLINGTON SQUARE, WHERE BOOKLOVERS 
GENERALLY WILL BE WELCOMED )9 A SELECT 
YET COMPREHENSIVE LINE OF BOOKS OF 
FICTION AND FACT, INCLUDING BIOGRAPHY 
HISTORY, TRAVEL, SCIENCE, TECHNIC, ETC. 



EXAMPLE 241 
Suggested as an announcemeat rorm 



OPIsers of Bood Hlrintingare D nvited 



to send ajOlrial lEJrder to|3|rampington 



^ nalthamatthe^ignoftheMuritan 



s 



ress where [1 ordham Manor J3 oad 



crosses 



!S1 



omson 



B 



venue in 



i3|ingston 



EXAMPLE 242 
Odd treatment ox an announcement 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 



103 





reading- 




matter. In 


roiir inspection of an 


this in- 




Crhibition 




of 0omc first Cmtions anS of some 


Decorating 


CUoicc ■i5ooli3 in fmt anD Clniquc 15inBing0 


ColIcctcS With the utmost carr to 


Company is 


rtprcscnt tl)c Digljcst s6iU 


announoino- 


of t^c bc0t 


that it has 


amtrican, CngUs^ anO frtntft 


new ideas 


SinOtT0 


in decorat- 


r 


i n jr and 




offers the 


THE EXHIBITION \v II. L BE HELD 


services of 




its staff of 


HOT£L ST.fFFO T{,V 


decorators. 


AFTERNOONS 


Church 


FROM TWO UNTIL SIX O CLOCK 
FROM 


Text is an 


WEDNESDAY THE SEVENTH 


excellent 


TO TUESDAY THE THIRTEENTH 


tj'pe-face 


OF MARCH INCLUSIVE 


for this par- 




ticular an- 




n () u n c e - 
ment.and 
the border, 


EXAMPLE 843 


Unusual division into two groups, providing for 


affording 


fold. By Calumet Press. New York 


decorative 



sufficiently light in tone to allow the text letter to stand 
out with pn)per strength. An unusual feature of the ar- 
rangement is the alignment at the left of the title line 
and signature. The large initial I" in the signature is a 
factor in the attractiveness of the page. The rule line on 
both sides of the border also adds to the finish. A lesson 
learned from experience is that most decorative borders 
are heli)ed by the addition of a rule line on one or both 
sides, depending upon the character of the design. 

Example 2.S8. — The idea suggested in this page, of 
using ornaments as eye-attracters, is a go«xl one. While 
the design as a whole is decorative in character, the ad- 
vertising element is not overlooked. The several articles 
of merchandise are prominently displayed, as is also the 
name of the store. In the series of type designs of which 
this was a part Will Bradley strongly emphasized orna- 
mentation. There was a reason for his doing this, as he 
was engaged in introducing new typographic decorative 
material, but printers doing work for the commercial 
public are engaged in a different vocation. In attempting 
such designs as this comjjositors should decrease the prom- 
inence of the ornaments and border, and increase that of 
the reading ix)rtion of the jjage. 

Ex.\MPLE 239. — Originality, eccentricity and illegibil- 
ity are all present in this announcement form. The swash 



^Ztau^us (Tlub 

(BentUnun's ^l^bt 



-^ 



"j Ik flr*t smoke-talk of t^ season will be 
^\6 aX lb* Club"Jfou5e. on Saturday 

(flETenlnfj. October seven at elg^t o'clock. 
\ C^ entertainment will consist of vou- 
\ 6«vllle acts of unusual merit, selected 
I fromTfeltb's circuit. 

O. CKart. S.cr.(orT 



ANNOUNCEMENT 




A study in tone values and margins 

italic capitals furnish much of the illegibility. Compos- 
itors should use this effect discriminately. Few customers 
would approve of it as a whole, yet it has features that 
could well be adapted for some purposes. 

Example 240. — The rule panel treatment is the prin- 
cipal attraction on this announcement card. It is the 
work of one of the few typograi)hers who have made a 
success of the panel style in type composition. Rule 
panel work was in vogue several years ago and some 
good work has been done in that style, but most of the 
results have been un- 
satisfactory from the 

viewpoint of art. It j 

is a mistake to place 
a rule in a job unless 
the rule is really 
needed. It is easier 
to use rules to get 
balance and strength 
than to select and 
arrange type prop- 
erly, but the easiest 
way is not the way 
of the conscientious 
worker in any field. 
The example under 
consideration isdone 
well and does not 
belong to the easy 
class. It is worthy of 
study, attention 
being called to the 
placing of the cor- 
ner ornaments. 



I5ake pltasurt in ejrtentjs 
ing to ittaster 

ttje pritJilcgts of tfjeir 
club rooms tiuring tfjt 
toeefe tnt>ing 



SB 



EXAMPLE 246 
Artistic form for bri 

By A. F. Mackay. New York 



104 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



s the most Exclusive S I LV 6 T^JVJ 7(6 
^or WEDDING GIFTS 



rp HE few examples of the new'and ex- 
quisite U\Iartele that the G o R H A M 
Company, Silversmiths, have been 
able to produce, up to the present time for 
the consideration of discriminat'"* art lovers, 
have emphasized anew the value of individ- 
uality in all worthy art work. Each piece is 
the produft of an artist trained in the GoR- 
HAM Company's own school of design, 
established four years ago with the express 
purpose of reviving the best traditions and 
restoring the spirit of healthy competition 
that under**' the beautiful work of the medi- 
asval metal-workers ^ goldsmiths. Jilartele, 
as its name indicates, cannot be imitated suc- 
cessfully by any of the inferior and purely 
mechanical methods that are too often used 
in an attempt to trade upon the ideas of 
really creative artists. 

GORHAM MFG. COMPANY 

Silversmiths J^w TorJ^ 



EXAMPLE 247 

Colonial treatment of an announcement page 

By Calumet Press. New York 

Example 241 (insert). — This treatment is suggested for 
the announcement of an opening of a book shop, and it 
could be adapted to other purposes by changing the dec- 
orative device at the head. 

Example 242 (insert). — It will not be denied that this 
arrangement is interestingly odd. It is a simple combi- 
nation of Hearst initials, Cheltenham lower-case, and brass 
rule, yet the result is such as will attract attention. The 
form shown could be used as a blotter or mailing card. 

Example 243. — This announcement form, like No. 23.5, 
is conventional in size, the paper upon which the original 
was printed measuring 5% x 7 inches. The arrangement 
of the type page is designed to provide for the fold which 
horizontally crossed the center of the page. The division 
into two groups, each in a different type-face, is unusual, 
and the manner in which this has been accomplished is 
instructive to the student of typography. The use of a 
large initial gives distinction to the upper group, and 
spacing of the Caslon capitals in the lower group main- 
tains the distinction there. This page illustrates two 
points recognized by good typogTaphers, that the printed 
effect of roman capitals is improved by slight increase of 
space between letters, and that, on the other hand, the 
printed effect of text letters would be impaired by increased 
space between letters. There is danger of too great con- 
trast of tone in a page, and had this example been exe- 
cuted less skilfully, it would have failed in effect. 

Example 244. — This announcement circular affords a 
study in tone values, especially in the original size which 
was 9 X 12% inches. The type. Old Style Antique, was 
twelve-point and six-points of space were inserted between 
the lines. The black tone of the type-face and the lib- 
eral spacing found relationship in the black tone and 
open lines of the initial letter at the head. This harmony 



was carried out in the entire jjage, the black and white 
tones contrasting thruout. No gray lines were used ; even 
tile monogram at the foot was constructed of strong lines. 
In obtaining an effect such as this it is necessary that 
the type-face be of medium black tone somewhere be- 
tween the gray tone of the Caslon face and the heavy 
black tone of the John Hancock or Blanchard faces. It 
may be well to call attention to the margins inside the 
rule border. The artist avoids monotony in margins. In 
old books each of the four margins of a page differed in 
size. The foot margin was the largest, the others being 
smaller in this order: outer side, head, inner .side. In 
this announcement page the foot margin is larger than 
the others, and the head presents the smallest amount of 
marginal space. The side margins were made equal be- 
cause, unlike the book page, this page stands alone. 

Example 24.5. — Harmony of type-face and decoration 
is the chief attraction of this announcement card. Some 
of the characteristics of Washington Text in tone and 
stroke are also found in the initial letter and border, and 
to this the harmony is due. Placing of the initial letter 
so low on the page was a bit of daring, yet balance is re- 
tained, due to the heading. 

Example 24<>. — While only a little folder, 3% x 4% 
inches in size, this job was exceedingly effective. It was 
printed in black on white antique stock. Such a form 
could well be adapted to many brief announcements. 

Example 247. — This form was set in tyi)e during the 
Colonial revival that interested good printers about the 
year 1900. Caslon type and Colonial decoration give an 
individual character to the page. Colonial effects are not 
as common as at that time, and this fact is being quietly 
digested by the wise typesetter as he recognizes his op- 
portunity. While the crowd is imitating all sorts of new 
ideas in typograj)hy he is holding fast to that which is 
good. 



Special 
announcement 


Jl. 


•^^1]^ ^F "ItttU iHasterpittta" 


J.eatiing 
(Biltt 

ThT re^"ar° pricT'ofThc 




Cfie American ^ntl)lj» 
l^etiiett) of Kebietos 

^utnttr 13 aator ?latf. fu\o gork Citp 


M. 



EXAMPLE 248 

Strong, verbose and stylisK 

By Trow Printing Company, New York 



n o o c 



O O 00 




So this bids ye come share a flagon and joke ; 

In the Tap Room an evening to dwell 
And tarry a while by the fire and smoke 

Good Sirs, at the Prince George Hotel. 



Opening of the Tap Room 

Prince George Hotel 

at ig East 2ytb Street, New York City 

Thursday evening at eight o'clock 

December ig, igoj 



00 o c 



00 



Announcement card 

Typography by tKe Hill Print Snop 

Illustration ty F. G. Cooper 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 



The FIRST ANNUAL 
EXHIBITION OF 
ADVERTISING ART 

To be held in theGalleries of The 
NATIONAL ARTS CLUB 
14 Gramercy Park, New York 
February 19 to March i, 1908 



FIRST ANNUAL EXHIBITION 
OF ADVERTISING ART 



HE Committee on Publication of the National 
Km Club invites your co-operation in the 
First Annual Eihibition of Advertising Art, 
be held in the galleries of the Club, begin- 
ning Wednesday, February 19th, and continuing 
throughout the month. You are invited to offer for 

advertising designs, posters, covers of catalogues, 
booklets, folders or pamphlets, covers of magazines, 
entire booklets, and any other specimens of art applied 



Designs 

iffectivc ai 
No desii 



vill b 



chosen on their 



ten as advertising, unless it s 
3 comply with the ordinary rul 



which is typographically artist 






105 



Firs 



f^XAMPLE !248. — Strong, verbose and stylish, this page 
impresses one favorably. Its effectiveness is largely due 
to the border treatment, the decorative initial also lend- 
ing to the good result. From the viewpoint of legibility 
the panel containing the initial should have been larger 
and those at the right and the foot, smaller. Space is 
wasted in the last-mentioned jianels that could be used 
to advantage in presenting the message in the main panel. 
The type-faces are harmonious. The heading having been 
lettered in close imitation of the black text letter used 
for display in other parts of the page, a consistent style 
of typography has been maintained. 

Examples 249 and 250. — These are the first and sec- 
ond pages of a large circular announcement, printed in 



THE. PRINTING PRESS 

offers its services to all such as love 
beautiful and consistent typography 




Number 214. Seneca Street, Cleveland 



black and light olive-brown on buff-tinted laid antique 
paper. No embellishment is used, but none is needed, 
the treatment being sufficiently artistic. The arrange- 
ment of the first page is uncommon. The lack of margins 
around the type group and the absence of print on three- 
fifths of the page would be counted by some printers as 
mere eccentricities, yet to others these things spell art. 
Compositors interested in this arrangement should notice 
how the phraseology is made to fit the type lines. The 
advertising element has been considered by the designer 
along vdth esthetic requirements. 

The double line of capitals at the head of the second 
page was duplicated on the third. The second page shows 
simplicity and legibility that is admirable, the liberal 
margins and the three-line initial 
being noteworthy features. 

Example 251. — A blotter was the 
vehicle that carried this announce- 
ment, which is in the rugged Colo- 
nial style of typography. The tone is 
pleasing, as is also the contrast of 
white and black. The ornament 
blends in shape and style with the 
accompanying typographical treat- 
ment. 

Example 252. — This announce- 
ment-circular is an art product. It 
rates high in tone, balance, sj'm- 
metry, and other qualities which go 
to make an artistic job of printing. 
The original was in three printings. 
The letter T in the initial, and the 
palette, were in orange-red. The 
background of the initial, the para- 
graph marks, and the inside of the 
outline letters in the signature grouj) 



106 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Good Printing 



The refinement of printing is 
EjH reriefted in the produd of 
[•; Britton Prinj'ing Co. 
i dTlie artistic touch is domi- 
nant in the harmony of effeft produced. 
OLCorreaness in style on ail engraved and 
printed work is manifest. dEach order 
[whether an engraved announcement or a 
massixe catalog] recedes the same mtelli- 
gent treatment. dlOur man\ port- 
folios of samples will help 
vou make satisfa<;ior\ 
selection. 



O 



(Ue^^'Gllffi^inid 



printers of 
the United 
States as 
" C li a p - 
book," and 
the folder 



printer who 
does this 
style ex- 
ceedinfjly 





EXAMPLE 252 




page tliat i 


ates high in tone, balance a 


nd symmetry 


By Britt 


on Printing Company, Cle 


.eland, O. 



were in blue-gray. The remainder of tlie pa<>e was in 
black. White linen-finished paper was used. 

Example 253. — Delia Robbia capitals arranged in the 
classic inscription style are here demonstrated to be ap- 
propriate for announcement purposes. The ornament at 
the foot adds the decorative element and is a factor in 
the attract- 




EXAMPLE 254 
innnouncement in chap-book style 
ssling Brothers, New York 



on 8' r a .v 
stock. The 
style is that 
known to 



ell. 



announce- 
ment, ex- 
ecuted with 
exception- 
ally good 



HOLIDAY ANNOUNCEMENT 

WE INVITE YOUR ATTENTION TO 
THE DISPLAY OF 

HOLIDAY NOVELTIES 

IR RETAIL DEPARTMENT 



EXCEPTIONAL VALUES IN GOODS 
RANGING FROM )l TO J2 

BROWN dr EMERSON 

WASHINGTON AND STATE STREETS 




taste 



ul 



By Lee Crittenden 



refinement . 
A smooth, 
white hand- 
made paper was used for it and the page was printed 
toward the fold and head in dense black ink. The use of 
florets before the paragraphs was a happy idea, as thej' 
give distinction to the page. 

The printer's own advertising affords an admirable op- 
portunity for developing ideas in attractive announcement 
printing. In the production of his own announcement 
forms he is not hampered in his expressions by the re- 
quirements of customers. He works with the unrestricted 
freedom of a Michelangelo and he is responsible only 
to Art for the results. While Art is a harder task-master 
than any business man, and more difficult to please, yet 
the pleasure that accompanies the study and practice of 
art-crafts- 
manship is 
larger. 

If the 
printer, 
then, in the 
production 
of his own 
work fails 
to obtain 
results that 
measure up 
to art re- 
quirements 
he should 
examine 
himself and 
ascertain 
why he 
fails. With 
the f a c t s 
before him 
he should 
set about to 
strengthen 
the weak 
places, and 
make his art 
structure 
perfect in 
every de- 



*[ f(nvn>uncemtwi f 

O&This little brochure is intended 
primarily to announce a change in 
directors at The Ridgeville Press 
and also set forth the aims of the 
new management. 

O^On September first, nineteen 
hiuidred six, Earle Nelson Low and 
Clarence T. Linstrum associated 
themselves as co-partners and will 
conduct the business hereafter on 
the most progressive principles. 

a^Our constant efforts will be to 
produce a class of work which is 
irreproachable in quality, to do so 
economically and in the shortest 
possible time, and to satisfy the 
customers' requirements. 

a^i?riro*/)ec<— EstabUshed in a very 
modest way as the Low Brothers, 
Printers, the business has increased 
almost phenominally in the past six 
years and has gained a most enviable 
reputation. 



tail. 



EXAMPLE 255 
led. yet attractive typographi 

By Earle N. Low. Evanston. III. 



i of ^aint 3ioW» ILutftetan €hiiuh ^ 
^ea0ton. In tfte Patisb ^ouse tlje^ 
r evening of JFefiruarp Ctoentp*tl)itD ^ 
[I13fneteennine. 



AN EVENING OF MIRTH 

THE LONGAGRE MINSTRELS 

MCSIG HALL ANNEX 
MONDAY, NOVEMBER SIX 

RESERVED SEAT— FIFTY GENTS 

BENEHT OF HOSPITAL 



EXAMPLE 258 
Stron({ treatment, the motive of modem origin 



College Theatrics 

Third Performance 

Mrs. Trippings 

March 29, 1909 

Exchange this ticket at 3oA Office RQ^ 








'I 



saa 



TICKETS 



IT is said of printers who make no attempt to learn the 
principles governing art typography, that once or so in a 
lifetime they produce an artistic job of printing. They 
become much elated at the phenomenon, not realizing 
that it was brought on by the unconscious introduction 
into their product of art principles. The experience may 
be likened to that of a child who accidentally touches an 
electric button, causing the room suddenly' to be illumin- 
ated. The child knows the light is there, but does not 
comprehend how it got there. 

Now instead of being the cause of an oriental hand- 
shake, a good job of printing ought to be an everyday oc- 
currence, and the stirring of the waters should be left for 
the bad job of printing 
when, unfortunately, it hap- 
pens along. 

Lack of interest is the 
reason for non-development 
of many printers in the art 
side of typography. Be- 
cause, to many compositors, 
printing is merely a means 
of making a living, only 
enough knowledge is ac- 



fections of his own limduct. Jobs that before looked good 
to him, now, viewed in a m\v liglit, are defective, and 
finally the old verdict is reached, "There is none perfect, 
no, not one.'' Wliile to the experienced art-printer ex- 
pectations of absolutely perfect results are known to be 
futile, he tries tor one hundred per cent just the same. 
A man lacks something in his make-up when he is satis- 
fied to be rated as a twenty-five or fifty per cent printer. 



Tickets, altlio only : 
product, afford opporti 
ment of art printinL;. 
themes and styles and t 



linute part of tlie printinsi' office 



Clas 



refined 



uired to enable them to 

hold their jobs," or, in 
the cases of emplojers, to 
retain their customers. 
Time spent in the printshop 
is considered drudgery and 
the pleasures of life come 
after the whistle has blown. There are young printers 
who know comparatively nothing about good typography, 
yet are authorities on the rules of pinocle, baseball, or 
other pastimes. And there are older printers, too, who 
could write a book about chicken-raising, yet, do not 
know when type-faces harmonize. 

Any man who is not interested in his vocation is to 
be pitied. Unless his heart is in his work, a lawyer, 
preacher, editor, ad-writer, artist, or printer, will not be 
successful. 

Interest may be developed. If the typographer will 
devote a portion of the time now si)ent on outside mat- 
ters to the study of his craft, and especially the art side 
of printing, his work will become lighter and the hands 
on the clock will chase each other. The same concentra- 
tion of thought now devoted to unimportant side inter- 
ests would bring large dividends if invested in the study 
of typography. Efficiency is a guarantee of steady work 
and good pay to the employee, and an assurance of steady 
customers and better prices to the employer. 

The typographer who prefers freedom from care, and 
the blissfulness of ignorance, is a poor member of soci- 
ety. He should line up among the world's workers 
and accept some of the responsibilities. The first things 
he observes, should he become a student, are the imper- 



HALF-YEARLY MEET 

OF THE BOSTON 
ARCHITECTS' LEAGUE 

AT THE ROOMS 
MONDAY FEBRUARY SIXTEEN 

BANQUET TICKET 



is an ii 


te 


•esti 


lo- and in- 


struct iv. 


st 


adv. 


The corn- 


positoro 


•h 


vout 


man should 


know an 


1 I 


nde 


•stand these 


various s 


ty 


es, t 


hat he may 


be able 


o 


ulap 


t himself to 


a n V d e 


ni. 


md 


made for 


someth 


i". 


,ditt 


rent.-- Re- 


source tu 


nc 


ss is 


a valuable 



chai 



icteristic forai 



liter 



EXAMPLE 256 



for art and literary purposes 



Example 2.5' 
type arrangem 
motive. The d 
new to printer 
used for many 
tablets, and t 
The egg-and-- 
architectural c 
allv proper, e^- 
naily then- wa 



—It is fittir 
its, first to i 



to possess, and close examin- 
ation of the nineteen ticket 
forms, and careful reading 
of what follows, should serve 
to develop that quality. 
These forms were designed 
by the author especially for 
this chapter. 
I, in commencing a series of 
low one based upon a classic 
students of art, yet may be 



ent 



be 



■ 1)11 



^vhat ^ 



u!c 



■ets on inscription 
111 ancient Rome, 
embellishment in 
)e-face is historic- 
) capitals, as origi- 
eapitals, the small 
n- evolved (luring 



the .Middle Anvs. 'I'lu- letters of modern roinan type-faees 
set very close together, and to get projier results the cap- 
itals should be slightly spaced. One-point spaces have 
been used in this example. Wiiite cardboard is preferable 
to a colored one, on wiiich to jirint this design. 

Example ^2,57 ( Insert).— The historic (iotliie or church 
style furnished the motive for the treatment of this ticket. 
Both border and type-face possess characteristics pecu- 
liarly Gothic — notably the pointed form of the letters 
and floret. There is also blend of tone, and similar con- 
trast of heavy and light strokes in letter and border. 
Ancient features are consistently carried out in tiie ar- 
rangement. The lines are set close to the border and 
made full length. Contrast is obtained by the use of 



108 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Annual Book Exhibition 

Carnegie Library 

Honesdale 

Open 9 A. M. to 10 p. M. Admit the Bearer 



COURSE OF TEN LECTURES 

IN THE HIGH SCHOOL ASSEMBLY ROOM 



I. JULIUS CAESAR 
II. MARK ANTONY 
II. ALEXANDER 
\ . CHARLEMAGNE 
V. NAPOLEON 



VI. WASHINGTON 
VII. JAC KSON 
VIII. LINCOLN 
I.\. GRANT 
X. ROOSEVELT 



TICKETS FOR COURSE « TWO DOLLARS 



Suggested for 



e ticket 



ached 



color and the emphasis in type size of two important 
phrases. This style of treatment is appropriate for tickets 
used by churches or kindred organizations. 

Example a.'iS (Insert). — The style of this ticket is a 
modern conception and originated in the art revival of 
the latter part of the last century. The motive is mascu- 
line and its features are contrast of tone, massing of let- 
tering, and liberal blank space. It will be noticed that 
while in this specimen the margin inside of border is 
wide, on the previous speci- 
men (Example 257) there 
is practically no space in- 
side of the border. These 
features are necessary in 
the correct interpretation of 
the respective styles. The 
motive of the specimen 
under consideration is par- 
ticularly applicable to tickets 
for minstrel performances, 
smokers, club outings, and 
other affairs in which men, 
mostly, are interested. 

Example 259 (Insert). — 
The color border on this 
specimen suggests a means 
of varying the treatment of 



the border treatment of color inside surrounding rules 
blends with the type-face. Only two sizes of type are 
used and lower-case is consistently adhered to. The 
shape of the main group gives a pleasing symmetry to 
the arrangement, the floret serving well to complete this 
result. The effect as a whole is bookish, and may be 
adapted to various literary and art purposes. White or 
buff stock would be suitable, antique finish preferred. 
Example 261. — There may be an idea here for course 
tickets in which a number 
of lectures are listed. The 



Old Fashioned Dance 

Bushwich Hall 

Evening of October I^ine 
/ Gi'vi^ by Ij " 
a^ames of\imerMa 



Grand Marth at 9 o'thck 



EXAMPLE 262 
Daintily appropriate in type-face and illi 



tickets, the extension of the border into two of the corners 
adding distinction. Such a design as this is likely to 
meet approval among college students, as they welcome 
•odd and striking effects. The strong italic lower-case is a 
relief from the many more familiar roman faces used on 
such tickets. Emphasis of important parts is obtained by 
increasing the type sizes until proper contrast is obtained. 
Example 260. — The treatment of this example may be 
described as modern, based upon the Colonial. The 
Caslon type-face furnishes a Colonial atmosphere, and 



form as shown is not com- 
plete, the idea including 
the attachment at one side 
of coupons containing the 
names and dates of the lec- 
tures. Only capitals are used 
and the three main lines are 
aligned at each end of the 
measure. The narrow bor- 
der gives a finish to the 
general design, which is 
well suited for printing in 
black ink on white stock. 
It would be a mistake to 
print this ticket on any but 
white cardboard. A bright 
colored stock would be entirely unsuited, because of the 
dignified nature of the affair and the class of hearers that 
would attend. 

Example 262. — Here we have a ticket of peculiar in- 
terest to women and the treatment is daintily appropri- 
ate. Caslon italic is an admirable letter for the purpose, 
as it is graceful and neat. Bold treatment and large type 
have been avoided, the main portion of the cop.v being- 
grouped in the center and surrounded by liberal blank 
space. The outline illustration underprinting the type 



MASQUE BALL 

GIVEN BY THE 

PIONEER SOCIAL CLUB 

OLD BOROUGH HALL 

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1909 

MEN'S TICKET— 50 CENTS 



Organ j^ecital 



in Trinity Church, Milford 



By the Organist 



professor jgeton Dilson 



Assisted by the Choir 



Wednesday Evening, March 17, 1909 



Tickets >1- One Dollar 



TICKETS 



109 












SPEND A HAPPY EVENING WITH THE 




U 
2 

n 


ENTERTAINMENT 


O 

r 




i: 


IN G. A. R. HALL, BY 


D 






< 


Camp 233, Sons of Veterans 


JO 






K 
Oi 
O 


THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 16, 1909 
TICKETS - TWENTY CENTS 


CO 

O 

z 

w 




^ 


QNV saTanoHi hhoa aAvaa qnv 









group gives added interest to the ticket and may have 
advertising value in the suggestion it presents of the eve- 
ning's pleasure. White card would be proper, and a buff 
or gray-blue stock might also look well. 

Example 263. — This ticket presents the geometric, or 
so-called secession style ; a mild example, tho. Because 
straight lines form its motive, some call it the mission 
style. There are possibilities in it for the typographer 
looking for fresh ideas with which to vary his work. 
Right here it nmy be well 




compositors against 
becoming enthusiastic over 
every new style of type ar- 
rangement that may come 
to his notice. There are men 
who in their endeavors to 
do something to win fame — 
something astonishing and 
entirely original — set out on 
unknown seas without rud- 
der or compass. The result 
invariably is shipwreck. 
The printer who starts out 
to pnxluce typtigrapliy not 
founded on some proved and 
tried base, builds a house in 
the sands that will come 
tumbling down at the first test of endurance. 

A type-face of squared shape such as the capitals of 
lining gothic is best fitted to accompany the squares and 
angular ornaments of the mission or secession style. A 
gray slock on which to print this example would be a 
wise selection. 

Ex.\MPLE 264. — This specimen will be recognized as an 
adaptation of the missal or mass-book style of treatment, 
mentioned in a previous chapter. It is an accepted eccle- 
siastical arrangement, and proves as pleasing on a ticket 



Moder 



as on a title-page. Uncial initials (as are here shown in 
color) may be had of typefounders in slight variations. 
White or buff card admirably supports missal treatment. 
Example 265. — Inspiration for ticket designs may even 
be drawn from the work of William Morris and the Italian 
printers who used the black-toned decorative border, 
altho this style should not be undertaken unless the 
proper border is available. The one here adapted carries 
out the idea fairly well. Old Style Antique set to snugly 

fill the panel gives the proper 

results, the capital lines also 
being necessary to this style. 
Tickets for educational and 
art functions especially lend 
themselves to this treatment 
and white card should be 
used. 

Example 266. — The mo- 
tive for this ticket form came 
from observing that art work- 
ers during the Middle Ages 
frequently engraved inscrip- 
tions around the margins or 
borders of plates, slabs, 
doors, and like objects. 
This suggested the adoption 
of the idea to carry a few 



HORTICULTURAL EXHIBIT 

AUSPICES ASSOCIATION OF FLORISTS 

FEHRENWELL GARDENS 

JUNE 12 TO 30, 1909 



ADMIT BEARER 




EXAMPLE 267 
pplication of classic type effec 



pertinent words on an entertainment ticket. Cardboard of 
almost any color could be used. 

Example 267. — Perhaps this arrangement could be 
described as a modern application of classic type effects. 
The display lines are in Cheltenham, a face that approxi- 
mates some of the ancient Roman lettering, and the treat- 
ment of the ticket as a whole is chaste. The ornaments, 
surrounded as they are by blank space, emphasize the 
classic simplicity of the ticket. The type group is tapered 
to give proper symmetry. 



EXHIBIT 0/ PRINTS 

THE directors of the Allentown Public Library have 
prepared an Exhibit of Prints, reproductions of work 
of the old masters, such as Raphael, Titian, Rubens, 
Michelangelo, Vandyck, Rembrandt, Murillo, etc., 
exhibit to be open for examination every afternoon from 



FEBRUARY TEN to MARCH TWO 



/ this Ticket at the Hamilton Street entran 



THE ORPHEUS ASSOCfATION 

ANNUAL CONCERT 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BOSTON 

DECEMBER 6. 1909 

ADMISSION-FIFTY CENTS 



110 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



ANNUAL OUTING 

OF THE 

DOLAN COMPANY 
EMPLOYEES 

FELDMAN PARK, LONG ISLAND 
SATURDAY, JULY 9, 1909 

EMPLOYEE'S TICKET NOT TRANSFERABLE 



Robus 



EXAMPLE 270 

n outing ticket 



HALLOWEEN MASK BALL 
SARTONEAN SOCIAL CLUB 

SEVERINGTON HALL 

NOVEMBER FIVE 

NINETEEN 

NINE 



The 



Example 2(58. — This is purely a Colonial effect and 
closely follows the an-angements found on title-])a{res of 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Hair-line rules 
well separated by space were common in those days. The 
type here used is Caslon, a letter cut in the eighteenth 
century, and one especially suited to Colonial typography. 
Antique finished card in white and buff is ai)pr()i)riate. 

Example 2G9.— Dainty, refined effects are deinaiided 
by certain customers. This si)eeiinen deitionstrates tin- 
effectiveness of such treat- 
ment on a ticket. Two sizes 
of type (Pabst), all capitals 
and slightly spaced, give the 
proper results. The orna- 
ments are used as symbolic 
decoration. 

Example 270. — The ty- 
pography of this ticket is 
distinctly masculine. This 
result has been obtained by 
the use of capitals of a robust 
type-face, so distributed in 
size as strongly to emphasize 
the important phrases. Had 
this form been printed in one 
color the two type lines now 
in color should have been 
reduced a size. It is well for compositors to keep in mind 
that when orange is used in combination with black, the 
portion printed in orange will be lighter in tone than that 
in black, unless the difference is provided for by bolder 
or larger type-faces. Any color of stock excepting dainty 
tints would do for this ticket. 

Example 271. — This unusual arrangement was dictated 
by the nature of the cab ornament. The shapes of the 
type groups are built about it. Were the cab ornament 
not used, another arrangement would be necessary. There 



are social clubs of all kinds in every city, and balls are 
frequently held for which tickets are needed. An ele- 
ment of interest such as is given by the cab ornament 
would surely be appreciated by such customers. 

Example 272. — Occasionally there comes to the print- 
sho]) a custonur wanting a ticket which cannot easily be 
dui)lieated b> aii\(ine with a press and a few fonts of 
t\ pe. Instead of referring the customer to a lithographer 
the jjHnter sliould ascertain if he is not in a position to 
produce such a ticket. The 
style of the one here shown 
is suggested for such emer- 
gencies. A type border 
printed in color, forms the 
background. Over this print 
the reading matter, and for 
the disjjlay lines use a type- 
face that happens not to be 
possessed by other printers 
in the same city. In provid- 
ing a border for this ticket 
a rule with double lines has 
been used, thus blending it 
with the double lines of 
the type face. White stock 
should be selected for this 
ticket. 



lU/LLi 

in merchandise if presented Mondny afternoon 

February 15, 1909, at the Carpet Department 

and a purchase is made of ten dollars or more 

of Carpets, Linoleums, Ru^s, Oil 

Cloths or Tapestries 

WEiT i lEirif PliY 



.rfcitins 



Example 273. — The corner decoration is in keeping 
with the subject of this ticket, and the arrangement as a 
whole is suggested for similar purposes. Anj- color of 
cardboard is suitable. 

Example 274'. — The decoration of early French books 
furnished the motive for the typographical treatment of 
this ticket. It is submitted simply to demonstrate that 
ideas for arrangement can be picked up in many quarters, 
and as a suggestion that t3'pographers go thru the world 
with eyes open. 



r^ r^ 


U U 


SEASON TICKET -1908 


HOWARD 


BASE BALL CLUB 


Admit 


^•„,^.„.^.... 


LJ W| 



Bushwick Photographers Club 

•^ :5»'^> C: =i^ 

This ticket is good for one dozen 
best photographs if presented for 
the purpose of a siLting before 
March 30th, during mornings 

Menton's Studio, 1164 Myrtle Avenue 

EXAMPLE 274 




EDITH BARRINGTON^i 



HERALD 


AMERICAN 


WORLD 


An entertainer 


•'An emphatic 


"The audience 


of merit" 


success" 


liked her" 



The Sweet Songstress of Vaudeville 




EXAMPLE 277 
Suggested as a tkeatrical letterlieaJ 



Brannon Printing Co. 

Typographers and Stationers 
Talladega, Alabama 



Dated at 118 East Street_ 



EXAMPLE 278 
A neat IctterKead odclly balanced 



mw. 








y 



S3a 



LETTERHEADS &' ENVELOPS 



THE subject of this chapter probably carries more inter- 
est than some others to the general commercial printer, 
because no small portion of his business is made up of the 
production of letterheads and envelops for all kinds of 
people. When one considers that the great volume of 
business correspondence carried on in the world requires 
millions upon millions of printed envelops and letter- 
heads he comprehends the printer's interest. Lithogra- 
phers and copper-plate printers share with type printers 
in producing this mass of work, but it is sufficiently dis- 
tributed among the last-named class to cause energetic 



sequent smaller outlay of cash the quality-printer can 
make a profit, while his neighbor, the quantity-printer 
may have difficulty in preventing a deficit. There are 
shops working overtime on printing of the cheaper class, 
obtained by underbidding, that find nothing left over 
after expenses are paid. And there are shops which give 
customers a quality of product the\ cannot get elsewhere, 
in w^hich there is a profit on e\ cry job and a balance each 
month on the sunny side of the ledger. 

In the printing of stationery, then, and in all other 
work, select the wise course and print according to art 



competition. The repeat orders'' which accompany sta- standards. LTse good stock, good ink and good type-faces ; 
tionery printing add considerably to its desirableness, for in learn to combine these elements into a harmonious whole 






^HlLADELPHl 



An origin 



them the printer s 
busy presses. This 
com petition has 
brought in its wake 
many anxious hours, 
for it has meant low- 
ering of prices and 
d i s a p J) e a r a n c e of 
profit. Profit, in such 
circumstances, may be 
likened to the friend 
who interferes in a 
family quarrel. Both 
combatants turn on 
him and when they 
are finished the friend 
is, also. 

Printers should 
realize that there are 

two ways of meeting competition and that the most familiar 
one — lowering prices — is the wrong way. They should 
read the lives of the world's successful and respected busi- 
ness men, and they will find that instead of lowering 
prices these men raised the qualitj- of their product. 

Raise the (juality — that is the only way to successfully 
meet competition, for 
it lessens the number 
of competitors and al- 
lows the printer to re- 
tain self-respect. 

The rule invariably 
holds that the printer 
who goes after all the 
work in town really 
gets most of the un- 
profitable orders ; 
whereas the printer 
who places quality 
above quantity draws 
to his shop the better 
class of printing- 
buyer. With less 
equipment and con- 



EDWARD TERN & OMPANY, >nc 

PRINTERS 
PUBLISHERS 



EXAMPLE 275 



—and get a proper 
price for the work. 



The question How 
shall letterheads be 
treated?" is well 
a n s w er e d in this 
cha])ter by the more 
than two dozen mini- 
ature repi'oductions, 
every one of which 
{)resents an approved 
st.\ le for a particular 
j)urpose. Of course it 
is safer for printers 
who have not made a 
study of art arrange- 
ments, to adhere to 
imitation engravers' 
effects, but the compositor able to plan legitimate type 
headings has moved higher in the craft and become a 
thinker. Let us study the examples before us and draw 
inspiration from them. 

Example 275. — This letterhead presents an arrange- 
ment decidedly unusual. Caslon capitals lend themselves 
well to the squared 
ihape of the type 



srhead des 



THE HEINTZEMANN PR£SS. BOSTON 

I8S FRANKLIN STREET, COR. PEARL .-. PHONE «27 MAIN 
PRINTERS OF TEXT BOOKS IN ALL MODERN LANGUAGES 



EXAMPLE 276 

n squared effect 

nil] 



groups. It is import- 
ant to know that the 
easy and graceful 
lower-case letters 
should be used where 
an arrangement is 
free and unshaped, 
and that capitals are 
best suited to squared 
groupings, such as is 
found on this heading 
and on the one fol- 
lowing. In the ex- 
ample under consid- 
eration balance is 
retained by setting 



112 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




gr-i 35^ ""-'Pap- 



EXAMPLE 279 
1 imposing design from type n 
3y Melton Printshop, Dallas, 



. Buxton Machinery Co. 

"Second-Hand" 



EXAMPLE 280 



,.Wo. 



has plenty of margin at the sides, and the 
squared device is centered under the t\ jje 
group. This is another instance of shape-har- 
mony, the device, group and capital letters all 
contributing to this result. Black and orange 
inks ; brown paper. 

Example 277 (insert).— Theatrical letter- 
heads, those used by the rank and file of 
players, should be highly attractive. Such 
treatment is demanded by customers and the 
printer does wisely who gives what is wanted. 
A great deal of this work as produced by 
printers is open to criticism from an art view- 
point, especially in the use of inharmonious 
type-faces and inks. Ideas as to fitting treat- 
ment may be had by study of the billboards. 
High-class stars appearing in intellectual plays 
are represented by posters dignified and re- 
fined in design and artistic in treatment, and 
their stationery no doubt reflects dignity, re- 
finement and art. On the other hand the lead- 
ing lady of a ciieap burlestiue company thinks 
her stationery is not properly treated unless 
it is filled with halftones, large type and gaudy 
colors. Right here the printer can do mission- 
ary work for the cause of good printing. He 
can give her striking effects and yet keej) 
within the bounds of art. The example shown 
is suggested as a step in this direction. 

Example 278 (Insert). — Here is a letter- 
head that pleases because it combines the 
dignity of plain gothic type effects with a 
touch of the decorative. The ornament is such 
as to join the heading into a definite arrange- 
ment. Gothic is seldom pleasing as a type- 
face, but this heading is an exception. In 



the first line full measure. The odd positions 
of the work-mark and the squared type group 
add to the attractiveness of the heading and 
give it originality. Many compositors would 
mistakenly have placed the type group in the 
center and flanked it on each side by a work- 
mark. Center arrangements are advisable in 
most cases, but if away-from-center effects 
give good results they should be used. This 
letterhead was printed in gray and orange 
inks on white stock. 

Example 276. — Altho this is a lettered de- 
sign, similar results can be obtained with 
type, which should be Old Style Antique or 
an equivalent. With the type-lines set close 
together and the words moderately spaced an 
even dark tone is produced. The letterhead 



Illlll fli: 


W. D.GlLE Jurniture 

Musical Instruments 
Jewelry 
Stoves and 
Ranges 


Funeral Dir 

Coffiio md C 






Crarv, N.D.I 


I 




Organ. 









lorcester ^aleioixlau H lub 



:ral line of goods 

the original, black and orange inks were used 
on white paper. 

Example 279. — A strong decorative treat- 
ment was accorded this letterhead. There was 
only a small amount of copy, but the compos- 
itor planned an imposing design. A notched 
initial lends itself to the scheme. The list 
of officers is oddly placed. Such elaborate 
effects are only appropriate for certain busi- 
nesses, such as this one and any having to do 
with printing, decorating and like art-crafts. 
Dark blue and brown-tint inks; brown stock. 

Example 280. — The treatment of this let- 
terhead is peculiarly suitable to a machinery 
business, and any attempt at art effects would 
be wrongly directed. Machinery has never 
had the sympathy of the art world, which 



LETTERHEADS fe? ENVELOPS 



113 



holds that niethanical methods efface the in- 
dividual, and individuality it considers as fun- 
damental. When Morris printed at the Kelm- 
scott Press everything possible was done by 
hand. The pjiper was made in that way, the 
type was set from the case, decorations en- 
graved on wood, and the impressions of the 
pages pulled on a hand press. This j^rejudice 
in favor of hand work makes a place in the 
art galleries for the manuscript book and the 
early printed volume, and excludes the book 
produced by means of machinery. There is 
reason for this prejudice when ' conmiercial- 
ists" tell us that many things that violate art 
principles are now necessary because of the 
limitations of mechanics. They would make 
an automaton of the art-craftsman and sacri- 
fice art to cog wheels. The job printer, tho, 
must recognize the existence of machinery, 
not so much in his own business as in others, 
in the sense that printed stationery for a 
manufacturer of machinery, such as the Bux- 
ton Company, should be in a severe, business- 
like style. The letterhead now being con- 
sidered is remarkably well treated, the type- 
face, an engraver's gothic, being an important 
factor in getting proper results. Dark blue ink ; 
light blue paper. 

Example 281. — A most difficult piece of 
type composition is presented by this letter- 
head, which is for a store-keeper dealing, in 
furniture, jewelry, music, and coffins. As fur- 
niture seems the imix)rtant line of goods, that 
word is given pn)minence immediately after 
the merchant's name, followed however by 
the titles of the other lines. These lines are 











^^^aiM^crfii ^ptru0n0t 




?;;^.v«^;^iAVi;;o^Ko;x^^^?oj„n^^'^^-^;^:;,*^^^fSSi? 






a!«n«9r««» m». 





EXAMPLE 283 

Letterhead for a theater 

By Lennis Brannon. Talladega, Ala. 



Che louisiana ^tate Bental ^ofiety 



EXAMPLE 285 



lines in the center at the head. While such 
treatment is neat enough, it lacks individual- 
ity. The Caledonian Club letterhead presents 
a way of getting individuality into such jobs. 
Lower-case of Washington Text has been com- 
bined with suitable square decorative initials, 
underprinted with color. In the reproduction 
this heading is shown slightly larger in pro- 
portion than it should be. Dark brown and 
gray-blue inks; yellow -brown stock. 

Example 283. — This heading is well suited 
to the purpose for which it is intended (the 
writing paper of a theater), and it further car- 
ries out the .style considered in Example 277. 
The strengtli of type-face and rule is nicely 
contrasted and the spacing and margins care- 
fully adjusted. Black and vermilion inks; 
brown paper. 

f^xAMPLK 284. — Letterheads with large lists 
enumerated at the left side, references to post-mortem of officers give more or less trouble to compositors, and 
matters being isolated and grouped in the upper right make it difficult to obtain symmetrical arrangements, 
comer. The heading is all in Caslon lower-case, with the Here is such a heading, set entirely in Caslon, with 
exception of two lines, these being treated 
in caj)itals, small capitals and italic to in- 
troduce variety and give necessary prom- 
inence. The florets add the decorative ele- 
ment. This heading also demonstrates how 
it is possible to place a great amount of copy- 
without the use of rules. Black and blue- 
gray inks; white paper. 

Example 282. — While the previous ex- 
ample presents the problem of much copy, 
this one opens up the contrary proposition 
of little copy. With only the name of a 
club and that of a city to be taken care of, 
it is customary to set them in two small 



advertised 




114 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



lewll6e 



PaynesvHIe, Minn 



NEELY & YOUNG 



EXAMPLE 288 

Unique treatment for real estate dealers' letterhead 

By Edward W. Stutes, Spokane. Wash. 



individuality is injected by slightly spaoinif 
the letters and confining- color to the three 
small initials. Gothic (sans-serif) looks well 
treated in this manner. As will be seen, 
plenty of blank space is necessary for right 
effects in this treatment. Black and vermilion 
inks ; gray paper. Example v306 shows the 
envelop which carried this letter sheet. 

Example 287. — Here an owner of a sum- 
mer cottage uses stationery to tell of its at- 
tractions, and the type arrangement carries 
out the purpose in an interesting manner. 
The heading is unconventional and unique in 
this respect. Violet and orange inks ; light 
blue paper. 

Example 288. — Real estate dealers demand 
striking effects on stationery, in order that 
their letters, envelops and business cards may 
be recognized on sight. This letterhead had 
a border in aluminum, and the type portion 
was printed in blue and red. The arrange- 
ment is worthy of study, as it demonstrates 
that unique effects are possible within the 
bounds of sanity. 

Example 289. — The inscription panel style 
is here adapted to letterhead purposes with 
good results. The linotype egg-and-dart border 
surrounds full length lines of Scotch Roman 
capitals. Printed in dark blue ink on light 
blue paper, this heading pleased because of 
its refinement. 

Example 290. — The classic motive of this 
heading should appeal to all lovers of good 



roman, italic and text properly blended. Tlie 
text letter gives the title distinction, and cap- 
itals and small capitals lend importance to the 
names. Careful distribution of white space is 
necessary on such a heading in order that the 
right tone shall be obtained. Black ink ; white 
paper. 

Example 28.5. — This heading is also a diffi- 
cult one. Aside from the purpose of corres- 
pondence, this letterhead serves to advertise 
a coming meeting of the society. The names 
of officei's are grouped on each side, directly 
under the title and aligned with it at the 
ends. The center group is arranged in such 
manner as to connect with the title. Dark 
blue and blue tint ; blue paper. 

Example 286. — There is a dignified, yet 
novel attractiveness about this heading that is 
unusual. The light cross rules give shape, and 




HILE5 & COGG5HALL • PRINTERS 

CATALOGUES. BOOKLETS. OFFICE STATIONERY AND BLANK BOOKS 
LEGAL BLANKS AND DOCKETS 205 ST. CLAIR AVENUE, N.E., CLEVELAND 



EXAMPLE 290 
This heading has a classic i 
By Leon I. Leader 



EXAMPLE 289 
nscription panel style adapted t 
By Leon I. Leader. Brattlebor 



, Vt. 



typography. Its style is something like that 
of Example 276, tho the type lines extend 
farther toward the edge of the paper, allow- 
ing less margin. The letter used, being of 
the ancient Roman kind, is jjeculiarly appro- 
priate for such an arrangement. Two lines of 
type similiarly treated were at the foot of this 
letter sheet. Gray-brown and orange inks; 
buff paper. 

Example 291 (insert). — The attractiveness 
of a hand-lettered design is here approxi- 
mated in the combined prints of the solid and 
outline type-faces known as Foster and Webb. 
This is an admirable letterhead for a printing 
concern. These type-faces make possible two- 
color letterheads for many purposes. White 
ink under black as was used looked particu- 
larly well on blue paper. 

EXAMPLE 292. — The designer of this letter- 



.. L. SL/'TCn, SUPERiNTIHOSNT 






31 2 MBEmtY STMEET ( ^ 5 IPOCT^^HMEEFSSl, Mo Y, 



EXAMPLE 291 

A type design tkat approximates 

a lettered beading 



t3l)e American Crinter 

25 Citp l^all place 



EXAMPLE 303 

Simple, yet strong treatment 

tor an envelop 



LETTERHEADS ^ ENVELOPS 



115 



head planned to get something different,'" 
and succeeded. He did it, too, with the good 
old Caslon type-face. This letter has. proved 
its worth in commercial job work and there 
seems to be no limit to its usefulness. Where- 
ever it appears there is added quality and 
style. By spacing the letters in this heading, 
a peculiar tone has been obtained, which 
gives the letterhead much of its character. 
The position of the lamp ornament is odd. 
Black and orange inks on white paper. 

E.XAMPLE 293. — The artist and printer have 
combined their talents in this letterhead with 
pleasing results. The decoration predomi- 
nates, but it has a business significance which 
may be more valuable than so much type. 
Decoration and illustration on a letterhead 
must be discriminatingly manipulated or the 
effect will be inharmonious. A letterhead 
differs greatly from a booklet cover or circu- 
lar in the freedom allowed for decorative treat- 
ment. The band crossing the Edison heading 
was printed in a warm gray, the illustration 
and type lines in black on white stock. 

Example 294. — This raa.v be designated a 
"twin" letterhead, inasmuch as two separate 
display groups compose it. The double ar- 
rangement could be adapted to other head- 
ings that present a similar j)roblem to the 
compositor. Caslon capitals look well for sucli 
square effects. Compositors should observe 
how the Y at the end of the main line has 
been extended into the margin to retain the 



ThelVY ?RESS-Seaff/es Printers 



EXAMPLE 292 

••Something different,"" by means of the Caslon type-fac 

By Harry A. Anger, Seattle. "Wash. 



\hmMmm 



w HI OTow rr HEADQ .TI.S J J > SUIUVAN B IIDINO SE TTLF TE EP 


NE IND. ins 


INDEPENDENCE PARTY 




THOMAS L. HISGEN ftfj JOHN TEMPLE GRAVES 

— T ~ 



EXAMPLE 294 

A ••tTvin'" letterhead in Caslon capitals 

By Harry A. Anger, Seattle, "Wash. 

group alignment. Black ink ; white paper. 

Example 295. — Perhaps an entire use of l 
italic capitals would have been more consist- 
ent, yet the one line of roman capitals does 
not detract from the pleasure the neatness of 
this heading affords the admirer of good print- 
ing. The distribution of color is uncommon, 
especially in the originals, which were in sev- 
eral combinations — black and vermilion on 
buff" paper, gray and pale blue on white 
paper, dark yellow-brown and orange on 
white paper. The italic short -and ($5f) adds 
a touch of decoration to the heading. Typog- 
raphers will find that these italic short-ands 
look well in display lines, substituted for the 
spelled-out "and." The roman short -and (&) 
is severe in character and is not as pleasing. 

Example 296. — This is a combination type 
and artist's design. The decorative band and 



side pieces were printed and embossed in 
gray. The type lines were in black, the first 
letter of each word in vermilion. Yellow- 
brown stock was used. The type-faces best 
suited to effects of this kind are those based 
upon ancient roman models, such as Chelten- 
ham and Pabst. The envelop companion to 
this letterhead is shown as Example 305. 

Example 297. — The crossed line panel is 
here adapted to letterhead purposes with some 
success. The decorative border is a suitable 
one for such arrangements and affords relief 
from the plain line brass rule. Black and 
light olive inks ; white paper. 

Example 298. — In this specimen is ex- 
emplified the attractiveness of Caslon lower- 
case, by a typographer who believes thoroly 
in simple type effects and gets them by means 
of Caslon lower-case. There are those who 



£. L. HlLDRETH & CoMPANr 
Books ^ Catalogues 

BRATTLEUORO. VT 



EXAMPLE 295 



By Leon I. Leader, Brattleboro. Vt. 



116 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




tAo,r.» .Nu MtN s r.sE SHUKS A sr.c.Ai,, 1 1 


1 1 
Cbe iSell ^l)oe Company 

Louia I«tn6rrg. Wanagcc i 1 

1 1 


'" "-""' "' r...,.,os. ,.. rwo ...OS j j 



EXAMPLE 297 
ssed line panel successfully adapted to letterhead purposes 
By Adams-Brander Company. Kalamazoo, Mich. 



claim for this letter that it is the most beauti- 
ful ever made, and the fact that it is being 
widely used after an existence of more than 
one hundred and seventy-five years makes 
the claim reasonable. Besides the fact that 
this heading is all in lower-case there is added 
peculiarity in the absence of punctuation. 
This last innovation must be practiced cau- 
tiously by job printers who have a varied 
clientele, as most customers are formalists 
and fear to have their printing different from 
Smith's or Jones'. Buyers of printing in 
America have become accustomed to seeing 
a display line without punctuation points at 
the end, and few will demand them, jet it 
is a step farther to omit punctuation from be- 
tween words. In one instance in this heading 
extra space has been added where a comma 
would ordinarily be placed, and in another 
italic is used for a portion of the line to assist 




HAT FOLLOWS WAS WRIT BY 

AT J/0 BRYANT STREET IN BUFFALO 
AND FOR: 



EXAMPLE 299 
Letterhead in robust Coloni 
By Hal Marchbanki 



the eye in separating the name of the office 
from that of the officer. Black and vermilion 
inks; v^hite stock. 

Example 299. — This letterhead is in the 
robust Colonial style that calls for strong type 
effects informally arranged. It is a style which 
few typographers can interpret successfully. 
The treatment must have a strong dash of 
individuality, yet a step too far may make it 
ridiculous. Caslon type-faces and a strong 
Colonial text letter are the best suited, and 
hand-made papers, or those approximating 
hand finishes, are essential. Black -brown and 
vermilion inks on a salmon -gray antique paper 
was the combination on this example. 

Example 300.- — This is a designed heading 
and is shown for the purpose of presenting a 
sample of the so-called secession art. In art 
circles there is much discussion by Gemians 
on secession styles and by Frenchmen on 
their art nouveau. Both phrases are used in 
designating new schools of art treatment, in 
which the traditions of the classic masters are 
set aside and modern ideas made the founda- 
tion. The secession style applied to commer- 
cial designing and to typography seems to 
call for a multitude of square blocks and sev- 
ered lines, the idea being to use as many 
blocks and lines as the design will stand. 
Some weird effects are produced, not unlike 
dislocated checker boards and God-bless- 
our-home" motto backs, but occasionally a 
design is evolved that is rather interesting. 



Hill Publishing Company 



tot Pcirl Strct 
Nc« York 



By Hal Marchbanks. New York 

This letterhead is of the last mentioned class. 
: It was printed in brown-gray, gray -green and 
j gold on white paper. The secession style is 
worthy of study, as are any new or old ideas 
in typography, for the typographer who ad- 
vances is he who keeps up to date and allows 
no cobwebs or other evidences of inaction to 
find dwelling place in his brain-pan. 

ExAMPLi!, 301. — This is a reproduction of a 
letterhead printed from an incised copper- 
plate. The reason for showing it is to present 
to the type printer an example of neatness 
and dignity in letterhead designing by an- 
other process. Copperplate-engraved station- 
ery appeals to many because of this quality of 
neatness, and in view of this fact more than 
a passing glance should be accorded the speci- 
men. It was printed in gloss black and red 
inks on white paper. 



LETTERHEADS &" ENVELOPS 



117 



I 



What is the use and purpose of the en- 
velop? A careless answer to this would be, to 
cover and seal the letter during its transmis- 
sion thru the mails. This is its chief purpose, 
but not the only one. Post office officials re- 
quest that the name and address of the sender 
of a letter be i)laced in the upper leil cor- 
ner of the envelop in order that undelivered 
mail may be returned. In acceding to this 
request the business man has taken advan- 
tage of the publicity the envelop affords and 
utilized it in various ways to the advantage of 
his business. It is poor taste to cover the en- 
tire face of the envelop with advertising mat- 
ter. Publicity advant^ige may be gained by 
more subtle methods. Every business house, 
afler careful consideration, should adopt some 
distinctive treatment of its stationery and hold 
to it. It not only gives an appearance of per- 
manency to the house using it, and serves as 
a testimony of its thoroness, but recipients 
will at once recognize letters from this source 
among much other mail. Oliver, the plow- , 
maker, realizes it is to his advantage to have 
people know and talk about him and his | 
plows, and the National Biscuit Company 
would not spend thousands of dollars annually 
to familiarize the public with Uneeda biscuit 
if there was no value in this publicity. Ac- 
knowledging, then, that it is profitable to use 
distinctive stationery, the next requisite is 
that the envelop should be made of the same 
color and quality of stock as the letterhead. Of course, 
it may be cheaper to use an eight-cent paper on the en- 



Proofs //-^w The Willett Press 

Number Five West Twcnrietfi -Street, New York City 





The Cordav & Gross Company 

Printers. Engravers. Designers 

Catalog Makers, Photographers 

Cleveland .Ohio 



EXAMPLE 302 

A good specimen o{ printer's proof envelop 

Buff stock was used 

velop than to use the twenty -cent paper the letterhead 
is printed on, but does it pay to thrust upon those who 
receive your correspondence the fact that you are com- 
pelled to closely economize? Printers, impress upon jour 



Nea 



customer the importance of using a good quality of paper 
thruout, but at this point, doubly impress upon him that 
the printing must not be slighted. The government 
prints thousands of names and addresses on envelops for 
merchants who think they are saving money by that 
method. Some printers also turn out envelops in the ma- 
chine-slug style of the government's products, and the 
result is the mail of one business house looks uninter- 
estingl.v similar to that of many others. The few envelop 
corners reproduced in this chapter oflTer suggestion of 
distinctive treatment that is jjossible on such work. In 
each case the envelop had a counterpart in style of typog- 
raphy in the letterhead that accompanied it. 

Example .SOa is an envelop used solely for the forward- 
ing of proofs from the printer to the customer. It has 
been found advisable by |)rintshops to have a special en- 
velop for this purpose, which is usually treated in accord- 
ance with the style of other stationery used by the firm. 

Example 303 (Insert). — This envelop corner is closely 
related to the letterhead used by the same publication. 
These three lines, in the same type-face one size larger, 
appear as the center group on the letterhead. 




EXAMPLE 304 
machinery envelop (See 
By W. A. Woodis. Worcester. M 



EXAMPLE 305 
irelop -whicli accompanied the let 
is shown as example 296 



118 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




The. 



s example 286 



Example 304. — A mate to the letterhead shown as 
Example 280, this envelop corner is also appropriate for 
the business it represents. The line "After five days re- 
turn to" is really unnecessary and is now seldom used. The 
name and address of the sender in the corner of the en- 
velop is sufficient to insure the return of first-class mail 
if not delivered for any reason. It is necessary tho, on 
other than first-class mail which the sender may desire 
to have returned, to add the words "if not delivered 
notify . . . and return postage will be provided."" 

Example 305. — The treatment of this envelop is the 
same, on a reduced scale, as the letterhead (Example 29(5), 



trade-mark when adapted to stationery purposes should 
be made to harmonize with the type-face that is to ac- 
company it. Or it ma.v be easier to blend a type-face with 
the trade-mark. This has been done here and in Ex- 
amples 303 and 309. 

Example 308. — A pleasing and simple treatment in 
Caslon text. Such an arrangement can be set in type in 
a few minutes. 

Example 309. — Type-face and device blend in this en- 
velop and the squared arrangement of the type lines adds 
to the harmony. 

Example 310. — There is an interesting medieval note 



%\)t (General ^fjotojprapljtng Companp 

1215 TBtoaOtoap 



Caslon t 

and suggests the plan of actually duplicating the letter- 
head form on the envelop. 

Example 306. — The relation between the style of this 
envelop and Example 286 further emphasizes the value 
of similarity in the several pieces of stationery used by the 
same company or fiiTn. 

Example 307. — Another specimen in spaced gothic. 
The circle-and-initial device in style and treatment har- 
s perfectly with the type-face. A device used as a 



EXAMPLE 309 
Harmony of device and type 
By Ray Greenleaf, New 



York 



struck in the treatment of this envelop. It gives an 
atmosphere of distinctiveness that has real value to the 
business house using it. Orange and black inks ; gray 
stock. 

Example 311. — There is an odd tone obtained by the 
spaced border and Caslon capitals. This treatment is good 
for some businesses, particularly the one for which this 
was used, but would be inappropriate for others. 




^t.3f(lt)n l6ratJ)et0 iQamters.Betorators 



(Ernrst 6t. 3|o;)n 
JFtfli. «t. 3Iol?n 



^^ 



Ct)e account of 



EXAMPLE 314 

A decorative style tLat is peculiarly 

appropriate to the business 



^atDtuooD iFini$t)in0 



9^tcf)tgan I 






-'"T jj y"« |' 



HIXON&TINSMAN 

DEALERS IN SUPERIOR SCRANTON COAL 



Poiiilvely No Book Attounti Opentd 



Sold to 



'' I Broadway, New Jersey,_ 



19 ] 



^ ^xtg' ' 



EXAMPLE 315 

An excellent Dilmead in the panel style 

By Herbert R. Smitk, 

WasLington, N. J. 



r^ iy,-.g=fc^^^ vv-is. — -L.^-7- 



BILLHEADS &' STATEMENTS 



AN assertion was recently made by the head of a large be in close touch with the composing-room, so that no 
commercial printery to the effect that the importance of job will go to the press-room unless it is a creditable rep- 



M 



To Smith & Jones, Dr. 



DEALERS IN 

Lumber, Sash, Blinds, Doors a 

Tenms: Cash 



the composing-room has been overrated and that in the 
production of a job it should really have less to do with 
the office than any other department. This modern com- 
mercial sense of proportion which belittles typography 
and sets above it the processes of presswork and binding 
is wrong. There is a story told of a visitor to an art gal- 
lery. The guide was pointing out the paintings of the old 
masters, and, directing attention to a certain picture, said : 
This, ladies, is the masterpiece of the great Raphael.'' 
"Oh!" exclaimed 
one of the party, 
"isn't it a pretty 
frame. " 

Now it is unprofit- 
able either to be- 
little or to overesti- 
mate a n y of the 
elements that go to 
make a jjerfect job 
of printing. The 
message is the im- 
portant thing, 
whether it be a 
newspaper adver- 
tisement or book, 
and anything which 
enhances the value 
of the final result is 

important. A momentous period in the production of a 
printed job is at the beginning, when the type is set. At 
this point the influences are either for a good or for a bad 
finish. An ill-proportioned, inharmonious title-page is as 
objectionable bound in hand-tooled morocco as it is bound 
in paper; even more so, because of the contrast. In the 
case of billheads and statements, the subjects of this chap- 
ter, the typography 
is highly important. 

A business house ^° allowances mad e after tc 

may for years use 
the type arrange- 
ment of a billhead 
just as it was printed 
at the first order, 
and printers who 
come after must suf- 
fer for the original 
sin. Here is a strong 
reason, then, why 
everj' job should be 
given careful atten- 
tion at the time it is 
started thru the 
printshop. To do 
this the office should 



resentative of the shop's standard of typography. If it i 
not made right at the time of setting, nothing that may 
be done for it in the press-room or bindery will compen- 
sate for its defects. 

However much we may deride the slavish following by 

some people of the changes that occur in the thing we call 

style, or fashion, it behooves us to give the subject some 

consideration or we may be spoken of in the past tense. 

Take the arrange- 



Boston, Mass.,- 



> Mouldings 

125 Main Street 



EXAMPLE 312 



n of billhead. The 
■ and "Dr. 



irly obsolet 



Philadelphia, . 



M 



Bo«?A«<>/ A. H.BROWN 

WHOLESALE DEALER IN 

Groceries, Provisions and Produce 

Comer Market and Willow Streets 



EXAMPLE 313 
form of billhead. The "M" o 
phrase "Bought of is now i 



ment of a billhead as 
an example in point. 
A change has come 
about, due to altered 
methods of trans- 
acting business. 
Two old forms of 
billhead arrange- 
ment are shown : 

Example 312. — 
This form shows an 
arrangement com- 
monly in use a 
decade or two ago. 
The date line (usu- 
ally in script) was in 
the upper right cor- 
ner, and under it at 
the left was a dotted line beginning with a large script 
3/. Immediately following came the firm name (gen- 
erally rather large) flanked on the left by the word 
"To," and on the right by the abbreviation of debtor. 
Dr. ' ' So the aj)preiitice was taught, and he would then 
be further instructed to place the words Dealers in" 
(or its equivalent) in a small line, centered ; then to dis- 
play the words in- 
dicating the line of 
goods carried. In a 
small line at the 
lower right corner 
was the street ad- 
dress, and aligned 
opposite were the 
mystic words 
Terms Cash. ' ' The 
words "To" and 
"Dr." are now sel- 
dom used. 

Example 313. — 
This shows another 
form which substi- 
tuted the words 
"Bought of" for 
To" and Dr." 



120 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



STANDARD ELECTRICAL NOVELTY COMPANY 



EXAMPLE 316 
lommmon use of gotliic type, symmetrically arranged. The 
phrase "Sold to" is now found on most billheads 



Glmpire ;Qrinting Qomi-nY 

0pokane's Jlfeading Oommercial printers 

TE.LE.PHONE MAIN 4167 I J 



EXAMPLE 317 
Treatment that has individual interest 
By Edward W. Stutes, Spokane, Wash. 



CLOUGH & PARKER 

INSURANCE OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 
Manchester, n. h.. 



The Chas. G. Harrison printing Company 

Which Does Regular and Irregular Stunts in Books and Printed Things 
at tfteir g)ftop No. 703*South Davie St. in GREENSBORO. North Carolina 



n TERMS CASH ON PRESENTATION OF BILL ::: ::: «11 NO DISCOUNT ALLOWED 



EXAMPLE 319 
The quaint Colonial style adapted to a lillhead 



The older printers will remember the logo- 
types in various fancy designs of the phrase 
"Bought of that the ty])efounders fur- 
nished in those da>s — which were set against 
type lines of "double great jjrimer ca])s." 
Now 'Bought of" lias been supplanted on 
billheads by "Sold to," which directs atten- 
tion to the fact that Jolin Smith has sold 
goods to Thomas Brown, rather than that 
Thomas Brown has bought goods of John 
Smith — a distinction without a difference, 
one might say, yet there is interest in no- 
ting the change. 

The reason for the "M" being discarded 
in recent years on billheads is that many 
business houses are now corporations, which 
makes the words Mr." and Messrs." no 
longer suitable as forms of address. 

Example 314 (insert). — The tendency of 
the day is to individualize the style of treat- 
ment on billheads, conforming it to that of 
the letterhead and other stationery of the 
same customer. The example under consid- 
eration shows a type arrangement that in its 
decorative style is peculiarly appropriate to 
the business for which it is used. An uncon- 
ventional effect such as this, is of course more 
difficult than the conventional kind, yet the 
exercise caused by it develops the brain and 
yields more satisfaction to the printer. 

Example 315 (insert). — A coal dealer's 
billhead is not generally credited with in- 
spiration for unusual results in typography, 
yet here a very creditable job has been pi-o- 
duced from copy that would ordinarily be 
treated in a commonj^lace manner. Under- 
printing of the word "coal" is a clever idea. 
Panel treatment is not always successful on a 
billhead, altho it looks well in this instance. 

Example 31G. — Tlie compositor had a 
great number of words to place on this head- 
ing and a difficult task to arrange them sym- 
metrically, yet he evolved a result that is 
strong and satisfying. Gothic block letter 
used in just this way is uncommon. The 
groups have been carefully shaped. 

Example 317. — The arrangement of this 
and other billheads in this chai)ter present 
the recentl.v developed custom of i)lacing 
the company's name at the toj) of the sheet 
and the customer's name and the date lower 
down on the heading. The position of the 
word invoice" is odd. This word is dis- 
placing the words "bill'' and "billhead" in 
commercial usage. The example also exhibits 
the plan of printing the entire bill or invoice 
instead of printing on paper previously ruled. 
Stocl^ headings are not as extensively used 
as in former years. 

Example 318. — The special form billhead 
is shown in this example. Such treatment 
of the lower or ruled part of the sheet has 
been adopted by manj' business houses sell- 
ing special lines of merchandise. The type 
used on this specimen is apjjropriate accom- 
panying ruling so confessedly commercial. 

Example 319. — The quaint Colonial style 
is here adapted to billhead purposes. Treat- 
ment so unconventional should be confined 
to a printer's own stationery or used onlj' 
for customers desiring it. The reason that 
compositors have so many good jobs rejected 



Albert E. Pike 



William H. Bai 



The A. E. Pike Company 



Practical Tailors 



Ladies' and Gentlemen's 
Garments Made and Cared For 



Banigan Building 
Providence, R. I. 



EXAMPLE 320 

Xne use or the type-writer is causing cnanges 

in tlie construction oi billlieads 

By H. Ernest Stafford. Providence. R. I. 



HINDKKS : ■■■■ STAIKJNKKS ■■■ ■■■ LITHOGRAPHERS :: == D E 8 1 (i N E R S := =: EMBOSSERS 



Sold to 



Both Telephones Ni mbf.r 193 

THE JOS. BETZ PRINTING COMPANY 

High-Grade Catalog, Commercial & Process 

PRINTERS 

I Dated at One Hundred and Twelve W. Fourth Streei 

I East Liverpool, Ohio 



EXAMPLE 321 
The letterhead arrangement ii 
popular for billheads 



BILLHEADS ^ STATEMENTS 



121 



is that the jobs are not treated appropri- 
atel.v. An arrangement may be good in it- 
self, yet be unfit for some purposes. 

Example 320 (insert). — This is an inter- 
esting representative of the non-stock- ruled 
heading, and it also illustrates the changes 
the typewriter has worked in billhead print- 
ing. When bills were written in by hand, 
script type and dotted rule pi-evailed, but 
Avith the coming of the typewriter, script 
and horizontal guide lines are gradually dis- 
appearing from the face of billheads. The ex- 
ample under consideration also demonstrates 
the effectiveness of Caslon lower-case for bill- 
head purposes. The rule border and the panel 
for the insertion of customer's name and ad- 
dress gives distinction to the job. 

Example .'?"21 (Insert). — A simply treated 
modern form of billhead is here exhibited. 
A Caslon capital and small capital scheme, 
it offers a suggestion for effective billhead 
treatment. The present-day tendency to ar- 
range billheads in much the same manner as 
letterheads may also be noticed. By omitting 
here the words Sold to" and the ruling, a 
good letterhead would remain. Other forms 
in this chapter afford similar possibilities. 

Example 322. — Scotch Roman capitals look 
well as used on this billhead. The arrange- 
ment is uncommon. 

Example 323. — This billhead is reproduced 
for the interest a German specimen will have 
to the American typographer. It was origin- 
ally printed in brown and gray inks. Ger- 
man printing is generally strong and rugged 
and at the same time consistent and har- 
monious in combinations of type and decor- 
ation. 

Example 324. — A simple arrangement in 
Old Style Antique is here shown to illus- 
trate the prevailing use on billheads of the 
order numbers of the purchases. Most busi- 
ness houses now use an order or requisition 
form in purchasing goods and for convenience 
and accuracy in appro\ing bills demand that 
the order number shall appear on the bill or 



Example 325. — For a business such as this 
one, the treatment given is appropriate and 
pleasing. Caslon capitals and italic are en- 
tirely suitable, and the rule border is a 
strong factor in its effectiveness. No guide 
rules are used. 

Example 326. — Monthly statement forms, 
supplementing as they do the billhead, are 
treated similarly, excepting that it is cus- 
tomary to have the word "Statement" ap- 
pear somewhere upon it. Monthly balancing 
of accounts is a part of business procedure 
and customers expect statements of their ac- 
counts with the coming of the first of each 
month. The type treatment of the statement 
should be similar to that of the billhead and 
letterhead used by the same business house. 
This example carries the peculiar treatment 
accorded all of this firm's stationery. 

Example 327.— Clever arrangement of a 
printer's statement is here shown, as well 
as the sometimes printed words Balance" 
and "As per invoice" in the lower part. 

Example 328. — This form is appropriate 
for any business. The line Statement of 



THE [K]ENDALL PRINTING HOUSE 



THOMAS KENDALL 



EXAMPLE 322 
rangement in Scotch Roman capitals 




Hcciinung pon fiermann Bruckgr 

Budi= unb Kunftbruckcrei ♦ Frigbcnau=Bgrlin 

Sdimargenborferftra^e 13 • Fernfprether: Timt Friebenau He 151 



fur_ 



The Merton Dentist Supply Co. 
Everything in Dentistry 

Main Street, Tampa 



JOHN E. BAKER & COMPANY-^;2/)or/^rj 

Rare of Old Engravings 
Valuable Books, Prints 

1124 IFalnut Street, Philadelphia 



example 325 



122 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



^\'^::z:. 



The Pirsch Press 
PRINTERS 



EXAMPLE 326 

Treatment of a statement, peculiar to all 

of this printshops stationery 

your account" is suggested as a clear and business-like 
method of advising the customer just what the form 
means. 

Example 329. — This statement form is treated in the 
style of the billhead shown as Example 314 (Insert) and 
demonstrates the effectiveness and value of related treat- 
ment of business stationery. 

Example 330. — The treatment of this statement is 
unique. It is seldom that a printer who departs so far 
from the conventional produces results so pleasing. Of 
course this particular style should not be used promis- 
cuously. 

In addition to billheads and statements there is the 
Credit Memo." a form used when goods are returned 
or exchanged by customers. Some houses use their bill- 
head form for the purpose, simplj^ inserting the words 



R EGULAR MONTHLY STATE M ENT 

iDhelVY PRESS ©=;r..\7.r^'- ---" 



Wentworth & Company 
Brokers 

394 WASHINGTON STREET 
BETHLEHEM, PA. 



Statement of your account .. 



EXAMPLE 328 
that is appropriat 



^t.Joljn protters! JJamtfr0 . 2Decoratot0 
CDfbopcan Paper ^^anB:fr0 

'^ 

^tatf nunt, account of 



EXAMPLE 329 

Statement form to accompany billhead 

sl-own as Example 314 

"Credit Memo. '" on it. The credit form should be unlike 
the billhead, as when they are alike confusion is apt to 
result. 



©?ROo"?Js^vW„=OUr„f,l « 



==^^ 



EXAMPLE 327 
is well to have a statement labeled as such, a: 
By Harry A. Anger. Seattle, Was 



EXAMPLE 330 
Jnconventional treatment that ii 
By Harry A. Anger, Seattle, 



H* CAMDEN t^^lf 
PRICING COMPANY 

301 Gashiii({ Street 
Detroit 



EXAMPLE 333 

lod decorative, yet simply c: 

By Will Bradley 



CAiAiottn .Sffiiailts Ma« 



Wadsworth £5* Hughes 

Commercial, Artists, Photo 
Engravers and Printers 



I ^o Nassau Street, New York 

JrUpfior, J:fjg R.tkn.nf 



EXAMPLE 334 
iccllent arrangement of the Caalon type-face. 
By tU Hill Print Shop. New York 



W M . H . N O R R i S & SON 

INSURANCE 

2 4 EXCHANQC PLACIl, A rf • 

2 7 KILBY STREET 

BOSTON 



EXAMPLE 33S 
A well treated card in gothic 
hy tK< Sehool of Printing. North End Unioi 



BUSINESS CARDS ^ BLOTTERS 



POLITE society requires that a visitor shall be announced 
by a card bearing his or her name, and the courtesies of 
business call for this same formality. The busy man in 
his office is placed at a disadvantage if he has not under- 
stood a visitor's name and has no idea of his business. A 
card that clearly tells both name and business prevents 
embarrassment and misunderstanding and enables the 
men immediately to proceed with the matter that had 
occasioned the call. 



ing. Good stock, a dense black ink and perfect types, are 
means to this end. Pleasing results have been obtained 
when printing light-face gothics or shaded text letters, 
by using green -black ink on white plate-finished card. 

With these few words on imitation engravers' work we 
will pass on to purely typographic treatment in business 
card printing. 

Example 331. — There are a few customs in the arrange- 
ment of business cards which are followed on most print- 



The card makes it unnecessary for the caller to explain ing of this kind. The customer's name (company or firm) 



who he is. Without the 
printed information he 
would need to introduce 
himself thus: I am James 
Johnson. I am president 
of the Johnson Manufac- 
turing Company. We 
manufacture machinery 
for the making of paints. 
Our office is at 320 Broad- 
way. Our telephone num- 
ber is 4653 Worth."" 
Rather ridiculous, isn"t it? 
But with all this neatly 
printed or engraved on a 
card, embarrassment is 
avoided. 

The physical construc- 
tion of a business card is 
important. A large city 

wholesale house cannot afford to circulate the cheap-look- 
ing, inharmonious cards that some owners of small shops 
on a side street are pleased to use. Printers are forced to 
print cards in imitation of intaglio work to satisfy cus- 
tomers who do not consider 
that a truly typographic 
design looks like a busi- 
ness card. There is no 
use denying that copper- 
plate engravers set the 
style for much of the busi- 
ness card printing. Those 
printshops doing this imi- 
tation work should have 
samples of the best card 
work done by engravers, 
so that their imitations 
may be as accurate as pos- 
sible, so far as concerns 
style, face and arrange- 
ment. There is little pleas- 
ure in being an imitator 
unless you are a good one, 
and even here is oppor- 
tunity to gain a reputation 
for clever imitation print- 



The Phone Number 

CUSTOMER'S Name 

His Business 

The Street and the 

City Address 

Name of Representative 



EXAMPLE 331 

Showing customary arrangement and proportions 

of type lines on business cards 



3 treated as being of the 
greatest importance and 
usually occupies the point 
of balance, a trifle above 
the center of the card. 
The words indicating the 
business are second in 
strength and position, fol- 
lowed by the street and 
city address. The name 
of the representative usu- 
ally occupies the lower 
left corner, and the tele- 
phone number, when 
used, may be placed at 
the head or in some other 
available space, in small 
type. This distribution of 
proportions is also followed 
to some extent on uncon- 
be seen by referring to 




F K E 1) . H L A* N C A S T E B 



EXAMPLE 332 
Novelty in business card 
1123] 



ventional arrangements, as will 

other reproductions in this chapter 

Example 332. — Novelty in business card construction 

is found in this specimen. As actually used the miniature 
cover was inserted in a slit 
in the card and pasted 
fast. The arrangement of 
the type lines is interest- 
ing in that it closely fol- 
lows that of an addressed 
envelop. Such placing of 
lines is practiced by many 
compositors. 

Example 333. — From 
among the numerous busi- 
ness cards designed by 
Will Bradley this was se- 
lected for its strength, 
decorativeness and sim- 
plicity of construction. It 
will please the eye of any- 
one who delights in strong 
lines contrasted with 
blank space. The two or- 
naments add a decorative 
value that would be missed 



New York Ci 



124 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



LEE L. CRITTENDEN. REPRESENTING 
AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS COMPANY 
ROSE AND DUANE STREETS. NEW YORK 




EXAMPLE 336 
A card treated'along classic lines 
By Lee Crittenden, New York 



BOOKLETS — CATALOGS— AD VERTISI NO LITERATURE 



Charles Edward Peabody 

Aa 

Temple Building 
Toronto 

With THE HUNTtR-ROSE COMPANY, LIMITED 



EXAMPLE 337 

The Colonial is here suggested 

By Charles Edward Peabody, Toronto, Ont 



if they were not used. Were the two lower type lines in 
capitals the card would score higher in consistency, but 
would lose some of its individuality. If the rule border 
were narrower the tone would be more even, yet it would 
suffer from loss of a distinguishing character. 

Example 334. — This is one of those excellent arrange- 
ments of the Caslon type-face that is met with too infre- 
quently. The card proper is all in lower-case, but where 
rules occur capitals and 
small capitals are used. This 
in recognition of the law of 
typography that lower-case 
display should not be en- 
cumbered with rule lines. 
Lower-case was evolved 
from the ancient Roman let- 
ters we now call capitals 
by the scribes who culti- 
vated an easier stroke to 
facilitate writing. Hence 
the straight lines of rules 
are inconsistent and inhar- 
monious used with lower- 
case. On the other hand, 
capitals being more erect and angular, are helped rather 
than impaired by rule lines. 

Example 335. — A business card in gothic as well treated 
as this one is scarce. The type is slightly spaced, which 
removes it from the commonplace, and the lines are 
arranged symmetrically. The business is given the most 
emphasis, altho the length of the firm name retains for 
it almost equal prominence. The original of this example 
was printed in brown-olive on buff card and was altogether 
out of the ordinary. 



Auguste Giraldi, '»'^''' 

No. 139 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

BETWEEN TWENTIETH &• TWENTY -FIRST STREETS 
TELEPHONE NUMBER 945 i8th STREET 



EXAMPLE 338 



>rd-edge 



Example 336. — The designer of this card worked along 
classic lines in constructing it and succeeded in produc- 
ing an interesting effect. Three lines in the same size of 
type and of equal length as here treated is uncommon in 
business card typography. The ornament supplies the 
necessary weight to balance the card, and affords a means 
of supplying a touch of color. 

Example 337. — This card is an interesting contrast to the 

preceding one in arrange- 

^3HBIIH|B ment, and especially in the 
I difference of shape and in 
the type -faces used. The 
design under consideration 
has lines in capitals, italic 
and roman lower-case ; all 
of the Caslon face. It was 
originally printed on buff 
antique card, which har- 
monized with the Colonial 
suggestivenessof the typog- 
raphy. The words are dis- 
played with special regard 
to completely setting forth 
each phrase in a line. 
Example 338. — The card-edge border treatment gives 
to this business card a unique distinctiveness. The size, 
too, is uncommon. A stickler for consistency would claim 
that the words "Auguste Giraldi" should be in capitals 
and small capitals. 

Example 339. — Here is a card notable for its careful 
adherence to the laws of shape-harmony. The type mat- 
ter is gathered into two squared groups, which are pro- 
portioned to blend with the work -mark in forming a sym- 
metrical design. Only capitals are used, and as before 



J. F. TAPLEY COMPANY, 
BOOK MANUFACTURERS, 
33-35-37 BLEECKER ST. 
NEW YORK . . 8"i"s?R°.Sc^. 



PRINTING DEPARTMENT 
UNDER THE MANAGEMENT 
OF WILLI AM H WQOD. 



EXAMPLE 339 
reful adherence to the laws of shape-harmony 
3 grouping 











Sworatiop Artiat a«b ipaigttf r 




AsBOcmtrft toilh 

26 (EhMlnut *trprt 
(Ont. 




- 







EXAMPLE 340 


The horizoi 


tal lines are well employed 


By the Gaze 


tte Press, Niagara Falls, N.Y. 



BUSINESS CARDS ^ BLOTTERS 



125 



A\\ F. ELiJSON 

DODSON PRINTERS SVPPLV CCtMr.K. 





Tbr Amf 


,lca„ Pr,„«r 




1 

Ofwald Viiblifhing Company 






Printers \ 
Vublifhers ^ookfellers 


R.fr,/.n, 


dby]ohn 


Twinty-five Cily Hall fUtt ' 



Ki\)cri)taD.^.i. 



mentioned, thej- lend themselves better to squared effects 
than do lower-ease letters. An arrangement such as this 
is difficult, as the success of the finished result depends 
upon so many details. T.vpe and shape-harmon.v, tone, 
balance, s.vmmetry — all those art elements must be care- 
fully worked into the arrangement. 

Example 340. — Horizontal lines crossing the face of a 
card are rarely successful, because they generally separate 
connecting phrases, but in this instance the lines are a 
necessary part of the design 
and divide the type matter 
at a suitable place. Were 
the type groups centered 
in each panel the effect 
would not be as pleasing as 
it is with them close to the 
cross lines, giving as they 
do a one-group appearance. 

Example 3il. — In this 
card a neat design has been 
cleverly planned with an 
engravers' roman type-face. 
The roller illustration and 
the rule border do much 
in lifting the card out of 
the commonplace. 

Example 3A:2. — This card 
would better please the 
average person if italic cap- 
itals were substituted for the r 
1 historical motive for treating 



EXAMPLE:342 
A dignified card with a his. 
By Walter B. Gi 



;. Ne. 



York 



[owever, there was 
it in this manner. When 
Aldus Manutius introduced the slanting style of type we 
know as italic, only lower-case letters were cast, and 
Roman capitals were used with them. The arrangement of 
this card is worthy of study, as it would serve excellently as 
a model for business cards requiring dignified typography. 



Example 343. — Few businesses will allow of treatment 
just like this, yet for printshops, art stores, and the like, 
such effects if well done are permissible. A light brown 
card stock was used on this job, printed upon with black 
and buff inks. When bold-faced type and ornaments are 
employed, as here, good results may be obtained with com- 
binations of subdued colors 
I and tints, lessening the 
contrast. 

Example 344. — Caslon 
italic is a good letter for 
business cards, especiallj- 
for those of a jewelry house. 
Being next of kin to script 
or handwriting, it has closer 
personal interest than the 
staid and dignified romans. 
It is not better than roman 
for all business card pur- 
poses, but for some jobs it 
affords opportunity to vary 
the treatment and strike a 
different note. 

Example 345. — The style 
of this card is uncommon, 
both iin the compact ar- 
rangement of the display lines and in the border treat- 
ment. The inset corners suggest the contour of the type 
group. Altho there are occasions when it may be used to 
advantage, not every compositor can design this style of 
card satisfactorily. 

Example 346. — This card is a variant of the one shown 
as Example 336, but a trifle more classic in its entirety. 




(gr printing ^l^op DcboteD to t^e proDuftion 
^iV of ^ifi^ clasijsi Boofelctjs anD ^tationet?i? 



EXAMPLE 343 

Bold, artistic treatment of a printer's card 

By Henry D. Taft. Riverhead, N. Y. 















Fine WaKb Repairing and 
Adiushng 






F. M. Schouweiler 








Watchmaker & 








Jeweler 






Diamo 
Clot 


erJare i^ Cu, Glass Red fV.ng. Mmn. 











EXAMPLE 344 
lie is a good letter for the card of a jewelry house 
By D. Guatafson, Red Wing. Minn. 



¥ 



sLc 



Empire 
Printing Company 

Commercial Printers 

419 Sprague Ave 



"^ 



Spokane 



j^ 



example 345 
By Edward W^. s'tutes. Spokane, Was 



126 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 







1 




LEE CRITTENDEN :; DESIGNER AND ARRANGER 

OF PRINTED MATTER " ONE FIFTY-SIX 

FIFTH AVENUE " NEW YORK :: TELEPHONE 

GRAMERCY ONE SEVEN EIGHT TWO 






T 

















CAFE "^ ''^^"' 




EXAMPLE 346 

An arrangement tKat ■vi'ill be appreciated by cultivated people 

By Lee Crittenden, New York 

The device in the lower part is an improvement over the 
peacock ornament in the other card. These arrangements 
will be esteemed by cultivated people with appreciation 
of the artistic, yet the tastes of most customers of the 
commercial printer are such that it would be a mistake to 
treat their cards in just this manner. In fact it is impos- 
sible to select one particular treatment that is the best 
for all purposes. Each of 



A halftor 



EXAMPLE 347 
as the 



md of a bus 



city would be pleased by a special photograph of his 
store made into a plate and adapted in this manner. 
The plate must be made a trifle larger than the card is to 
be, so that when trimmed the background of the picture 
will extend clear to the edge of the card. 

Example 348. — Type may with good effect be arranged 

in the unconventional and dashing style of handletter- 

ing, as was done in this specimen. Uncial initials add to 

the decorative effect fur- 



cards shown in this 
chapter is good for one 
purpose ; some are good for 
several i)urposes, but not 
one is the best for all pur- 
poses. 

Example 347. — Novelty 
is sometimes demanded, 
even in business card 
printing, and no better 
way will be found to please 
such customers than in 
adopting some appropriate 
halftone cut as was here 
done. The high lights of 
the sky and the street sur- 
face in the picture afford 
an excellent background 
for overprinting with type. 
If the type were printed 
in the same ink as the 
cut, which could be some 

artistic two-tone, the result would be even better than 
shown here. In this instance the picture is especially 
appropriate to the name of the cafe ; but halftone views 
of a general nature, such as landscape pictures, are adapt- 
able to many purposes. The business man in the smaller 



OstoalD'^ESS 
""^Qrinttng 

25Cttpl^aU}^lace 




ISrpreuentel) bp 



EXAMPLE 348 
mgement in the dashing style of handlettering 



Type a 



nished by the text letter 
used for the display lines 
on the card. The square 
ini])rint device lends value 
to the general effect, which 
is compact and bold. 

Example 349.— The fact 
that the business of the 
company using this card 
is the manufacture of 
cliurch organs, governed 
the type treatment. Both 
type-face and crossed-rule 
border have historical sig- 
nificance, connected with 
the Christian church. 

Example 350. — As let- 
tered and engraved de- 
signs are much used on 
business cards, it was 
deemed advisable to show 
a few such specimens in 
The one under consideration was par- 
The seal" was 
nd the 











m, aa.iMmballCompanp 

Cbicago, Sllinots 

-Keprettnted by LEO HEERWAGEN 











this connection. 

ticularly handsome in the orig; 

printed in gold, orange and black, embossed, 

lettering on the other part of the card was in green-gray. 

White stock was used. 

Example 351. — This specimen is unique in business 
card treatment. From either a drawing or clear type print 
the engraver makes a zinc plate, called positive" or 




EXAMPLE 350 



A lettered and e 



s particularly handsome 











Distinctive 
Printing 

— printing that will 
attract attention and put 
the customer's advertising 
in a class by itself— printing 
that contains originality in 
conception and the highest 
degree of excellence in 
execution — this quality of 
originality and individuality 
characterizes all the printed 
work of the 

Commercial 
Printing Co. 

Printers and Publishers 

340 Stacy Street 
Burlington, N.J. 

Both Phones 











EXAMPLE 333 

Blotter, rearranged irom an mtricat« 

rule design, by request 







T F you really want good printing-something that will 
^ appeal to the tastes of the critics, call at Cljt^rint 
^bop of ileerS 8i JFrep, Producers of the Higher 
Grades of Printing^ 15 North Warren Street, Trenton, 
New Jersey 






EXAMPLE 354 

Toe Colonial or cnapoook style admiraUy 

adapted to blotter purposes. 

By Beers 6? Frey. Trenton. N. J. 



BUSINESS CARDS ^ BLOTTERS 



127 




We make effective designs 
for advertising. We plan — 
write — design — engrave 
— print — bind — take all 
the responsibility for your 
finished job of printing,and 
do it right. 



Hill Publishing Company's 
Print Shop «- M.„»»^«, M..«« 

CZJ 505 Pearl Street, New York CD 



Unique e«. 



plate 



"reverse." It is best, tho, in ordering such work to spec- 
ify that the letters are to appear white on a black back- 
ground. This card was printed in dark jellow-brown 
on white stock, and the plate was so made ready as to 
emboss the white parts of the design. 

Ex.\MPLE 352. — Here is another specimen of a card 
printed from engraved plates. The magnet was printed 






^^^^v- 



DESHiNING 



in red and silver; the remainder in three shades of green. 
The entire design was embossed. The result was excep- 
tionally attractive. 

The typographer would do well, in business card com- 
position as in other classes of printing to confine his efforts 
chiefly to legitimate type effects. There is a large field 
for study and improvement in typographic arrangement. 
Time spent in attempting close 

imitations of artists ' and en- 

gravers' work is time lost. Such 
work should be studied, as good 
ideas can be gathered from it, 
but to imitate with the sole pur- 
pose of passing off type work 
for something else is not only 
wrong but foolish. In these 
days the engraver and jmnter I 
must work together in produc- 
ing printed matter. Each has 
his special work to do and each 
should do it well. 



Blotters have a place in mod- 
em business, which, while not 
as important as that of business 
cards, is fairly well established. 



Business cards 
are left with cus- 
tomers as remind- 
ers, and blotters 
are sent for the 
same purpose, 
but with the 
added quality of 
usefulness. The 
treatment of a 
blotter should be 
as well thought 
out as that of a 
business card. In 
a sense the blot- 
ter represents the 
business house 
sending it, and 
while it may show 
less restraint and 
dignity than the 
business card, 
coarseness should 
be avoided in the 
handling of both 
type and illustra- 
tion. As blotter 
stock comes usu- 
ally in 19 X 24- 
inch sheets, a size 
cuttingtwelve out 
(9% X 4 inches) 
is generally used. 

Example 353. 
— This blotter is 
rearranged from 
an intricate rule 
design at the re- 
cjuest of a printer 
who had difficulty 
in getting a proper 
effect. It shows simplicity and strength, telling its story 
in plain, straightforward typography. The words "Dis- 
tinctive Printing" and Commercial Printing Co. " are 
given most prominence because they present the sub- 
stance of the message. 

Example 354. — The Colonial or chapbook style has 
here been admirably adapted to blotter purposes. There 
is that pleasing gray tone that accompanies all true Colo- 
nial type-work, and a clever combination of roman, 
italic and text letter in the manner of this style of print- 
ing. This specimen goes to prove that an all-type printed 
blotter has possibilities unknown to the average com- 



HE ultimate result of shielding men 
from the effc&s of folly is to fill the 
world with fools —Herbert Spencer 




EXAMPLE 355 

A well treated blotter 

By Hill Print Shop. New York 



HORACE CARR 
CLEVELAND 



128 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



§g§§§§§g§g§ggg§g§§g§§g§§ggggsgsg§g§g|gggi§§§§g§§gg§§§gggg§gg§g§gg^g^ ^^ ^^ 




St to remind you 



d thatTomHallyhi 




EXAMPLE 357 

.8 justified ii 



fe 


i:;;;:4;|!i:;>:!>!:>::;;:^ 


i 


^ TT-^ — ' — : — '" '-RBif . '■■ :.y ■;.!-■ !•:;.::■ 

:",,'NO <.-jr IS ^is GOOD as it CO HI -^D' be uuKKs i "^i.i:' 
:'_ u'ptiolstered uitli, .K(_)UGH KIDKR sprint;.? i-ij'!:- 






m 


>mm<M^MM>vmmm- ' 



EXAMPLE 358 

Tint background formed of type squares 

By O. R. Thompson, Jackson, Mich, 

positor and buyer of printing. A purely typo- 
graphic design is often as pleasing as one il- 
lustrated. 

Example 355. — The designer of this blotter 
has treated it as some of the best modern ad- 
vertising is treated — he has used an illustra- 
tion to attract attention and has selected a 
plain, legible type-face to carry the terse, 
business-like word story. The border in color, 
extending fully to the edge of the blotter, 
counts in its effectiveness. 

Example 356. — A clear-cut, dignified and 
tasteful treatment for a blotter is shown by 
this specimen. If a blotter is to have a chance 
of being selected for the personal desk of the 
business man, it must have something to rec- 
ommend it. No man of good taste would feel 
ashamed to have this blotter seen on his desk. The secret 
of the attractiveness of the blotter lies in the admirable 
quality of "restraint." It is a proof of good taste in the 



typographer when he can 
ignore a room full of new 
type-faces and cases of or- 
naments and borders and 
simply select one small 
decorative initial and Cas- 
lon type-face for a blot- 
ter, as was here done. It 
has been said that two 
important factors in good 
typography are the ma- 
terial that is used and the 
material that is not used. 
Example 357.— The 
cordial personality of the 
advertiser was in this in- 
stance an asset and the 
many merry letters re- 
ceived by him following 
the mailing of the blotter justifies its unconventional 
word-treatment. The typography alone is such as to make 
an agreeable impression upon the recipient. Both the 
writing of an advertisement (or blotter) and the typo- 
graphical treatment are important. Neither should be 
neglected. 

Example 358. — In the original the background of this 
blotter was printed in several shades of light green from 
a combination of small solid type squares, and did not 
stand out as prominently as in this reproduction. The 
advertising phrase was set in Caslon and placed in the 
center panel in the style of motto cards. 

Example 359. — This blotter was used in the writing- 



thisc 




^ I 'O know a "good tKing" 
IS to DC only nalr ■wise. 
To know^ it ana use it to ad 
vantage is true wisdom — in 
Dusiness. 

—Piccolo 



example 360 
e-harmony is the chief characteristic of this 
By S. H. White, Rock Hill, S. C. 



EXAMPLE 359 
Blotter used in the writing-room of a convention hall 

room of a convention hall and, as will be noticed, a cal- 
endar containing only the days of the convention was 
used. Simplicity and appropriateness governed the typo- 

^__^ graphical treatment. 

! Example 360. — Tone- 

harmony is the chief char- 
acteristic of this blotter. 
It is difficult to get good 
results when a monthly 
calendar is used, but this 
specimen is exceptional. 
The balance, too, is excel- 
lent and the border 
made from repetitions of 
the words "The London 
Printery" was cleverly 
executed. In the original 
a buff-tint background 
covering all but the cal- 
endar section, added 
something to the general 
result. 



^ 



/t\ttobex 


jj:^^»'^^X90 8. 


l^*- 


jTBrn 


Km. DM, 


Cl» in. 


*.. 


\P // -.- 


'-i- 


"^ -c- 


I 2 


3 


\/; 4 


5 


6 7 


8 9 


10 




12 


13 14 


15 16 


17 


«W?? 18 


19 20 21 


22 23 24 


^2 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 



OLD HOME 
WEEK 



AT 

BOSTON 

AUGUST 
15—21 

SPECIAL REDUCED RATES 
ON ALL RAILROADS 

A HEARTY WELCOME WILL 
BE GIVEN NATIVE BOSTON- 
lANS LIVING ELSEWHERE 

BE fHERE 



^L^^s^^s^^ia^^^^a^ 



H.E 




g] 



y 



s^^^^izsz^ 



23 g^ 



POSTERS 



POSTER printing is a specialty in the large cities where 
plants are equipped for the economical and effective pro- 
duction of such work. However, consideration of the sub- 
ject in this chapter will be confined to the interest it may 
have for the general commercial printer, he who is called 
upon one hour to print a business card and at another to 
produce a window-card, car-card or other form of poster 
printing. 

To treat such work satisfactorily the printer should 
have a wood-type equipment that need not be extensive 



it is advisable for the printer to make his wood-type 
equipment complete. Man.v of the wood letters are made 
in various widths, so that a snugly filled line is possible 
with any copy. It is well, tho, for the sake of legibility 
to avoid very condensed letters. 

The paper poster, such as is pasted on bill-boards and 
walls, will be first considered. Among poster printers a 
sheet 29 x 39 inches is taken as a unit and is known as a 
"one-sheet." "Four-sheet," "twelve-sheet," etc., are 
terms designating the number of units or "one-sheets" 



i,uv «ell selected. There should be a blend of styles in in the whole display. The commercial printer's "sheet 
type-faces from the smallest size of metal type to the poster is generally the full 25 x 38 -inch paper, a "half- 



largest wood letter. 
The wood-type mak- 
ers duplicate most of 
the artistic job faces, 
so that harmony in 
this respect need be 
no idle dream. There 
is a mistaken idea 
prevalent among 
printers that a poster 
type equipment is 
something ajiart from 
that of the job or com- 
mercial department. 
The eighteen or 
twenty-four p o i n t 
body letters used on 
posters should be a 
face such as Old Style 
Antique, which may 
also serve for general 
job work. 

Printers, when buy- 
ing type equipments, 
should know that 
strength is an import- 
ant element in large 
poster printing. Bold 
letters give satisfac- 
tory results, especially 
when all capitals are 
used. Lower-case let- 
ters in large sizes can 
be dispensed with, 
altho occasionally 
there is opportunity 
for effective treatment 
withthem. A few well 
selected capital fonts 
should meet the needs 
of most commercial 
printers, but where 
much of this kind of 
printing is to be had 







1 


IVlr, °"^^^'^'i6" 




Richard 




Mansfield 




Old 




Heidelberg 







EXAMPLE 362 
n theatrical printing. The original 



a large three-sheet poster 



sheet" being 1 
inches and a' quarter- 
sheet " 12% X 19 
inches. 

Example 361 (In- 
sert). — Strong treat- 
ment is associated 
with the paper poster. 
The poster is an ad- 
vertisement, but un- 
like its companions in 
the newspapers and 
magazines, is not 
always read at close 
range. It is well, 
therefore, to get cer- 
tain strength into it, 
especially at those 
points which contain 
the essence of the 
message it carries — 
in this instance the 
phrase "Old Home 
Week" and the word 
"Boston." It is pos- 
sible also to inject 
into poster printing 
those essentials of 
good typography — 
harmony, balance and 
tone. The example 
under consideration is 
an excellent exempli- 
fication of these art 
elements. There is 
harmony of type-face 
because onlj- one 
series and only capi- 
tals have been used. 
The type-face and 
border are sufficiently 
similar in character to 
establish harmony be- 
tween them. The bal- 



130 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











Q ^ 




^^ 


LWERY- feature of 
JLj this entire show 
is representative of 
the possibiUties and 
advantages of the 
Edison Service 'c^ ^ 

EdisonCompany 

55 Duane Streer^ 









old-style lettering. That of the poster 
shown is based upon the Caslon model. It 
is possible for the printer to get similar 
effects with type and rule, but of course it 
is impossible to get the individuality that 
is associated with this artist's lettering. 
This poster was 19 x 29 inches in size and 
was used at an electrical show. 

Example 364. — The Colonial style of 
type arrangement is here adapted to win- 
dow-card purposes. The window-card has 
the same advertising reason for its exist- 
ence as the paper poster, and is printed 
on cardboard to enable it to stand upright. 
The most common sizes of window-cards 
are quarter-sheets (l 1x14 inches) and half- 
sheets (l4 X 22 inches), the unit of which 
is the standard sheet of cardboard (22 x 28 
inches). The treatment of this card is such 
that the word "Pinafore" and the decora- 
tion stand out most prominently, taking 
for granted that a person interested by the 
sight of this word will come close to the 
card and read it. Such an arrangement 
should not be attempted unless the copy 
is suitable. Forcing unsuitable copy into 
Colonial arrangements results in illegibility 
and dissatisfaction. 

Example 365 It should be an easy mat- 
ter to produce attractive window-cards or 
paper hangers in this style. Selections from 
the many artistic and odd cover papers ob- 
tainable, supported by harmonizing color 
combinations, makes possible any number 
of attractive effects. Only one size of type 
should be used and the border should be 
one that reflects the character of the type- 
face. Plain rules for border purposes are 
more successful in obtaining haraiony than 
is decoration. As most letters contain 
two widths of line, a rule border matching 
the wider line, or both lines, gives proper 
results. 

Example 366. — This in the original was 
a hanger of gray stock, 13 x 20 inches, 
printed in olive and orange inks. The style 
of typography could be designated as Co- 



ance is good because of the larger lines occur- 
ring at the head and is also helped by the 
fact that sufficient lines extend the full meas- 
ure. An even tone is fairly well maintained. 
The type-face (Winchell) and the border (an 
art nouveau design) are both obtainable in 
sizes large enough to duplicate this poster full- 
sheet size. 

Example 362. — This is a reduced presenta- 
tion of a three-sheet poster which attracted 
the attention of the writer a few years ago 
because of its simplicity. For such effects as 
this, which carry but little copy, lower-case 
letters are appropriate. It is seldom, however, 
that the commercial printer is provided with 
so few words for his posters, and that is why 
capital fonts are recommended. Lower-case 
display, to look well, requires plenty of sur- 
rounding blank space, while capitals accom- 
modate themselves to close quarters. 

Example 363. — Frederick G. Cooper, the 
New York artist responsible for this design, 
has arranged many clever posters for theatrical 
houses. He is particularly successful with quaint 




GRAND REVIVAL OF GILBERT & 
SULLIVAN'S NAUTICAL OPERA 

PINAFORE 

SING SING ACADEMY OF MUSIC 
DECEMBER THE TWENTY-SIXTH 
NINETEEN HUNDRED FOUR 



POSTERS 



131 



lonial. The tone and character of the dec- 
orative border make it an acceptable mate 
for the Caslon type-face. An objection 
likely to be raised against the practicability 
of using Caslon Text and Missal Initials on 
a large hanger of this kind can be swept 
aside by the statement that a print of any 
type-face the printer may have can be en- 
larged by zinc etching to fit a large hanger 
such as this one. 

Example 367. — Window-cards are ex- 
tensively employed for announcing base- 
ball and foot-ball games. The arrangement 
shown was designed for a series of college 
games, it being necessary to change only 
two lines of type with each order for cards. 
This method enabled the printer to study 
out a good arrangement and to retain it 
for the season. The color of the ink or 
that of the card was changed for every 
game to give a new appearance each time. 

Cards as used in cars are another form 
of printed publicity which the typographer 
is called upon to produce. These cards are 
usually llxiil inches. While many of the 
cards of this kind are attractively arranged, 
most of them ct)uld be improved upon. This 
is especially true of the typogi-aphic de- 
signs. Obsolete farm-poster wood type is 
not favorable to good results, but when ar- 
ranged carelessly and printed as poorly, 
the effect is anything but attractive. While 



See the 


Merry 


Minstrels 


at the 


Crescent 


Theater 


every 


evening 


Now 





QQotiernQrinting 



The following is an outline of a course 
which will be given this Fall, one night a 
week, at the West Side Y. M. C. A.: 




EXAMPLE 365 
A aimple typograpKic treatment that offers possi- 
bilities for attractive posters or window-cards 



the right type 
faces are es- 
sential to per- 
fect work, 
compositors 
should not get 
the notion that 
f a i r 1 y good 
work is not 
possible with 
im perfect 
equipment. It 
has been re- 
marked : Any 
printer can do 
good work 
with proper 
material." 
This is not 
really true. It 
may be easier 
to do good 



FOOTBALL 



PRINCETON 

I 3 o'clock P. M. I VS. I Admission 50c I 



LAFAYETTE 



SATURDAY, NOV. 20 



EXAMPLE 367 

Window-card designed for a series of games. Only t' 

lines are changed with each game 



132 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











WE FURNISH LIBRARIES 

YE 0LDE JBJOOK [S HOP 

FRANKLIN SQUARE 
FICTION— BIOGRAPHY— HISTORY 











EXAMPLE 368 
A style that is legible and appropriate, shoi 
can be made as needed 



DONT WORRY— THIS CAR STOPS 

AT THE 



BOSTON STORE 



MAIN AND WEST STREETS 

WOOLEN GOODS SALE NOW ON 



EXAMPLE 369 

IS this does not overt; 

average printshop 



BEFORE you get married have a policy 
of Life Insurance issued to present to 
your bride. Could you find a more suitable 
present, and one which she would appreci- 
ate more ? Write at once to 

WARREN T. DIEFENDORF 

1015 Fulton Street, Brooklyn 



EXAMPLE 370 



Barton's Largest and Best Newspaper 
I ^^ The Barton ^ 

^^ Daily Courier F 

Buy it of the newsboys or have it sent 
to your residence— but be sure and get it 



EXAMPLE 371 
asily duplicated by the ingenious printer 



work with proper material, but to produce 
Class A printing with imperfect equipment is 
not impossible. The writer has seen excellent 
work done with type-faces which were con- 
sidered by some to be out of date, printed on 
presses thirty years old. He does not recom- 
mend, however, attempting to do good print- 
ing by setting the type out of the "hell-box" 
and printing on scrap iron. New type, stand- 
ard faces and the best presses on the market 
will be used by the wise printer. It is fool- 
ish to handicap the workmen, if profit is de- 
sired on the work. 

Example 368. — Tlie chief essential in car- 
card advertising is legibility. The type must 
be large enough to be easily read by persons 
riding in the car. The treatment should be 
interesting enough to attract and hold the 
attention. The "Book Shop" card measures 
up to these requirements. The treatment is 
appropriate, too. Initial letters such as here 
used are easily made by paneling the letters 
with brass or wood rule. Thus are decorative 
touches supplied by the ingenuity of the com- 
positor. The successful printer, like the suc- 
cessful man in all walks of life, must make 
constant use of the faculties Nature has given 
him. 

Example .'309. — Department store advertis- 
ing is common in trolley cars, and many 
I)rinters are called upon to produce cards for 
that purpose. Here is a style of treatment, re- 
ciuiring no special material and easily adapted 
to other cards carrying a similar amount of 
copy. Capitals are more suitable than lower- 
case for a panel arrangement such as this. 

Example 370. — Unique among insurance 
advertising are the car-cards of which this is 
a specimen. Instead of the common method 
of merely stating name and business this ad- 
vertiser uses the conversational style and pre- 
sents arguments and gives reasons why insur- 
ance of various kinds should be taken out. 
Tlie message on each card was begun with 
an initial letter. 

Example 371. — Another style of treatment 
within scope of the typographic printer's lim- 
itations is liere presented. The circles can be 
made by an electrotyper, or if one is not con- 
venient, the printer can make them of press- 
board, celluloid, wood or other suitable ma- 
terial. Progressive newspapers are users of 
car-card advertising and this suggestion may 
be of value to some of them when producing 
such cards in their job departments. 

Example 372 (Insert). — The possibilities 
of type for poster purposes are here force- 
fully exemplified. The arrangement of the 
type lines is clever, and the distribution of 
color carefully thought out. Printers gener- 
ally will find this poster an interesting study. 
It will be noticed that the contrasting colors in 
every case are separated. The introduction of 
a different color in the letter "c" in "Over- 
coats" is unusual but effective. It supplies a 
necessary spot of color at that point. The 
poster as here shown is exact size of the orig- 
inal, excepting the length of the paper, which 
has been trimmed at the foot to get it in this 
book. 

Example 373. — This card is excellent in 
every way. The advertising point has been 



JACOB REED'S 
SONS NEXT 
EXHIBIT -W AT 

Nassau Show Room 

PRINCETON 

Friday, November 
Thirteenth 'W 1908 

Overcoats 

Furnishings 

^ SUITS 




EXAMPLE in 



Tk« poanbilitiM el type lor poster purpoMf u>« kere exempUlieJ 
By TKoBMB Priatuf Compaay, PLImUIpLu, Pa. 



POSTERS 



133 



cleverly worked out by the artist who 
designed the card. The attention- 
compelling phrase, "Old enough to 
take lessons,'* is associated with the 
child's portrait, being connected by 
the color in the wreath and the initial 
letter. A picture of the piano is un- 
obtrusively yet prominently placed, 
as is the name of the article. Cards of 
the qualitj- of this example aretoorare. 

Example 374. — Sunday-school ex- 
cursions furnish copy for many win- 
dow-cards. The printer may appreci- 
ate this suggestion for an arrangement 
of such a job. It is sufficiently uncon- 
ventional to attract attention, at the 
same time pro\'iding a simple way of ar- 
ranging the matter that usually comes A car-card t 
in with such orders. The arrangement 
has merit from an advertising point of 
view, the information being given concisely and legibly. 

Example 375. — This is a simply treated type design 
that would also look well applied to other window-cards. 
Lower-case treatment for the purpose seems 
to be the right one. Simplicity appears to be a 
lost art with many compositors when setting 
or designing a window-card. They either build 
architectural designs and produce fantastic 
effects with rules and ornaments or else hur- 
riedly jam together homely type-faces in un- 
sjTnmetrical discord. At this writing there is 
being introduced in circulation a new design 
for Uncle Sam's "pennies" which is remark- 
able for its simplicity. Printers would profit 
by a close study of the new and old designs. 
Simplicity of design in printing is no less to 
be desired than simplicity of design in any- 
thing else. In the window-card under con- 
sideration the two strengths of line found in 
the border are duplicated in the type-face. 

Example 376. — The "Secession" style of 
border and ornament blends well with mono- 
tone type-faces without serifs, such as the 
type commonh" known as gothic. As the 
wood-type equipment of most printshops verj* 
likely includes gothic faces, the style of 
treatment shown by this specimen may be 
produced successfully. A border such as this 
is easih' procured, or can be made by the 
printer if he desires. The good results ob- 
tained here will be lost by printers attempt- 
ing the style if other type-faces are used in 
conjunction with the gothic. Harmony is its 
chief point of excellence ; take away harmony 
and but a commonplace poster will remain. 

Example 377. — A small and new member 
of the poster family is the motto-card. It is 
enjoying extensive popularity and is the means 
of circulating good advice and bits of philoso- 
phy tersely and often humorously put. These 
sayings are generally displayed attractively 
inside a border. There is great opportunity 
for printers of these cards to make use of 
artistic ability in type decoration. The speci- 
men shown is daintily treated. 

Example 378. — The motto-card is also ex- 
tensively employed for advertising puri^oses, 
the one used here having enjoyed some popu- 
larity in this way. The advertising is usually 
confined to a small line at the foot, sometimes 
connec-ted in thought with the sentiment of 
the motto. The object is to have the card 



Id enough to take lessons. 

Dorvt ruirv tKc car and toucK of tKc 
cKild by tke use of a bad piano. Get an 
instrument of genuine musical quality-an 

ESTEY 
PIANO 



EXAMPLE 373 
at is excellent in every way. The art and advertising elements 
are blended perfectly 

attractive enough to tempt the recipient to place it on 
the wall of his office. The attention of visitors will be called 
to it, and the advertiser will hear from some of them. 



July 

18 



Fare 

50c 



Annual Excursion 

t. ark's 

Sunday School 



to 



'eluscong 

3 on-the-Hudson 
by Steel Boat Line 

Leave Pier at 9 A. M. 



EXAMPLE 374 



Ne\v Year's Reception 
and Mask Carnival 

The Lesten 
Social Club 

Arion Assembly 
Saturday Evening, January 1 st 



EXAMPLE 375 
Q that would also 



134 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



BASE BALL 

MARCH FIELD 

■ 

SPRINGTON 

VERSUS 

MELROSE 



SATURDAY 
AUGUST 

6 

4 P. M. 



ADMISSION FIFTY CENTS 



EXAMPLE 376 
A border such as this blends with the gothic type-face. Thii 
duplicated in the average printshop 

It may be well before closino- this chapter to 
say a few words about decoration on posters. 
The primary purpose of the poster is to carry 
a message ; to announce to the public some 
event of special or general interest. It has a 
use similar to the herald or bell-man of other 
days. The homely "sale bill" of the rural 
districts presents in a direct and forceful 
manner the story it has to tell, but it may be 
likened to the rough-hewn bench of primitive 
times. The other extreme is the over-deco- 
rated poster, filled to the edges with beautiful 
lines and forms, among which the message is 
lost, and with it utility. This kind of poster 
may be classed with the parlor chair of curves 
and color, sans strength and usefulness. 

There is a happy middle-ground upon which 
the printer will be wise to take position. There 
he will recognize that art and utility blended 
give the best practical results in poster print- 
ing and in other work. Recognition merely 

of the utility element in printing will cause : 

his product to become commonplace and with- 
out interest, while if he dwells alone with 



Q 




o 


^ man's! fteart 
musit be in ftisi 
gfeiU anb a man's; 
Sioul in \)ii 
craftsimansifjip 


d 


"^ 






esthetics he becomes impractical and his 
product is useless. 

A well-balanced mind is as valuable an 
asset to the printer as to any other person. 
He should cultivate poise, especially in the 
treatment of his printed matter. If a cus- 
tomer learns to respect and depend upon 
the judgment of the printer, that printer 
will be able after a while to go to sleep at 
night without having his thoughts fastened 
upon his competitor around the corner. I 
wish I could find a printer who would re- 
lieve me of the details of my printing 
orders," recently remarked an advertising 
manager of a large concern, which remark 
should cause sharp thinking by the man in 
the printshop. The employee who needs to 
be told how to do his work gets the mini- 
mum wage. The printing office proprietor 
who must be instructed by the customer in 
every detail of the work gets similar reward. 



^^^( 



You should be 

ve-ry careful, you know, 
you might get interested 
in your work, and let your 
pipe go out. 

[Jc 



s McNeill Whistler 



Get your shoes at Duncanson & Company's 




The motto-card ii 



store Closes Evenings 5.30 ; Saturdays 12.30 




: Qwudk ja^ c fJiknUui^ 



I More Than a Quarter of a Million Dollars' Worth of Fine Fur- 
niture, at Prices That Save You 20% to 50% on Your Purchases 

EMPHATICALLY the most notable and conspicuous August Furniture Sale in Greater New York. 
Trainloads of F urniture from the Bes t Man ufac turing Cen ter s in the Unit ed States at t he Lowest 

Pric es in the City. The business done durins the past week has exceeded all previous biff ssles recordt by thousands ordellars. 

came from everywhere for furnitiire. Tlie sale enters upon its second week to-morrow with every line thoroushly reinforced, and just 
« pletc and intereiting as the hour -when it bcRai'. Tliose intendin;: to furnish a home or an apartment complete miy arrange > 
' ' Department of Accounts for Distributed I'aymcnts. Purchases held GO days if desired. 



Mission 
Rockers 



3.50 




Exactly as illustrated; 
large and comfortable 
rocker of solid oak, 
finished in Early Enjj- 
lish Style; spring seat 
covered with chase 

S?r:;iue^5.50 



Extra! 



$.1.50 KocUers 

X.^1.90 

Oak Dining 
Tables 

$16.01) val. $10.50 
$18 00 vnl. $12.50 
SW.OO val. $14.50 
$31.00 Tal. $19.75 
SW.OO val. $25.00 
Sti.txi val. $27.50 
Vam ral. $24.75 

Dining 
Tables 



;olden oi 



ef« 



$10.50 



Golden Oak Buffets 




Extra! 



ues ; Monday 

:t.'.^:*3.95 

Golden Oak 
Buffets 

$Jo.no val. $12.50 

$ei.oo vol. $16.50 

$3000 val. $19,75 

$Si.00 val. $22.50 

»3S.5() val. $27.50 

$49.00 val. $29.50 

Jt9.00 val. $34.50 



Brass Bedsteads 

$9.50 




Genuine Leather Couches 

f£^paTtcod""pri'ntconst''ruA'lon.''B^^^^ 



5-Piece Parlor Suites 

About 3 carloads, rpccivcd direct from the Furniture 

I^;«.^'^: $38.00 ll:ir.s. ':!":; $79.50 
II.^ies.';''" $45.00 1 ll'L .':!":; $84.oo 



Slip Seat Dining 


Chairs 


Kinds 


that are sold r 


tfful.rly at 


$5.00. 
of qua 


In several desi 
•tered sawed oak i 


:ns. Made 
nd covered 


with 2 


enuine leather- Carved claw | 


feet, 
chairs 


These regular $5 


»3-""j 



3-Piece Parlor Suites 


Thrse suites were med for eiliibition samples and 


they cannot be duplicated. Savings of +0'o. 


^:Z^!:. $22.50 


S. ."!'.'■: $36.50 


i;.!,;:..'.''.^: $27.50 


'^:.^- $47.50 


\^»^!l $29.75 


lutt'eT.!:!"." $69.50 



AUGUST SALE OF LINENS 

Begins To-Morrow, and Will Be the Most Important Ever < 
Announced by Simpson Crav/ford Company. ^^ 

10,000 All Linen Table Cloths, 10.000 dozen Napkins, 15,000 yards of Table Damask. 
50,000 Towels of various kinds. 12,000 Bed Spreads, 60,000 Bed Sheets, 50,000 Pillow 
Cases, thousands of pieces of Decorative Linens and 100,000 yards of White Goods. 

The Prices Are the Lowest in the History of the Linen Business * 



Ml: 



$1.75 Hemstitched Linen Table Cloths 

Of good T.ality German linen; S-* size; for square or $ 



1.00 



Scalloped an 


d Hem- 1 


stitched 


Huck Towels | 


Extra fine 


(|uali 


ies in large 


size, 23x4 




les. Some 


hemstitched 


— olh 


rs scalloped 


with emhro 


idery 


edges; 50c. 


values (no 


mail 


or- 25c 



i^ 



Fancy Linens at Half 

Centre Pieces, embroidered nnd 
scmlloped round; 50c values O^C 

Centre Pieces and Sham»; also 

Scarfs; embroidcied and 

German Cluny Centre Pieces. 
Shams and Scarfs; 75c JCQc 



$2.00 Bleached All Linen Table Cloths 

■» l.civv table cloths; grass bleached; tvro jard, square; « -| Q fX 
ndsome new deMgns. with elaborated borders; f£.OJ ral- ^J[,^y 



Sheets and Pillow Cases 

Pillow Cases, size 45x36; "I iTjc 

Pillow Cases, hemstitched. 

r.*:.«.::?:-'.".": 125^= 

Sheets. Pcpperill. seamless; CLCLq. 

size 79x90; 79c values, at . . nJXj 

Sheets, homespun. seamless, KQc 

full size. 81x90, 79e values, tltJ 

-SIMPSON CRAWFORD CO.. SIXTH AVENUE'S FINEST STORE.- 



Bleached All Linen 1 
Table Damask | 


.\n cxtr.i hc-a\ 
.-lutecd pure 


y quality, guar- 
linen; full 70 


inches ^^idc. 


A 75c. quality 


that vill lau 
Mcar pofectlj 


";,a"5o= 



EXAMPLE 379 

A well-treated department-store advertisement 

of a kind to interest tKe general puUic 



HE 




THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 

THIS chapter will deal with the subject of advertising from generation. It was a simple proposition that confronted the 
the typographic printer's viewpoint and no attempt will compositor when most advertisements consisted merely of 



be made to cover the field of advertisement writing. While 
the treatment of modern advertisements is influenced to 
a great extent by advertising managers, printers are 
somewhat responsible for both the good and the bad 
typography presented by advertisements in the news- 
papers and magazines. 

Advertising managers favor the printer who is able 
to interpret their ideas and mold them into good typo- 
graphic effects. Instead of taking a fiendish delight in 
carrying out instructions to the dot, the compositor hand- 
ling advertisements should hold to the spirit rather than to 
the letter. There is weed of a more thoro understanding and 
co-operation between advertisement writers and printers. 
It should be agreed that the 
compositor is pri\nleged to 
substitute a larger or smaller 
size of type if the instruc- 
tions happen not to be ac- 
curate. Advertisement writ- 
ers with no experience at 
the case should not reck- 
lessly ask for forty -eight 
point when thirty -six point 
is needed, nor call for a 
twelve -point letter for solid 
reading portions when 
enough copy is furnished to 
compel the use of an eight- 
point type. 

The desired type-face 
should be mentioned by 
name. There are so many 
names of type-faces that 
the layout man and adver- 
tisement writer cannot be 
too careful in this respect. 
He may call for old-style 
and get any of two dozen 
faces. If he has, say, Old 
Style Antique in mind it 
should be so written on the 
layout, with a second choice 
should the supply of that 
letter be exhausted or 
the printshop not have the 
face. Caslon Bold is a good 
substitute for Old Style 
Antique, as Caslon is of 
Cheltenham, and Ben. 
Franklin of Post. 

A remarkable change has 
come over the advertising 
pages of magazines and 
newspapers during the last 




The woman who does her own work 
ought to have the very best of everything 
to do it with. 

Take this matter of dish washing, for 
example— the best soap for that purpose 
is Ivory. 

It costs more than ordinary laundry 
soaps do. It is worth more. 

Ordinary laundry soaps make the hands 
red and coarse and hard — a source of 
never-ending humilation. 

Ivory Soap adds to their beauty; keeps 
them sweet and soft and dainty. 

For that reason, it is true economy to 
use it — even if it does cost two or three 
cents a week more. 

There i» no "free" alkali in Ivory Soap That i> whjf it 



Ivory Soap . 



\^ 



EXAMPLE 380 
Blending typography -with illi 
ark by the McDonald Printing Co. 



the plain announcement of name, business and address. 
The only problem then was whether the firm name or the 
title of the business should be the larger. Now the com- 
positor, when called upon to set an advertisement, must 
be able to think more deeply or he will fail. 

Different styles of typographic treatment are necessary 
to carry the message to various audiences. An adver- 
tisement exploiting a five-thousand-dollar automobile, to 
be effective must be written and designed on different 
lines than one announcing a special sale of shirts for 
fifty-nine cents. It is plainly evident that careless, in- 
harmonious type treatment on the automobile advertise- 
ment would render void any efforts of the advertisement 
writer, but it is not so well 
realized that there is danger 
in another direction. The 
story is told of an advertise- 
ment writer, who, after ex- 
periencing extraordinary 
success in preparing the 
publicity matter of an ex- 
tremely high-class house, 
took up the management of 
the advertising of a mail- 
order business, and failed. 
He prepared advertise- 
ments for the mail-order 
bargain-hunting public in 
the same style he had used 
for the more conservative 
class of buyers. Quality is 
more of a consideration 
with the general public 
than it was at one time, 
yet there are many buyers 
with good taste, limited in 
their expenditures, who are 
frightened away from too- 
elegant sales-rooms by the 
fear of high prices. An ad- . 
vertisement need not violate 
the principles of art and 
dignity to gain the sympa- 
thy of this class of buyer, 
yet it should have the ele- 
ment of human interest. It 
is important, then, for the 
printer as well as the ad- 
vertisement writer to study 
his audience. 

Example 379 (insert). — 
Here is an admirably 
treated department-store 
advertisement, one to secure 



99*5ioo Per Cent Pure 



136 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 

















n 


The best lamp- 
chimney is made of 
Macbeth's Pearl Glass, 
just as the proper show 








^^^^3 


fti,^^ window is made of 




^^ 


^*^\ plate glass. 
^^^, to fit any kind 






iflZr«*'i!^!lH 


of lamp, of any 








1^9 


size. They give per- 
fect combustion, burn 
the smoke, stay clean. 






^uSk'WSM. 


and do not crack. My 






mKL^^^I 


name IS on every genu- 




fM 


I^^^^H 


ine Macbeth chimney. 






HSSSBI 






W^ 


Macbeth, pn.sburgh 








"^ 







EXAMPLE 381 
In which the illustration displaces the c 
at the head of reading n 




Small boys are lugging off 
our wash suits in great spirits 
these days, because the stock 
is unusually complete for this 
season of generally broken 
.stocks. 

Not to speak of some price 
revisions which bring the 
whole wash line of Russian 
sailor suits down to three 



As for bigger bb}^ suits- 
woolen Norfolk and double 
breasted suits in fancy mix- 
tures. 

The revisions there range 
all the way up to $8.00 on a 
suit. 

$6.50, $8. SO and $10.50 now. 
Rogers Peet & Company, 

Three Broadway Stores 

at at at 

Warren St. 13th st 34th st. 



EXAMPLE 382 
Simple type treatment, ■without display 



the attention of 
the general public 
and interest it. 
The prices are em- 
phasized b}' large 
figures, which 
treatment is popu- 
lar with the aver- 
age store of this 
kind, as it brings 
to the sales those 
persons who are 
seeking bargains 
(and most of us 
have that failing). 
The names of the 
articles are dis- 
played in connec- 
tion with their 
selling prices, in a 
manner easily 
seen at a glance, 
the rule panels 
further helping to 
a quick compre- 
hension of the fea- 
tures of the sale. 
This advertisement 
is well treated from 
a typographical 
viewpoint. Ex- 
cepting the two 
large headings, 
which are hand- 
lettered, only one 
style of display 
letter has been 
used. It is custom- 
ary on city dailies 
and also on pro- 
gressive news- 
j) a p e r s in the 



smaller towns, to provide a distinct series of type for each 
large advertiser. For instance, in a paper before the 
writer one advertisement is displayed in Century Bold, 
another in John Hancock, and another in Foster. By this 
method the announcements of an advertiser as they ap- 
pear day after day are clothed in familiar features that 
identify them at once to the interested reader. In con- 
trast to the style of the Simpson Crawford advertise- 
ment is that of the Wanamaker Store (Example 397), of 
which more will be said further on. 

Example 380. — In present-day advertising the printer is 
not as frequently called upon tooriginatedesigns as to blend 
typography with an illustration already made. Usually there 
is a mortise in which is to be inserted suitable type lines. 
This does not leave much to the printer, but all his in- 
genuity and good taste are required to so perform his 
l)ortion of the work that a harmonious whole may result. 
This Ivory Soap advertisement is an example of intelli- 
gent co-operation on the part of the printer. Old Style 
Antique blends well in tone with the illustration. White 
space is liberally distributed in both panels. Altogether 
the effect is pleasing. 

Example 381. — This advertisement presents another 
example of typograjjhy harmoniously blended with illus- 
tration. By this, as by the previous si^ecimen, it will be 
seen that the illustration displaces the customary dis- 
play line, and that the only suggestion of display is 
found at the foot of the advertisement, and then only 
slightly accentuated. The Macbeth company has always 
made good use of the Caslon type-face, similar type treat- 
ment having been used before illustration was adopted in 
its advertising. Compositors will notice that the words 
have been so arranged as to conform to the contour of 
the lamp-shade. A less careful printer would have made 
the five short lines even at the left. In an advertisement 
arranged in the conversational style, it has been found 
effective to set a portion of the matter in a large, easily 



HoAV Our Ad -Writers Earn 
Up to $1,000 Per Week 



t result-get- b""""' >''■''>?• P™'< 
ni^lToZl ""HTmust ITowLn 



What Good Copy Means 



By Lord &• Thomas, Chicago, ] 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 



137 




EXAMPLE 384 
n style in which typography and phot 
' get attractive results 



mbined t 



read size of type and the remainder in a much smaller size 
of the same series, as was here done. 

Example 382. — The unique style of the advertising of 
Rogers Peat & Co. is an evolution of many years' work 
by this company's publicity department. The outline 
illustrations carry a touch of caricature, and the typo- 
graphical treatment is simple, without display. 




The Food Thats 
Shot From Guns 



ig with a dish of 
unbroken, puffed 



Show them these grains, with the 
to eight times their natural size. 

Serve them this crisp and delicious food — four times as 
porous as bread. It will melt in the mouth. 

Your folks will say, "Why, this is great Let us have it 
every morning." 

Exploded by Steam 

This is the way we make it: 

The whole wheat or rice kernels are put into steel guns. 
Then those guns are revolved, for sixty minutes, in a heat of 
»0 degrees. 

That heat turn's the moisture in the grain to steam, and 
the pressure becomes terrific. 

Then the guns are fired. Instantly every starch granule 
15 blasted into a myriad particles. Thus the kernel of grain is 
expanded eight times. Yet it remains unbroken — shaped 

EXAMPLE 386 

Showing the style of underscoring words 

By Lord y Thomas. Chicago, 111. 





t^ 


GreenKut For special sdllng on Saf-' 


and 


urday, a number of men's 


G)inpaii 


dress waistcoats, in white 


ly pique or gray fabtic, $2.25 


Men's 


The grade Is that usually 


Dress 


priced by the best haber- 


Waistcoats 


dashers at $3.50 and 




$4.50. 


Shirts 


The Custom Shirt Depart- 


Made to 


ment makes an Initial offer 


Measure 


of three shirts to measure 




for ... . 7.50 




These will be made to a 




guaranteed fit in a choice 




from over 200 patterns 




of imported fabrics. In- 




cluding the Gro. Romans 




printed percale-troche and 




Anderson's colored and 




white madrases. In negli- 




gee, plaited or stiff 




bosoms ; coat models ; cuffs 




attached. Or, at the same 




price, white dress shirts 




with bosom and cuffs of 




finest Irish linen. Send for 




booklet of samples. 


Men's 


Men's white dress Gloves; 


Gloves 


1 Clasp Prix seam, cape; 




1 pearl button, pique. 




glace; and 1 pearl button 




over seam sewn . $1.50 


Sixth Avenue, Eighteenth to Nineteenth Street, 




New York 


(For..rl, 


occupied b, B. Allm.n & Co ) 



Example 383. 
— T h i s speci- 
men is interest- 
ing in showing- 
how an adver- 
tisement is 
treated by a 
firm of writers 
which claims to 
pay one mem- 
ber of its staff a 
thousand dollars 
a week. Some 
of the state- 
ments in this 
advertisement 
will surprise 
printer readers 
of this chapter, 
and others as 
well: "Good 
copy is simply 
good salesman- 
ship. It has 
little to do with 
phrasing — little 
to do with dis- 
play." "it is 
not literary 
work — this ad- 
vertisement 
writing. A man 
need not know 
grammar. We 
care not how he 
spells." "And 
he must be a 
plodder." The 
work of this 
firm may often 
be distinguished 
by the under- 
scored bold-face 
lines heading 
otherwise plain- 
ly paragraphed 
m a 1 1 e r. Each 
word is underscored separately. No border surrounds the 
advertisements. 

Ex.\MPLE 384. — The promoters of Pearline were the first, 
to the writer's knowledge, extensively to use in this way 
a combined typographic and photographic design. The 
type portion of this advertisement is distinctive because 
of the clever manipulation of the Cheltenham type-face. 
In a design of this kind the photo-engraver has an im- 
portant part, altho the typographer must do his share 
with intelligent comprehension of the main idea. 

Example 385. — This shows a section of a department 
store advertisement unusual in its artistic treatment. But 
one type-face (Tabard) was used and an abundance of 
blank space was distributed thruout the design. For some 
reason this treatment has been abandoned and the com- 
pany's advertising is now commonplace so far as concerns 
its typography. Perhaps the patrons of the store did not 
a])prove of the original artistic presentation of this com- 
pany's offerings; anyway it is to be regretted that tlu- 
style was not continued. 

ExAMi'LK 386. — This advertisement of the Quaker Oats 
comjiany was prepared by the same staff of writers re- 
sponsible for Example 383. There is the same general 
style in the tyi)e treatment — underscored headings, par- 
agraphs in small body type, and no border. This is of 



EXAMPLE 385 



138 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











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in illustration and in words, the purpose of the advertise- 
ment. The artist was furnished with pictures of roller- 
casting machines and told to conventionalize them, a 
rough sketch of the entire advertisement being given 
him. This style of treatment is partly silhouette, all 
perspective and detail having been omitted. The type 
portion shows Old Style Antique and Caslon in combina- 
tion. Usually it is advisable to set the signature to an 
advertisement in a small size of type a trifle larger or 
bolder than that used for the body, but here the name 
of the company was intentionally made large, enabling it 
to be read with the heading. 

Example 389. — This advertisement is reproduced not 
for its beauty, but to show the use of the arrow as an 
indicator. At this writing, many of the men responsible 
for the designing of advertisements are arrow -mad. The 
advertising pages of magazines and trade papers resemble 
an Indian battlefield. The old-fashioned fist in its day 
was never more popular than the arrow is today. Serving 
an excellent purpose when properly used, the idea has 
been ill-treated at the hands of its friends. Its use in 





EXAMPLE 387 

In which attractive typography was possible 

in spite of a long list of agents 

the growing class of advertisements which go into detail, 
giving careful descriptions of the article and presenting rea- 
sons why it should be purchased. In this style of adver- 
tisement the printer deserves credit for the appropriate 
manner in which he treats the writer's message. 

Example 387. — There was presented to the designer 
of this advertisement the problem of including a long list 
of agents and yet retain for the advertisement proper the 
space to give it sufficient prominence. This has been 
solved by the panel at the left side. The border, trade- 
mark, and name of the article advertised blend in tone, 
while the remain- 
ing type matter 
shows a pleasing 
gray. All display 
in the larger panel 
is in capitals. In- 
serting the trade- 
mark in the space 
left by the shorter 
word of the head- 
ing makes the 
effect unusual. The 
original size of this 
advertisement was 
0%x 10 inches. 

Example 388. — 
The chief element 
in this advertise- 
ment is strength, 
especially notice- 
able in the original 
size. The page was 
designed to pre- 
sent at a glance, 



Making printers' rollers 
is no trifling business 

It may seem a simple matter to make printers' rollers but it is 
not so simple to make them right — as the Maigne Company 
makes them. Four hundred years ago Aldus printeci books so 
well that all modern efforts fail to equal his work. And Stradi- 
vari made violins so perfect that violin makers ever since -have 
despaired of duplicating them. Which makes plain that every 
bit of work a man does should be done as well as he can pos- 
sibly do it. This the Maigne Company does when it makes print- 
ers' rollers — and the product of its roller factory is unexcelled. 
Printers should not underrate the importance of good rollers. It 
has been truthfully said, "A good press, a good pressman, good ink 
and good rollers are a quintet of quality that produces good 
printing. The O. J. Maigne Company makes that kind of rollers. 

O, J. Maigne Company 

358-360 Pearl St., New York 



Strength in typography and illustration 

this particular advertisement is not good — the appearance 
is too serpent-like. 

Example 390 (insert). — Printers of programs and other 
forms containing small advertisements will be interested 
in the treatment of this page, from the Edison Monthly. 
Set in Caslon lower-case, without punctuation, and as far 
as possible in but three sizes of type, the effect is unique 
and decidedly pleasing viewed as a whole. The artist's 
work on the heading and borders has much to do with 
its attractiveness. The type work is by the Willett Press. 

Example 391. — The writer has for a long time admired 
the typographic advertisements of the Aeolian company. 
While various printers have been doing the work, the 



ADVEKTISING 



S E C T I O N^ 



^f^E L E CTKI CAL,;. :C OXTKA.CTO I^jjK 



'^:y J^j^^klw^ 



Harry Alexander 

Telephone 6090 38th St 
20 West 3-lth St New York 



Commercial Construction Co 

Telephone 4822 Madison Sq 
114 East 28th St New York 



T F Attix Electric Co 

Telephone 1108 Prospect 
283 Flatbush Ave Brooklyn 



L K Comstock & Co 

Telephone 7726 Cortlandt 
114 Liberty St New York 



Blackall & Baldv\'in Co 

Telephone 7920 Cortlandt 
30 Cortlandt St New York 



Conduit Wiring Co 

Telejjhone 3318 Madison Sq 
14 West 29th St New York 



Brown & McClure 

Telephone 4428 Gramcrcy 
35 West 21st St New York 



Wm F Duffy k Co 

Telephone 3461 Cortlandt 
96 Warren St New York 



Joseph Burkart 

Telephone 392 Madison Sq 
1123 Broadway New York 



Edwards Electric Constr Co 

Telephone 385 38th St 
39 East 42d St New York 



A J Buschman Co 

Telephone 5144 38th St 
72 West 38th St New York 



C L Eidlitz & Co 

Telephone 1148 Madison Sq 
1168 Broadway New York 



Cleveland & Ryan 

releplujne 4677 C'ortlandt 
23 Dey St New York 



Electric Construction 
& Supply Co 

Telephone 219 Cortlandt 
237 Broadway New York 



EXAMPLE 390 

In wlnck uniformity of type treatment 

makes for a pleasing result 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 



139 



^^abSKS^^bSKMKMK^iiS^^gp) 



How Elbert Hubbard 
Became A Pianolist 




g THE AEOLIAN CO. til 



tef^^^saMaM^iribi^afe:^^hi^M^bt^ 



One of a 




advertising department of this company must have a man 
with excellent perception of the possibilities of type found- 
ers' material, for the results in almost every case are sur- 
prising. As in the advertisement reproduced, the display 
types show relation in tone or character with the border 
used. Printers should be encouraged bv this example to 
increased faith in the possibilities of their craft along 
advertising lines. The stam- 
pede of advertisers to artists' 
and engravers' work may end 
and printers should be pre- 
pared. 

Example 392. — While not 
a matter of typographic inter- 
est, this advertisement is re- 
produced because of its highly 
artistic treatment. The Oneida 
Community's advertising man- 
ager, B. L. Dunn, and its art- 
ist, T. A. Sindelar, are both 
to be congratulated upon the 
handsome, appropriate effect 
obtained. Printers will not 
only be pleased by close study 
of this advertisement, but will 
be likely to receive adaptable 
suggestions. 

Example 393. — Here is an 
advertisement that represents 
a style much used in maga- 
zine advertising, in the pro- 
duction of which artist, en- 
graver and typographer are 
jointly employed. The title 
"The School of Hard Knocks" 
finds reflection in the illustra- 
tions, and the black line en- 
closing the type gives shape 
to the whole. The type mat- 



The School of 
Hard Knocks 




EXAMPLE 393 
A style much used in magazine advertising 
By the Hall-Taylor Co.. Milwaukee. Wis. 



EXAMPLE 392 
Artistic results from non-typographic 
By B. L. Dunn and T. A. Sindelar, New York 

ter was placed in the design, not by mortising the base, 
but by insertion after electrotyping. The type was set to 
the proper shape by means of an oiled proof of the design. 
When several sizes of adver- 
tisements are to be made of 
the same design, the type is 
set full size and a clear proof 
pasted in position upon the 
drawing. 

Example 394. — This shows 
a clever effort to give uniform- 
ity to the appearance of small 
advertisements in advertising 
programs and souvenirs. Such 
jobs of printing should be de- 
signed so that a uniform style 
of typography can be followed 
thruout. The advertising sec- 
tion of a program cannot hope 
to be more than a mere direc- 
tory of business friends, and 
consequently requires differ- 
ent treatment from advertise- 
ments in a newspaper or mag- 
azine. Buyers of space may 
require cuts to be used or ask 
for certain type effects, but so 
far as possible uniformity 
should be maintained. Not 
only each advertisement but 
the entire advertising section 
should be set in the same 
series of type. It is possible, 
by varying the sizes of type, 
and arranging different group- 



140 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Tne Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company 



e.'^2'.:z'^'z^ 



D.M,n.r a„d Miinuhctur.r 4 

High GraJe Plastic Work, 

Ornamental Ceilings. Columns and Mouldings 

a Specialty 

PORTER WHITE 



Brown-K.etcKam 
Iron Works 



EXAMPLE 394 

An effort to give uniformity to a page 

of program advertisements 

ings, to get variety if it is wanted. It is not necessary 
to use discordant type-faces to accomplish this result. 

Example 39.5. — This advertisement appearing in the 
magazines during Will Bradley's regime as art editor of 
Collier's, the unusual type arrangement should no doubt 
be credited to him. While some would consider the blank 
at the left a waste of space it adds much to the value of 
the advertisement as 
an attracter. The mo- 
tive of the type and 
decorative treatment 
is Colonial, altho the 
arrangement is mod- 
ern. 

Example .S96. — A 
decorative motive in 
pleasing h a r m o n y 
with the purposes of 
this advertisement is 
its prominent feature. 
The re ]) roductio n 
shows but one sec- 
tion, other items hav- 
ing been similarlj' 
treated. This adver- 
tisement exemplifies 
the principle of ap- 
propriateness in type 
treatment. A strong 
display in bold-face 
type would have ad- 
versely affected the 
advertisement's sell- 
ing power. 




Example 397. — The refined, dignified and artistic 
style of the Wanamaker Store newspaper advertise- 
ments is in striking contrast to those of most other de- 
partment stores. William R. Hotchkin, advertising 
manager of Wanamaker 's New York store, does not 
shout prices at his readers, neither does he do a lot of 
other things common to present-day advertisement writ- 
ers, yet these advertisements (filling space said to cost 
half a million dollars yearly) keep two immense stores 
filled with buyers. Old Style Antique is the type-face 
used, and it seems to be just the letter for the purpose. 

Example 398. — In the old days every court had its 
jester, and this display of advertisements would not 
be complete without its funny one. This example 
shows that the advertisement writer, as well as the 
printer, has his play days. 



The Basis of 
Collier's 



/COLLIER'S is. edited fo| 
thoughtful peopU. .• Itf 
letter-prea and its illuttrationt 
»re planned for men ind women 
with the education to appreciate 
md the means to buy the best, 

la success in establishing 
itsel/ in the homes of well-to-do 
Americans can be judged by its 
subscription income of two and 
a half million dollars annually 
($2,500,000) — a million . more 
than its nearest competitor. 

Experienced advertisers have 
found that the higher a sub- 
scriber's regard for his favorite 
publication the more responsive 
is he to everything advertised 



E. C. PATTERSON 



EXAMPLE 396 

A decorative motive and pleasing 

harmony. By Calkins &■ Holden 

(Section of advertisement) 



EXAMPLE 395 
Blank space and vertical lines : 



Example 399. — This is one of a series of effective ad- 
vertisements in which the photographer and typographer 
have blended their abilities. There is harmony between 
the style of the type used and the two lettered lines at 
the foot. The Washburn-Crosby company plans its own 
advertisements and the finished effect is prepared in Minne- 
apolis under its direct supervision. The printing plates 
are probably made by first photogi-aphing the picture and 
blank background in the usual way ; then photographing 
the type matter in reverse as is done for line plates. By 
means of the sun or artificial light, both halftone and line 
effects are printed on a polished copper plate. Thus it is 
possible to present the letters pure white without, as 
some suppose, cutting away the screen. The reproduction 
herewith, however, contains the screen. At this writing 
Cook announces his discovery of the Pole, which suggests 
the appropriateness of this advertisement could it have 
been used in the magazines at the present moment. 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS 



141 



Example 400. — An advertiser with only a small space 
in newspaper or magazine is forced to study out the best 
manner of making use of it. A rule border is counted of 
value in throwing such an advertisement into prominence, 
but at the same time it lessens the conspicuousness of the 
main display. To overcome this, some typographic genius 
has arranged to have the display lines start outside the 
border and gradually creep inside thru an opening in the 



More Than 7500 Pieces of Furniture 
Sold in Eight Days of This Sale 




By William R. Hotchkin. New York 



u:>per left comer. In order that the efforts to give em- 
phasis to these display lines may not be nullified, no large 
display should be attempted inside the rule border. A gray- 
printing body 



^ec^u.re 'V 



i. Ol i' O' » £- ^ ^ 

i3 2^|<>/-0^^ 0,5^7 



^^%ii^-^i^^..n 



<e *°s 



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'sa pu« 









etter should 
be used. 

Example 
40 1 .—To 
one looking 
for neatness 
and simplic- 
ity in adver- 
tising typog- 
raphy, the 
page adver- 
tisements of 
the Pruden- 
tial Insur- 
ance Com- 
p a n y , ap- 
pearing in 
the m a g a- 
zines, are a 
disappoint- 




EXAMPLE 399 

Combination of typography and photography 

An interesting process 

ment. It may not be just to condemn the printer, as he 
probably worked under instructions from the advertising 
department, but someone had a defective idea about type 
display. It has been scientifically ascei-tained that the 
eye cannot 
grasp more 
than t w o 
words at a 
time, which 
demonstrates 
the useless- 
n e s s of at- 
tempting to 
emphasiz e 
and re-em- 
p h a s i z e as 
was here 
done. A 
more sensible 
treatment is 
shown in the 
reset ex- 
ample. 

Example 
402.— Only 
a few words 
are given 
prominence 
in this re-ar- 
rangement of 
the previous 
example. 
The long line 
of confusing 
figures is 
avoided, and 



This gives 
emphasis to the 
leading 

and also allows the advertisement 
to be enclosed in a rule border. 
This style is very effective for ad- 
vertisements that must ^o into a 
small space, allowing for little dis- 
play, and that confined to the intro- 
duction and the signature at the 
foot of the advertisement. A bold- 
face type should be used for the 
heading and signature and the body 
set in a lighter faced tj'pe such as 
here shown. No capital lines should 
be used as lower-case is more legi- 
ble, especiaUy in a small space. An 
advertisement of any kind should 
be considered not only alone but as 
it will appear on a page with others. 

Smith & Jones Co. 

78 Main Street, Topeka 



142 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Over 

$306,000,000. 

New Life Insurance 

Written and Paid for In 19081 

The Most Remarkable Year 

In the History of 

The Prudential 

This Magnificent Record is Due to 

Public Appreciation of the NEW "Low-Cost" 
Ordinary Policy, the New Industrial Policy and 
the New JHonthly Income Policy— All Meeting 
the Demand for 

Guaranteed Life Insurance 




It also shows Popular Approval 
of the Administration, Strength, 
Lil>erallty and Fair Dealing of the 
Company. 



Tbe Pradential Lunraiice Comptnr of Anuria 



Over 306 Millions 

of Dollars 

New Life Insurance 

written and paid for in 1908 — the most 
remarkable year in the history of 

The Prudential 

This magnificent record is due to public 
appreciation oi the New "Low Cost" Ordi- 
nary Policy, the New Industrial Policy, the 
New Monthly Income Policy — all meeting 
the demand for guaranteed life insurance and 
it also shows popular approval of the adminis- 
tration, strength, liberality and fair dealing 
of the Company. 




■e emphasized 

instead of chaos, in the advertisement as a whole there 
is order and dignity. 

Examples 40.S, 404 and 405. — The coupon, which is 
understood first to have been used by the Wanamaker 
stores, is frequently to be seen in magazine advertisements. 
The three forms shown are representative. The square 
form is sometimes used, but more often one finds the tri- 
angular coupon, either with the tjpe set horizontally or 
diagonally, as shown. The coupon not only acts as an in- 
centive for immediate ordering, but also assists in keeping 
record of the returns from advertising. Key numbers such 
as "Dept. 45" in the Prudential advertisement, are also 
sometimes used by advertisers to identify inquiries with 
the magazine carrying the advertisement. 

A typographic advertisement is more effective if the 
arrangement is also sketched out by the advertisement- 
writer. The writer however, should have some knowledge 
of type-faces and sizes, else he will blunder in his in- 



Order 



ntbe 



FREE INFORM 


ATION COUPON 


'irrSiSr 


.l"^?'^;r^tt'x.'-^" 






== ='=l 







/ 



EXAMPLE 403 



EXAMPLE 404 



structions and fail to get the desired results. If the design- 
ing is accomplished first and the copy written afterward, 
the writer should fit the copy to the design. It is not 
uncommon for printers to get layouts and copy which 
practically have no relation to each other. Perhaps too 
much copy has been written for one panel and not enough 
for another. In the one case the matter may be crowded 
in eight-point and in the other twelve-point may only 
half fill the space. It is impossible with such conditions 
for the printer to get even tone, a necessity in good 
typography. It were better that the copy should be writ- 
ten first and then placed and apportioned symmetrically 
and harmoniously. 

The printer with correct ideas of typography, especially 
if he be connected with a newspaper plant in a small 
city or town, should study the word-construction of ad- 
vertisements and practice writing them for the local ad- 
vertisers. He would not only gain valuable knowledge 
of an important field of labor, but would be better able 
satisfactorily to ar- 
range the t y p o - 
graphic treatment 
of advertisements 
when called upon 
to do so by other 
writers. It would 
surely seem to be 
to the advantage 
of the printer to 
learn something 
about advertise- 
ment writing. 
Few persons are 
weighted with un- 
necessary knowl- 
edge. 






ABCDEFG 
HIJKLMN 
OPORSTU 
VWXYZ& 

abcdef ghi 
jklmnopqr 
stuvwxyz 

1234567890 



EXAMPLE 408 
Type alpkabet tased upon tte type-face 
designei} by ^V^illiam Caslon 




a 



TYPE-FACES 



A FEW years ago at a gathering of printers in New York 
City, the writer led a discussion on Tjpe-Faces" and 
was surprised by the interest shown in the subject. It 
demonstrated that there are those in the craft who have 
an intelligent appreciation of the importance of type-faces, 

and want to learn more about 

them. For such printers this 
chapter is \*Titten. 

Type-faces should be se- 
lected not alone for beauty 
or legibility, but also for gen- 
eral usefulness. If a font of 
type remains dust -covered 
and unused in the case, there 
is something wrong either 
with the type-face or with 
the printer; which, should be 
determined. If the fault be 
with the type-face it should 
be resold to the founder and 
a usable face purchased. If 
the type-face be a good one, 
suitable for frequent use, and L 
the printer does not know it, 
he had better devote some 
time to a study of the subject. 

There are hundreds of 
printers unable to produce good 
typographic work because their 
type equipments were not wisely 
selected, or were chosen font by 
font during a long period of time. 
There was a day when the printer 
gloried in the possession of a 
hundred different type-faces, and 
pitied the early typographers who 
had but one or two. But now that 
the pendulum of fashion has again 
swung to simplicity, pride of 
possession lies in large fonts of a 
few legible, artistic faces. 

In this chapter no attempt has 
been made to exhaustively review 
the many excellent type-faces to 
be seen in founders' specimen 
books, neither is reference made 
to the specially-cut letters of 
private presses. Rather the prob- 
lems of commercial job printers 
have been kept in mind. The 
uses of type -faces are more fully 
explained in the chapters on 
"Harmony and Appropriate- 
ness," Tone and Contrast" 
and "Proportion, Balance and 
Spacing. ' ' 



ABCDEF 

GHIICLM 
NOPQR.S 
TVWXYZ 



EXAMPLE 406 
of Roman letters a 
the Italian Renaissai 



'iiPkm:^ 



Type-faces may be divided into four classes : Roman, 
Italic, Text, and Block (incorrectly called "gothic, "and 
correctly sans-serif"). 

The Roman Alphabet. — ^The Roman alphabet (as ex- 
plained in the first chapter of this book) was evolved from 
the Phoenician and Greek al- 
phabets, and originally con- 
sisted of capital letters only. 
The small or lower-case let- 
ters are corruptions of the 
capitals. The first successful 
Roman type -face was de- 
signed by Nicholas Jenson 
at Venice, Italy, in 1471, 
and it has since served as a 
model for many productions 
of type founders. 

The Roman capital alpha- 
bet of Sebastian Serlio, an 
Italian engraver of the six- 
teenth century (see Example 
406), is interesting as dem- 
onstrating the treatment of 
Roman letters at the time of 
the Italian Renaissance. 
Some of the beauty of the 
lettering is lost, however, in 
the reduction. This example and 
the one following it are from 
Frank Chouteau Brown's 'Let- 
ters and Lettering." 

The Roman letter, as may be 
observed, is composed of thick 
and thin lines. This feature, 
which now to more or less extent 
seems essential to the beauty of 
type-faces, is thought to be due 
to the manner in which the early 
scribes held their reed pens. The 
pen was held "almost directly 
upright and at right angles to 
the writing surface, so that a 
down stroke fi-om left to right 
and slanted at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees would bring the 
nib across the broad surface, re- 
sulting in the widest line possible 
to the pen. On the other hand, 
a stroke drawn at right angles to 
this, the pen being still held up- 
right, would be made with the 
thin edge of the nib, and would 
result in the narrowest possible 
line. " The result is that, with 
minor exceptions, horizontal lines 
are thin and vertical lines thick. 



c6aractm^tmjA 
3 



^(buisxv'stim&. 






144 THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 


Caslon 
Scotch 

Caslon 

Scotch 
Roman 


ABCDEFGHIJKLMN 
ABCDEFGHIJKLMN 

OP0RSTUVWXYZ& 
O PQRST U V WX YZ k 



Diagonal lines running down from left to right are also 
thick. 

While this distribution of thick and thin lines may have 
been accidental, as stated, any deviation from it leads to 
grotesqueness. Example 411, a letter known as Italian 
and made by the old MacKellar foundry, demonstrates 
what happens when the above scheme of thick and thin 
lines is reversed. 

The serif, or crossed stem, of the Roman letter 
may have been originally suggested to the let- 
terer or stone-cutter by the horizontal guide 
*'" ■"""' lines used to mark the length of the letters. 

Eight point Italic and Small Capitals. — While to 

Jenson credit is given of first using 
Ten point an actual Roman type-face, sim- 

ilar honor is awarded to Aldus 
Manutius for introducing 
small capitals and italic. 
(See chapter on 
The Spread of 
Typography.") 
Italic, so 
named in 
honor 



Italy, to printers means merely a slanting form of roman, 
yet we are told that Aldus fashioned his italic after the 
handwriting of Petrarch, an Italian poet. As italic is 



RO^BR PA71TB 



EXAMPLE 411 
Reversing the accepted distribution of thick 
grotesqueness 



ind thin lines leads t< 



Twelve point 
Fourteen point 
Eighteen point 
Twenty point 
Twenty-four point 

Thirty point 

Thirty-six point 



evolved from handwriting, it is closely related to script, 
the two terms being used interchangeably to some ex- 
tent. The printer, as a rule, knows script as slanting let- 
ters joined 
to each 
other. 
While the 
possibiHties 



ili 




Forty- 



-two point 

-four point 

Seventy-two pt. 



Fifty- 



have not 
been fully 

realized by The old Caslon figu. 

printers, 

the hand-letterer can get the most out of it. The beauti- 
ful alphabet by Bruce Rogers (Example 407) demonstrates 
the decorative value of italic. While flourishes to the 
extent shown are not obtainable in type, there are 
special characters, known as "swash" letters, 
furnished with certain italic faces (see Ex- 
ample 416). 

When italic was first used by Aldus, 
he had no slanting capitals, but in- 
stead made use of small roman 
capitals, a peculiar combina- 
tion even now sometimes 
practiced by typogra- 
phers when design- 
ing printing in 
the Venetian 
style. 
Claude 
Gar- 



EX AMPLE 409 
:s of the Caslon type-face 



TYPE-FACES 



145 



abcdefghijklmnopqrs -- 

a b c d e f g h i j k 1 ni n o p q r s tssi 

tuvwxyz I 234567890 h" 

t u \^ w X y z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 £S2 




EXAMPLE 415 
rwo styles of tl 

ampersand 



unond, a French type founder, made the capitals full 
hight, inclined them, and filled the blank spaces with 
the little flourishes which now identify "swash" letters. 
The ampersand (&), known 
to printers as the short -and," 
is preferred by artists and art 
printers in the form shown as 
Example 41o-b. This stjle is 
ver>- seldom furnished in roman 
fonts, but generally accompan- 
ies italic. Its decorative qualities 
make it a desirable substitute 
for the word "and" in certain 
jobs of printing, determined by the compositor's good 
jadgment. 

The Caslon T^te-Face. — In 1734 William Caslon, an 
English type founder of extraordinary talent, issued a 
specimen 
sheet con- 
taining the 
roman tjpe- 
face that in 
a slightly 
modif ie d 
form we 



Hdp Hdp Hpd 



EXAMPLE 417 

Stowing the difference in length of descenders 

and ascenders in two Caslon faces 

and one Ckeltenkam 



know as 
Caslon Old 
Style. (Ex- 
ample 408.) For legibility, beauty and versatility it has 
no equal today. The Caslon type foundry had ceased to 
cast this face when in 1843, at the request of Whitting- 
ham and Pickering, the original punches were hunted up 
and fonts cast. In the chapter on "Typography in the 
Nineteenth Century" is shown the title-page of a book in 
which the revived Caslon type-face was first used. This 



1, contrasted 

revival did not, however, extend generally to commercial 
printshops. An American type foundry in 1858 made a 
letter based upon the original Caslon face, and it found 
its way into 
some shops. 
It was used, 
according 
to the cus- 
toms of the 
da\", in con- 
junction 
with other 

faces of different designs. The writer remembers a two- 
line pica size of this letter which was part of the equip- 
ment of the office in which he learned his trade. Some 
years afterward, when he had the old fancy faces as- 
sembled together in a neat pile of old metal, this font of 
Caslon was saved from the 



A 


B D G 


M 


N P R 


T 


^ s T> g 


M 


•N P R 


T 



The 



EXAMPLE 416 
line show 



ash" let 






"hell-box" and retained in 
the case. 

With the revival of the old 
styles of typography, which 
began about 1890, the Cas- 
lon type-face again assumed 
an important place in the 
typographic world, and now 
it is found in the specimen 
books of everv' American 
type foundry. Some of the 
letters, however, have been 
modified, and to accommo- 
date the types to the lining system, the descenders have 
been shortened (Example 417). An interesting feature 
of the old face, the uneven figures, is being sacrificed to 
present-day requirements, and "modem" figures of full 



EXAMPLE 418 

cial letters make ad 

able initials 



^ 


B 


CDEFGHIJK 


L 


M 


N P Q T< S 

V W X Y Z &f 


T 


U 


a 


b c 


d e f g h i j k I 


m 


n 





P ^ 


r s t u V IV X 
12345678QO 


y 


z 



A 


BCDEFGHIJK 


L 


M XO P Q R S T 
V W X Y Z ^ 


U 


a 


hcdefghijklm 


n 




i 


p q r s t u V ix: X y 
1234567890 


z 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



146 



size of the type-face substituted 
(see Example 414). 

The Caslon alphabet is shown 
in large size (Example 408) to 
afford opportunity for detailed 
study of the peculiarities of this 
type-face. It is the Caslon Old 
Style as cut by the Inland Type 
Foundry. Some printers prefer 
the face with long descenders, 
known as No. 471 and made to 
order by the American Type 
Founders Company. The printer 
will not go wrong, however, if he 
orders his Caslon of any of the 
type foundries. 

The Caslon type-face, gradu- 
ated from six to seventy-two 
point, is shown in Example 409. 
The short descenders of the 
lower-case g, j, p, q, y enable 
larger faces to go on the several 
bodies than is possible with type 
of long descenders. This will be 
understood when it is explained 
that the letter with the short 
descender (Example 417-A)is on 
a twenty-four point body and the 
one with the long descender (Ex- 
ample 417-b) is on a thirty point 
body. 

Text Letters. — It is well 
known that the first printers 
fashioned their type -faces after 
the lettering of manuscript books, 
and that at the time of the inven- 
tion of typography the style of 
lettering was that later known as 
Gothic, Black-Letter, Text and 
Old English ; Gothic from its 
pointed formation and its prefer- 
ence by Gothic peoples ; Black- 
Letter from the blackness of its 
appearance on the printed page ; 
Text from its use for the body or The begim 

text matter of books, and Old ot a commei 

English from its use by Wynken 

de Worde and other early printers of England. Text let- 
ters are still used in Germany for books and newspapers, 
the Fractur being a standard type-face for this purpose, 
but later designs indicate a gradual return to Roman char- 
acters, from 
which "text" 
letters were 
evolved. 

As text let- 
ters do not pos- 
sess the legi- 
bility of roman 
they should be 
used sparingly 
in commercial 
printing. Text 
capitals are 
particularly il- 
legible, hence 
should never 
be used alone 



The Caslon Roman Type-Face 



The Caslon Roman Type-Face 
The Caslon Italic 



The Caslon Roman Type-Face 

The Caslon Italic 

A Bold-Face Letter 



The Caslon Roman Type-Face 

The Caslon Italic 

A Letter of Medium Strength 

A Bold- Face Letter 



The Caslon Roman Type-Face 

The Caslon Italic 

A Letter of Medium Strength 

Its Italic 

A Bold-Face Letter 

A Condensed Bold-Face Letter 

a CcEt better 



Scotch Roman 

Its Italic 

Caslon Bold 

Its Italic 

John Hancock 

John Hancock Condensed 

Church ^ext 



n e . 



There are cap- 
itals, half 
roman and 



half text, to be had (Example 
418), based upon the early uncial 
letters, which are more legible 
than the German capitals. 

"Block" Letters. — The let- 
ter known as block" from its 
plain, square appearance, and 
also misnamed gothic" by the 
type founders, still occupies as 
prominent a place in type-speci- 
men books as it did thirty years 
ago. Its general shape is that of 
the roman letter, but it has no 
serifs or cross strokes, and is com- 
posed of only one width of line 
(Example 425). It is crude and 
primitive and appeals to those 
who have a liking for the plain 
and homely. The new secession 
art of straight lines and square 
blocks offers opportunity for its 
harmonious employment. The 
gothic or block letter is tabooed 
in many printshops and some 
magazine publishers will not al- 
low it to be used in advertising 
pages. 



What type-faces should com- 
prise the equipment of a small- 
sized commercial printshop? This 
is an important question, and the 
answer bears greatly upon the 
success of a printer starting in 
business or renewing the com- 
posing-room equipment. It is ex- 
tremely difficult, tho, to give a sat- 
isfactory answer to the question. 
The situation is similar to that 
which confronted President Eliot 
of Harvard when he was asked to 
select a list of books that would 
afford a liberal education. In his 
selection he omitted so many 
popular favorites that his choice 
was immediately challenged. In 
selecting any list of type-faces 

sufficient for theaverage printshop, many good type-faces 

are sure to remain unmentioned. However, the selection 

should not be so much a matter of personal preference 

as one of type-faces which will look well, wear well, and 

allow of con- 
stant use. An 

idle type-face 

is of no more 

value than an 

idle employee. 

The printer 

who spends 

twenty-five 

dollars for a 

font of type 

which lies un- 

u s e d in the 

case, would do 

better to pur- 
chase some 

other kind of 

ornament for 

his composing- 

room. He 

would at least 



Equipment E 

EXAMPLE 419 
id gro'wtli of the type equipment 
:ommercial printshop 



French Old Style 

French Old Style Italic 

Crawford 

Its Italic 

Blanchard 

Condensed Blanchard 

Cell x:t%x 



EXAMPLE 421 
Any of these type-faces could 



TYPE-FACES 



147 



Caslon Old Style 

Its Italic 

New Caslon 

Its Italic 

Condensed Caslon 

Heavy Caslon 

Ca0lon Celt 



get the use 
of the case. 
Type cab- 
inets and 
floor space 
costmoney. 
The first 
test of a 
type-face 
should be 
for legibil- 
ity. When 
a customer 
brings copy 
t o t h e 



printer, to 
be set in 
type and 
printed, he 
expects to have the matter so treated as to be easily 
read. To accomplish this the printer should have suit- 
able type-faces. 

While the legible presentation of a message is of primary 
consideration, it is not all of the printer's problem. 
There is an art side. Type-faces should have certain 
beauty of design ; which does not necessarily mean 
"fancy" strokes or other embellishment. 

There is a type-face that measures up to these require- 
ments, in legibility, simplicity, beauty, and general 
adaptability, and it is the Caslon. The fact that this 
clever interpretation of the Roman letter was first cast 
more than one hundred and seventy-five years ago and is 
today enthusiastically endorsed by the best typographers 
is high rec- 
ommenda- 
tion. But 
the thing 
that most in- 
terests the 
commercial 
printer is 
its useful- 
ness in all 
kinds of 
printing. 
Among the 
examples of 
typography 

shown in this book will be found a great many set only 
in Caslon. They include title-pages and text matter of 
books, booklets and catalogs, programs, announcements, 
tickets, invitations, circulars, envelops, blotters, letter- 
heads, billheads, statements, business cards, posters and 
advertisements. With this evidence of the versatility of 
the Caslon type-face, the printer need not lament inade- 
quate type equipment should he have only that face in his 
shop. A 



An Engravers' ROMAN 

AN ENGRAVERS' GOTHIC 

An Sngraurra* arxt 
Cln (S)nata\"ct.\ Q^ctint 



EXAMPLE 424 

A type-face equipment for imitating the woi 

of copperplate engravers and lithographers 



Cheltenham Oldstyle 

Cheltenham Wide 

Cheltenham Italic 

Cheltenham Bold 

Its Italic 

Bold ELxtended 

Bold Condensed 

Its Italic 
Extra Condensed 



EXAMPLE 423 
remarkable Cheltenham family. Besi( 
mbers, there is the Cheltenham Inline 



in the old 
days, and 
Morris and 
Bradley, 
rece ntly, 
were lim- 
ited in their 
supply of 
type -faces, 
y e t it is 
only the 
truth to 
state that 
most print- 
ers enjoy- 
ing a wealth 
of type ma- 
ter"ial are 
'far from 
equa lin g 
the typo- 
graphic 
work of 
these men. 
A printer 
who within 
a short time 

twice won first prize in national typographical competi- 
tions accomplished it with the Caslon type-face and a 
few old ornaments. 

Attempting to answer the question. What type -faces 
should comprise the equipment of a small-sized commer- 
cial printshop?" the suggestions shown as Example 419 
are submitted for consideration. Beginning with an equip- 
ment of one type-face, with which it would be possible 
to do business, other faces to be added one by one as the 
requirements of the business may justify, are suggested. 
The quantities recommended should, of course, be propor- 
tionately more for larger shops. 

Equipment A. — The first type-face that a printer 
should purchase is the Caslon roman, known in type- 
founders' parlance as "Caslon Old Style." Altho a large 
varietj' of work could be done with only the eight, ten, 
twelve, eighteen, twenty-four and thii-ty-six point sizes, 
the entire series should be purchased, if possible. There 
should be a liberal quantity of the sizes above mentioned, 
at least a twenty-five pound font of each. As job type is 
now sold at pound rates it is unprofitable to purchase 
mere job fonts of a type-face as useful as the Caslon, ex- 
cepting in the very large sizes and perhaps six point. 
Small capitals should be included in all fonts from six to 
at least twelve point. 

Equipment B. — To the Caslon roman is added the 
Caslon italic, which face not only gives variety when 
used with its roman mate, but looks well used alone. 
(See several jobs in italic reproduced in this book.) The 
equipment 



Mixta Cppografic Hlpfjatict 
QXiitn -Gppografic HIpftaljet 
UliJeD Oppogtafic Blpf)abet 

fl)ixed "Oypografic Alphabet 

EXAMPLE 426 

Variety in appearance is obtained by 

changing the capitals 



man be- 


of the italic 


comes a 


need not be 


better 


so extensive 


printer if 


as that of 


he has only 


the roman. 


a few faces 


One or two 


a n d i s 


job fonts of 


forced by 


all sizes 


his limita- 


from forty - 


tions to de- 


eight point 


velop their 


down to 


possibili- 


twelve 


ties. Aldus, 


point; 


Gutenberg 


weight 


andCaxton, 


fonts of ten 



A 


B 


C D E 


F 


G 


H 


1 


J K L M 


N 


O 


P 


Q 


R 


S T 


U 


V 


W 


X 


Y 


Z & 


— 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 7 


8 


9 






148 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



HOWEVER FANCY MAY PAINT TO OUR 
imaginations the importance of the Divine Art, in 
what glowing colors must the picture afterwards appear, 
when we have explored the records of time, and traced in 



Fifteeenth Century (Barnhart Bros. & Spindler) 



M 



EN OF THE WORLD KNOW 

very well tkat it is best to J)ay scot ana 
lot as tkey go along, ana that a man often fays 
dear for a small frugality. Tne borrower runs 



Puritan (Hansen) 



HUMAN LABOR, THROUGH ALL 
its forms, from the sharpening of a 
stake to the construction of a city or an 
epic, is one immense illustration of the 



Viking (Hansen) 



QRNAMENT MAY IN GENERAL 

^^ terms be defined as that wlilcli Is add- 
ed to objects of utility for the purpose of 
rendering tbem agreeable to the eye. It is 



BEAUTIFUL DESIGNS 
that seemed to transform 
the otherwise gloomy scenes 
into magnificent gardens, and 



HANDSOME PRIZES RECENTLY 

* * awarded to tKe amateur athletes 
who participated in the events which 
were held during the gigantic carnival 



Tabard (American) 



KINDNESS AND GOOD 
cheer are the two great 
qualities that make life worth 
while; it gives to mankind a 



Clearface Bold (American) 

EXAMPLE 427 
Artistic and interesting faces suitable for special purposes 



and eight point, and a job font of six point, would likely 
take care of all demands in this direction. If stricter 
economy is necessary, the eight, ten, twelve, eighteen 
and twenty-four point sizes may be sufficient. 

Equipment C. — A bold-face letter will be found use- 
ful, especially in the smaller sizes, for certain work re- 
quiring strong emphasis, but it is a mistake to use it 
promiscuously and generally in job printing. Bold-face 
letters should be treated as special types and used only 
as necessity arises, otherwise the printed work will as- 
sume a commonplace appearance. One or two job fonts 
would be sufficient for most purposes, but if special re- 
quirements demand a fuller supply, weight fonts should 
be purchased. The type-face shown is Winchell, designed 
by Edward Everett Winchell for the Inland Type 
Foundry. 

Equipment D. — There are times when a letter a trifle 
stronger than the Caslon would give more ideal results, 
as when a dark paper or light ink is used. For this pur- 
pose there should be added a type-face of medium strength, 
such as Old Style Antique. This letter has no definite 
history. During the popularity of type-faces known as 
antiques (see Example 43?) some founder combined the 
characteristics of the antique with those of some "old- 
style" face, from which resulted Old Style Antique. 
For some reason the serifs, made square in the larger 
sizes, are rounded in the smaller sizes. The square serifs 
give a result more picturesque. This letter is cast by 
most type foundries, but under various names. The one 
shown is made by the Keystone Type Foundry. Weight 
fonts of six, eight, ten, twelve and fourteen point (and 
also of eighteen and twenty-four point if posters are at- 
tempted) and job fonts of larger sizes are recommended. 

Equipment E. — Further enlarging the type equip- 
ment, an italic is added for the Old Style Antique, a 
condensed form for the bold-face letter, and a text-face. 
The italic is for use in combination with Old Style An- 
tique and job fonts of six, eight, ten and twelve point 
would suffice for most requirements. Of the condensed 
bold-face letter, job fonts from eight to thirty -six point will 
occasionally prove useful. The letter shown is the Ameri- 
can Type Founders Co. 's Bewick Roman, altho Condensed 
Winchell may be procured. An appropriate text face will 
serve a useful purpose in embellishing a piece of printing 
otherwise treated in Caslon roman. The letter shown is 
Caslon Text, made by the Inland Type Foundry, and is 
patterned after the original face as cut by the Caslon 
foundry. It is fairly legible and is a good companion of 
Caslon roman and italic, which three faces make possible 
many effective and artistic arrangements based upon the 
work of early printers. The Caslon text is approximated 
in text faces made by most of the type foundries, under 
different titles. In Cloister Black, a recutting of the 
Caslon text, the letters set closer, and hence present a 
blacker tone when grouped in words. While the closer 
setting of the letters gives a more handsome effect to 
modern printing, the slightly spaced Caslon text agrees 
better with the peculiar gray tone of the Caslon foundry's 
roman types and florets. Job fonts of the text letter up 
to thirty-six point may be sufficient. 

It should not be understood from the type-faces com- 
prising Equipment E, that they should all be used to- 
gether in one piece of printing. While the faces as a 
whole are fairly harmonious, careful judgment is neces- 
sary in combining them. Study of the examples shown in 
this book will bring an understanding of the best manner 
of using these type-faces. 

The selection of faces contained in Example 419 is 
merely representative, and useful as a basis in determin- 
ing proper type equipment. Example 420 presents an 
excellent alternative. Scotch Roman is substituted for 
Caslon roman. The Scotch face, like Old Style Antique, 



TYPE-FACES 



149 



seems to be formed of the good qualities of two standard 
letter-forms, in this instance old-style" and modern" 
roman, and with printers who know is the only rival of 
the Caslon face. Just what difference there is in the two 
faces may be determined by comparison. (Example 410.) 
There is more resemblance in the capitals than in the 
lower-case. There seems to be a wider difference in the 
italic than in the roman. (Examples 412-413.) The ver- 
satility of Scotch Roman is almost as extensive as that of 
Caslon roman, and for work of formal character the Scotch 
letter is even better. This is Scotch Roman. It is not 
made by all foundries. As a substitute for Old Style An- 
tique, there are Caslon faces with strengthened lines, the 
one shown being Caslon Bold as made by the Keystone 
Type Foundry. John Hancock and its condensed com- 
panion could replace Winchell and Bewick Roman, while 
the legible Church Text will be found an admirable sub- 
stitute for Caslon Text. 

In Example 421 there is another alternative selection 
of type equipment. French Old Style, a roman letter 
probably based upon a type-face used by the Elzevirs, is 
substituted for Caslon. While not as beautiful a letter it 
is almost as versatile. It was gaining some popularity in 
America a quarter of a century ago, but the Caslon face 
was revived about that time and diverted attention from 
French Old Style. It diff'ers from the Caslon in the in- 
creased size of the lower-case letters and in minor ways. 
For the letter of medium strength" called for in the 
equipment, a type of the characteristics of French Old 
Style but of heavier lines is found in Crawford, as made 
by the Hansen Type Foundry ; McFarland, as made by 
the Inland Type Foundry, and to some extent in Merion- 
type, as made by the American Type Founders Com- 
pany. For the bold-face letters, Blanchard and Blanch- 
ard Condensed may prove acceptable to manv. This is a 
rugged, free-hand type-face very popular several years 
ago, suggested by a series of hand-lettered headings 
which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post. Similar 
faces may be had of all the type foundries. For the text 
letter it may be well to consider the "Troy" type of 
William Morris, named Tell Text by Barnhart Brothers 
& Spindler, and Satanick by the American Type Found- 
ers Company. 

Other substitutions in the equipment scheme could be 
made to suit individual preference, keeping in mind the 
fact that all type-faces are to do their share of work. 

It is possible to select an equipment along the lines 
considered without departing from the Caslon model. 
The Inland Type Foundry makes a Caslon family (Ex- 
ample 422) that deserves careful consideration. 

The extension of the harmony idea to include related 
series of type-faces known as families opens a question 
as to how far the matter of harmony in type-faces should 
be carried. Some years ago commercial typography was 
treated to obtain extreme variety. Ornamented and plain 
lines of type were combined, as were old-style and mod- 
ern faces. Compositors are now taught the necessity of 
harmony in type-faces. This harmony is most surely ob- 
tained by buying type in series and using only one series 
on a job. 

The idea is carried further by the rule that the display 
of a page should be exclusively in capitals, or in lower-case 
(properly capitalized). But suppose the entire equipment 
of a printshop were confined to one type family ; would 
not the appearance of that shop's product become mon- 
otonous? There are two answers to this question, depend- 
ing upon the shop and the printers in it. 

In many printing offices the danger is not in sameness 
but in variety. If all their type-cases were emptied in the 
"hell-box," and then filled with members of some type 
family, there would be a fifty per cent improvement in 
the appearance of the product. 



HOWEVER FANCY MAY PAINT TO 
our imaginations the importance of the 
Divine Art, in what glowing colors must the 
picture afterwards appear, when we have six- 



Caslon Old Roman (Barnhart Bros. & Spindler 



HZ. IS A TRUE. OPTIMIST 
who sees what is wrong now, 
and "makes a kick" to the end that 
it may be righted soon as possible 



John Alden (Keystone) 



MODERN BUSINESS 
methods introduced 
into the motor car industry 
meet with instant approval 



Strathmore Oldstyle (American) 



MUMEROUS AIRSHIPS NOW 
^ ^ seen floating gracefully over 
the housetops impart a touch of 
thrilling interest to the watchers 



Camelot (American) 



IT1HE OL,DE3T PRINTING 
■*■ office in existence ^wsls 
established in 14190, about 
t^^o years before the Ne\r 



Rogers (Inland) 



EXERCISE TENDS TO 
develop the brain as well 
as the body, but should never 
be indulged in to excess, as a 



Delia Robbia (Am 



BUILDING A HOME 
' amia the pleasant groves 
ana quaint scenes or Soutnern 
Cahfornia is no^\^ consiaered 



150 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Mixed Typografic Alphabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 



: excellent type- 
.d legal blanks 



Mixed Typografic Alphabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 



EXAMPLE 430 
e is a general resemblance between Caslon Bold 
(upper line) and De Vinne (lower line) 



EXAMPLE 429 
Century Expanded anc 
faces for lawyers 

satisfactor- 
ily produce most commercial printing. To get the best 
results with it the printer must have an appreciation of 
appropriateness in the use of the type-faces. With no 
other faces but those of one type family he is more likely 
to get harmony without thinking much about it. 

Automatic 
harmony is 
possible 
with that 
remarkable 
type crea- 
tion, the 
"Chelten- 
ham Fam- 
ily" (Ex- 
ample 42S), 

developed by the American Type Founders Company. 
Cheltenham Oldstyle, from which the dozen other Chel- 
tenhams are descended, was born in the brains of Bert- 
ram G. Goodhue, a clever letterer, and Ingalls Kimball, 
of the Cheltenham Press, New York. One new member 
after an- 
other has 
been added 
totheChel- 
t e n h a m 
family, the 
latest f a c e 
EXAMPLE 431 being the 

McFarland (lower line) and several otber type-faces Inline, and 
are based upon French Old Style (upper line) H may be 

that even 
while this is being written a new member has been born. 

An auxiliary type equipment of imitation engravers' 

letters may be necessary in commercial printshops. The 

wise printer 

will en- 



The type 


require- 




equipment 
suggested 


ment, and 
one such 


Mixed Typografic Alphabet 


in Example 
419 is har- 


as shown 
(Heavy 
Copper- 


IMixed Typografic Alphabet 






yet contains 
enough 


plate 
Gothic, A. 


EXAMPLE 435 
"Old-style" type-faces 


variety to 


T. F. Co.) 





Mixed Typografic Alpliabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 



Mixed Typografic Alphabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 



EXAMPLE 432 
The once-popular Jensen type-face c( 
pared with Old Style Antique 



deavor to 
do the bulk 
of his work 
with strict- 
ly typo- 
graphic 
faces and 
only try to 
imitate 
other processes when requested by customers willing to 
pay for the use of special type-faces. (Example 424.) 
Probably the first requisite in such special equipment is 
an engravers' roman, which should take care of ninety per 
cent of the calls for imitation engravers' work. The let- 
ter shown 
is L i t h o 
Roman, 
made by 
the Inland 
Type Foun- 
d r y . An 
engravers' 
gothic may 
be the next 



a}UEeb ^ripogrofic 2l(p()abet 
Znifcb CYPografic 2llpl|abct 



Mixed Typografic Alphabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 
Mixed Typografic Alphabet 



EXAMPLE 433 
Tw^o standard German type-fac 
Fractur and Schw^abacher 



would give good service. Some use could be found for an 
engravers' text letter. The one shown is Engravers' Old 
English, made by the American Type Founders Com- 
pany. Script for commercial purposes has gone out of 
style, due 
perhaps to 
the wide 
use of the 
typewriter. 
One of the 
large type 
foundries 
does not 

s h o w a ^ 

script face "Modera" type-faces 

in its speci- 
men book. It is doubtful if printers ever made a profit 
from their investments in script type. It costs more than 
other type, gets out of style quickly and renders only a 
fraction of proper service to the commercial printer. Yet 
there are people who want invitations printed in imitation 
of copperplate engravers' work and some one must print 
them. The script type shown, a handsome one, is Wed- 
ding Plate, made bj' Barnhart Brothers & Spindler. There 
are many stylish imitation engravers' faces made by most 
type foundries, and printers should refer to their speci- 
men books when making selection. 

Example 426 demonstrates the variety that may be in- 
troduced into a job of printing merely by changing the 
capital letters. The first line shows Cloister Black, and 
the second, Flemish Black, which excepting the capitals 
is the same letter as the first. It may be mentioned here 
that the capitals accompanying Cheltenham Wide are the 
same as those of Cheltenham Oldstyle (Example 423). 
The third line shows the uncial letters known as Caxton 
Initials acting as capitals for Caslon Text, and the fourth, 
Missal Initials with the same letter. The last line con- 
tains Caxton Initials combined with lower-case of Old 
Style Antique. 

The type-faces so far considered may be classed as the 
necessaries" of the printshop ; they are sometimes called 
the "bread and butter" faces. Yet, like persons in other 
callings, the printer must have luxuries" when he can 
afford them. Any of the interesting type-faces shown in 
Examples 427-428 may prove a luxury used in a special 
way, and some of them may even be ranked as necessaries 
employed generally. Camelot is a decidedly appropriate 
letter for dance cards and other purjjoses requiring dainty 
treatment for feminine eyes. Delia Robbia is just the let- 
ter for classic effects in typography. Grasset, Caslon Old 
Roman, John Alden and Rogers are excellent program let- 
ters. Strathmore Oldstyle is a decidedly artistic face of 
wide adaptability. Avil, Puritan, Tabard, Pabst and Viking 
are good letters for announcements and similar work. Fif- 
teenth Century is appropriate for rugged Colonial effects. 
Clearface Bold will impart individuality to special work, 
and it possesses sufficient legibility for general use. 

For formal work, such as lawyers' briefs and legal 
blanks, there is no better type-face than Century Ex- 
panded and its italic (Example 429). This letter is the 
joint creation of T. L. De Vinne and L. B. Benton and 
is the first among dignified type-faces. 

De Vinne, a handsome roman letter which made its 



TYPE-FACES 



151 




Catalog of iOoolens 



A color appears darker if enelosed by a black lin 



Quill and Quill Outline (Keystone) 




Foster and Webb (Inland i 




Bard and Bard Open (Bamhart Bros. & Spindler) 



EXAMPLE 434 
Type-races for color printing 



152 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Mixed Typografic Alphabet 

Law Italic 

Mixed Typograpc Alphabet 

Law Italic 

Mixed Typografic Alphabet 

Clarendon (Antique) 

Mixed Typografic Alphabet 

French Clarendon 

Mixed Typografic Alphabet 

Runic (Antique) Condensed 

Mixed Typografic Alph 

Light-face Celtic 

Mixed Typografic Alph 

Latin Antique 

Mixed Typografic Alph 

Caledonian (Antique) 

Mixed Typografic 

Doric (Antique) 



"Plain- 






bold-face 
Ca slon, 
their gen- 
eral resem- 
blance has 
been no- 
ticed. Ex- 
ample 430 
shows both 
faces. Hold 
the print 
about two 
feet from 
the eyes 
and the 
similarity 
is striking. 
Closer ob- 
servation 
reveals in 
the D e 
Vinne face 
many char- 
acteristics 
peculiar to it alone. De Vinne was first made by the 
Central Type Foundry. 

Jenson Old Style, following Morris' use of a similar 
type-face (the Golden), became as popular as the De 
Vinne for a time, but is now little used. Because of the 
close set of the letters it is not as legible as Old Style 
Antique (Example 432). 

By Example 434 it will be seen that type-faces 
which give fairly good results in two-color printing 
are procurable. As a color surrounded by a dark out- 
line stands out more strongly than when printed alone, 
the solid portion of these two-color letters should be 
printed in tints. Type-faces as shown could be used to 
good advantage on catalog and booklet covers. These 
letters are not as successful in the small sizes, for two- 
color printing, as in the large sizes. Not only is it more 
difficult to obtain register, but there is less opportu- 
nity for the color to show forth. To be in position to 
get these two-color effects it is only necessary for 
printshops already possessing the solid letters to 
order the companion outline face. Outline letters are 
sometimes serviceable by themselves. The New York 
Herald, it is well known, makes use of outline type- 
faces exclusively, for display portions of advertisements. 

The terms "old-style" and "modern" as phrases of 
opposite meaning do not possess the significance they 
did a generation ago, when type-faces were fairly well 
divided in this respect, as shown in Examples 435-436. 
Since the birth of a new typography, about 1890, 
most type-faces have been modeled after the letters 
used by early printers, with the result that the ' old 
style" is now the rule and "modern" the exception. 
The characteristics of both are often found combined 
in types recently designed. There is a possibility that 
the severe, sharp-faced modern" type-faces may 
sometime regain popularity. The printer and the type 
founder have always been susceptible to outside influ- 




extremes and cause a reaction, as it did with the mod- 
ern" faces shown in Example 438. 

A few of the favorite type -faces of our fathers' days 
are exhibited in Example 437. These letters have gone 
into disuse, not because they are to a large degree fault}-, 
but rather by reason of having been superseded by better 
and more artistic type-faces. 

Here are a few suggestions printers should memorize : 

Large fonts of a few legible type-faces are better than 
small fonts of many faces. 

Text letters, not being as legible as roman, should not 
be used promiscuously. 

Do not make general use of imitation engravers' faces 
or gothic (block) letters. 

Purchase type-faces that look well, wear well and allow 
of constant use. 

If dust is found accumulating on a font of type, get rid 
of the dust — and the type. 

Practice the use of all capitals, or all lower-case, capital- 
ized, in a job of printing. 

If possible, use only one series of type on a single piece 
of printing. 

To get variety, set some lines in roman capitals and 
others in italic lower-case. 



GUTSMBBBG, WBIN, X8SS. 






the 8rip of Erintinp IddreBsed to 
BUIDE PRATI5UE DE HHPDSITEUR 



EXAMPLE 439 
Some of tte "fancy" letters that pleased printers d 
the latter half of the Nineteenth Century 







^tMSConeMnit^iiQl^mMitfi^^ 



EXAMPLE 441 
Tte first "imprint," as tound on Fust ana Scnoerrera Psalter or 1457 



Lesmots Francois felon lordre 
des lettres,ainri que les fault 
cfcrire: tournez en latin, pour 
les enfans. 




A PARIS 

Delimprunetie de Rob.Efticne Impiimeur <Iu Roy. 

M.D.Xtlin. 

Auecpriuilegedu Roy. 



EXAMPLE 447-B 

Tke printer s device and imprint kere monopolizes t^vo-tkirds or 

tke title-page. From a book by Robert Estienne 



m^ 




IMPRINTS 



THE printer's name or device should be placed upon 
every well -executed piece of work produced b.v him. That 
this is not more often done is due sometimes to neglect 
and other times to fear of the customer's 
condemnation of the act. Why should not i 
the printer mark his product as other crafts- | 
men and manufacturers do? Each piece of 
clothing he wears, from hat to shoes, prob- 
ably carries the name or trade-mark of its 
maker, as do automobiles, pianos, watches, 
silverware and many other things he 
or o^^ms. The maker's name and trade- 
mark are a guarantee of a certain quality of 
product ; in fact, they are absent only on 
cheap or imitative articles. If 
the printer is doing careless 
Mork and giNing no thought 
to quality, he had better hide 
his identit.v, but if he is con- 
scientiously producing good 
printing, as a duty to the craft 
of which he is a member he 
should "let his light shine be- 
fore men. '' 

If a commercial printer has 
not been in the habit of placing 
an imprint upon his product, 
and he decides to do so, cus- 
tomers should tactfully be 
made acquainted with the in- 
novation. They may object to an imprint merely because 
such a thing has never before been used on their printed 
matter, but probably stand ready to be convinced of its 
reasonableness. It may be an excellent plan for the printer 
to mail his customers an announcement to this effect : 

The standard of quality attained by the Smith Printshop is such 
that it is due our customers and ourselves so to mark each piece 
of printing produced by us as to identify it as a product of the 
Smith Printshop. This we will do henceforth. 




As a further precaution, all proofs receiving the O.K. 
of the customer should contain the imprint just as it is to 
be used, and on large orders, where there is doubt, per- 
mission should be obtained. There are in- 
i stances where customers have refused to 
accept printed work for the reason that an 
imprint was placed upon it. 

All this is recommended because printers 
as a rule have neglected to imprint their 
work, but it is only necessary to get patrons 
accustomed to the new order of things. If 
some friend had suggested to Johan Guten- 
berg that he imprint his name on his work, 
the discussion that has since arisen as to 
whether he printed the Bible 
of Forty-two Lines' * would not 
have taken place. 

The commercial printer's 
imprint should be unassuming 
and placed inconspicuously. 
Decorative imprints could be 
used on booklet and catalog 
work, and in addition the deco- 
rative device should find place 
on every piece of the printer's 
own stationery and advertising 
matter, even on the office door 
and outside sign. 

The use by printers of 
decorative devices dates back to one of the first printed 
books, the famous Psalter of 1457. Previously for a great 
many hundred years pictures and devices in various forms 
had been relied upon to convey information and to act as 
distinguishing marks for various purposes. Figures such 
as the white horse and the red lion, portrayed in front of 
taverns and public houses during the last two centuries, 
were outgrowths of the coats of arms of titled folk 




EXAMPLE 442 
Aldus' anchor and dolphin device, and adapta 
[1531 



154 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 






who in ancient times hung the 
family device in front of their 
estates as emblems of hospital- 
ity to the weary traveler. 

Emblems and devices seem al- 
ways to have had place in human 
history. The sign of the Cross 
in the eleventh century led the 
Crusaders against the followers 
of the Crescent. The cross of 
St. George ( + ) furnished in- 
spiration for the English in their warfare with the Scots, 
who rallied around the cross of St. Andrew (X), and the 
combined crosses now inspire the patriotic Britisher. 

It would seem that printers could do better work if 
they were to select some device which would represent an 
ideal, and then attempt to live up to it. 

While the Gutenberg Bible of Forty-two Lines, gen- 
erally accepted as the first book printed with movable 
types, contained neither device nor printer's name, the 
Book of Psalms, or Psalter, of 1457, not only has the names 
of Fust and SchoefFer and the date, but an imprint device 
which has the distinction of being the first ever used on 
a book typographically printed. This famous Psalter was 
the product of Johan Fust and Peter Schoeffer, who suc- 
ceeded to Gutenberg's printing office. At the end of the 
book, printed in red ink, is the colophon of the printers 
(Example 44 1), a translation of which follows: 

This book of Psalms, decorated with antique initials, and suf- 
ficiently emphasized with rubricated letters, has been thus made 
by the masterly invention of printing and also of type-making, 
without the writing of a pen, and is consummated to the service 
of God, thru the industry of Johan Fust, citizen of Mainz, and 
Peter Schoeffer, of Gernszheim, in the year of our Lord 1457, on 
the eve of the Assumption. 

The colophon contains a typographic error, perhaps the 
first to be made by a typesetter, the second word show- 
ing spalm-" for psalm-." On several of the Psalters 
still in existence (one is without it) the colophon is ac- 
companied by the decorative device shown in Example 
440, consisting of a pair of shields suspended from the 



The most popular imprint-device as early used by printers, and modern interpretationa 

limb of a tree. The significance of the characters on the 
shields is not definitely known. Humphreys in his His- 
tory" asserts that the shields contain the arms of Fust 
and those of Schoeffer. Roberts in his Printers' Marks" 
describes the characters on the shields as composing rules. 
Humphreys' statement is probably correct. It would 
seem to the writer that the decorator-printer Schoeffer 
adopted the inverted "V" portion of the crossed bars 
found on his father-in-law's shield because of its sugges- 
tion of a scribe's copy-book support (see frontispiece) or 
the type-case holders of the early printers. The short 
projecting strokes lend reasonableness to this theory. The 
three stars may have had some personal significance. 

This device of Fust and Schoeffer was imitated by sev- 
eral printers of the same century, chief among whom 
were Michael Furter and Nicolas Kessler, whose devices 
are shown in Example 440. Furter, who printed at Basel, 



^ 


. Hansard 


United Typothete 


Lond 


on. England 





The arms supposed t 



n master printers 



Switzerland, in 1490, was once credited with being the 
inventor of printing, thru an error in a book, the date of 
which was made to read 1444 (MCCCCXLIIIl), instead 
of 1494 (MCCCCXCIIII). 

This first imprint-device has recently been adopted by 
the Club of Printing House Craftsmen, of New York City. 









IMPRINTS 



What is considered to be the most classic of all im- 
print-devices (Example 442) is that used in 1502 by Aldus 
Manutius, the great Venetian printer, who introduced the 
italic face of type. The device, an anchor, around which 
is twisted a dolphin, is said to be symbolic of the proverb 
"Hasten slowly." The anchor represents stability and 
the dolphin swiftness. Aldus depended upon this device 
to act as a mark of identification for his work. 

In a spirit of affection and regard for the famous Vene- 
tian, the device of Aldus has been adopted or adapted 
by several well-known printers. There is a nice senti- 
ment connected with the use of this device in 1852 by 
William Pickering, the noted English printer. In place 
of the AL-Dvs'" of the original, Pickering's adaptation 
contained a motto in which he announced himself as the 
English disciple of Aldus. 

The Chiswick Press, of London, in 1892 used the 
anchor and dolphin as a part of its device, which also in- 
cluded a lion. 

McClure, Phillips & Co., of New York, have a conven- 




tionalized interpretation which shows the dolphin and 
anchor in white uj)on a black circular background (Ex- 
ample 442). 

Bruce Rogers, at the Riverside Press, has most inter- 
estingly adapted the Aldus device. It seems that he al- 
ways had a fondness for the thistle, and when seeking 
a motive for a mark, naturally turned to it. When the 
time came for putting it into use, the first requirement 
happened to be for an Aldine page, so it was cast in a form 
that would distinctly suggest the Aldus anchor and dol- 
phin. (Compare the two designs in Example 442.) While 
on the subject of Bruce Rogers' device it may be inter- 
esting to relate that later when he desired to use it on a 
book modeled on French 
sixteenth centurj' work 






EXAMPLE 446 



he reshaped it as shown in 
Example 451, which car- 
ries a suggestion of one of 
Robert Estienne's marks 
(Example 450). 

One of the most famous 
imprint-devices is that 
adopted by the Society of 
Printers at Venice in 1481 
(Example 443), about the 
time of the death of Nich- 
olas Jenson, who is sup- 
posed to have originated 
the design. Various ex- 
planations have been 
given of the significance 
of this device, the most 
reasonable being that the 
globe and cross were em- 
blematic of authority in 
the daj's when church and 
state were one. A leaf of 
an ivory tablet of the sixth 
century, preserved in the 
British Museum, repre- 
sents St. Michael the 

Archangel offering a globe ancient printers' marks 

surmounted by a cross to 

the Emperor of Byzantium (now Constantinople). The 
globe probably represented the earth, altho the fact that 
the earth was round was not common knowledge in the 
early days. The theory, however, was accepted by the 
educated priest and layman long before Columbus sailed 
for India. 

The divisions of the circle or globe of the Venetian 
imprint-device may represent the crossed supports once 
used for geographical globes, or may be due to the fact 
that the world was once divided into three parts — Europe, 
Asia and Libya (Africa). 

The double-cross in the Roman church today is asso- 
ciated with the authority of an archbishop, and as a dec- 
orative form of the cross, extends back many centuries. 
The ornamental double-cross pictured in this connection 
was once the property of St. Waudru, of Belgium, who 
died in 670. 

In further consideration of the cross and globe device 
it may be well to mention that an astronomical sign con- 
sisting of a circle with a cross above it ( 6 ) was used by 
the Egyptians many years before the Christian era. Such 
a sign is yet used astronomically and also to indicate the 
male in botany. Another astronomical sign bearing on 
the subject is that of a cross within a circle (©), by which 
the earth is indicated. 





156 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 





EXAMPLE 450 
One of Robert 
Estienne's marks 
(See Ex. 451) 



|OSWAI,l)PKKS,S| 




EXAMPLE 449-A 

The Lion of St. Mark and its us, 

by the Oswald Press 

The cross and globe device 
of the Venetian Society of 
Printers has proved the most 
popular of any of the old im- 
prints. When Elbert Hubbard 
established the Roycroft Shop 
at East Aurora, N. Y., in 1896, he adopted it as a work- 
mark, placing an R" in the lower half of the circle in 
place of the dot. Fra Elbertus' interpretation of the de- 
vice establishes the circle as the emblem of the perfect 
(the complete), and the lines puncturing into the circle 
the attempt to make the perfect article, to do perfect 
work. Hubbard seems to have learned of William Morris 
to like strength and simplicity in printing, binding, and 
other things, and this fact very likely dictated the selec- 
tion of this work-mark, which is the simplest of all the 
devices used by early printers. 

When the advertising manager of the National Biscuit 
Company was looking about for a 
trade-mark this old device of cross 
and ball must have appealed to him 
strongly, and such is the power of 
advertising that printers may some 
day be accused of copying the de- 
sign from the biscuit people. 

The remarkable adaptability of 
the device is also demonstrated by 
the Griffith-Stillings imprint, in 
which it forms a part of a clever 
modern decorative design. 

The imprint-device of the Gould 
Press (Example 452) may have 
originated with the Venetian print- 
ers' design. It is an interesting 
variant. 

These numerous uses of the old 
circle and cross design suggest a 
paraphrase of an ancient proverb : 
"a good device lives forever." 



William Caxton, England's first 
printer, used an imprint-device 
(Example 4 1.4) that in appearance 
resembles a rug, which it may have 
been intended to represent, as Cax- 
ton is supposed to have used this 
mark when he was a merchant at 



VENETIAN LIFE 

BY WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS 



Bruges in Belgium. The characters 
contained in the design have caused 
much discussion. The Won the 
left and the "C" on the right are 
generally accepted as the initials 
of Caxton. The center characters 
have been claimed by some to be 
the figures "74," but the most 
reasonable explanation is that they 
form a trade device used by the 
merchants of Bruges. This explana- 
tion is seemingly confirmed by the 
discovery of a memorial plate to 
one John Felde, containing his 
trade-mark as a merchant, which 
trade-mark is very similar to the 
characters in the center of Cax- 

I ton's imprint-device. The repro- 
duction of the Felde design shows 
that if the top stroke were taken 
away and a loop added the result 
would be Caxton 's characters. 

Wynkyn de Worde, when he succeeded Caxton 
as England's printer, adopted Caxton 's characters 
(probably a sentimental act) and in the device shown 
added his own name at the foot. 

William Morris, in planning an imprint-device for the 
Kelmscott Press, evidently made a study of De Worde's 
design, for there is resemblance in shape and in the pla- 
cing of the name at the foot. 

T. C. Hansard on the title-page of his "Typographia" 
(l825) uses a device which tradition tells us was granted 
by Emperor Frederick HI. of Germany to a corporation 
of master printers known as the Typothetse. (See Ex- 
ample 445.) References by writers to the origin of this 
design are generally contradictory. The United Typoth- 
etae of America, an association of employing printers, has 
adopted the device and uses it in the conventionalized 
form shown. The design in its original form tends to her- 
aldic elaborateness. There is represented an eagle hold- 
ing a copy-guide in one claw and a composing-stick in 
the other. Surmounting the design is a griffin (eagle-lion) 
grasping two ink-balls. The Winthrop Press mark (Ex- 
ample 452) was probably inspired 
by this German emblem insofar as 
concerns the griffin, copy-guide and 
ink-balls, which are excellent em- 
blems for the jjurpose. 



THE AUTOGRAPH EDITION 

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY 

EDMUND H. GARRETT 

IN TWO VOLUMES 



EXAMPLE 449-B 

The Lion of St. Mark appropriately adapted t( 

book on Venetian life, by Bruce Rogers 



In Great Britain the printer 
whose name would allow a pun has 
always been considered fortunate. 
John Daye, a London printer of 
1560, had an elaborate device, 
paneled, in the center of which 
is a picture of a reclining man 
being aroused by a figure which, 
pointing to the sun, says, "Arise, 
for it is day." (Example 446.) 

Androw Myllar, who printed in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1510, 
used a device which portrayed a 
miller climbing to his mill. (Ex- 
ample 446.) The arrangement of 
his name in the lower part of the 
design suggests De Worde's, and 
the characters in the shields may 
have indirect connection with the 
globe and cross device of the Vene- 
tian printers. 

The imprints of some of the 
notable printers of the sixteenth 



IMPRINTS 



157 



TYPIS EXCVDEBANT H.O.HOVGHTON ET 

SOCII INyEDIBVS SVIS RIPARIIS 

CANTABRIGI^ MASSACHV 

SETTENSIS IN AMERICA 

ANNO MDCCCCII 




EXAMPLE 451 

Colophon, or "imprint,"" stowing tte thistle 
Bruce Rogers, shaped after the Estienn 
device in Example 450 



158 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 




and seventeenth centuries are interesting. John Froben, 
of Basel, Switzerland, who was a close friend of Erasmus, 
the philosopher and patron of learning, in 1520 used a 
device containing a staff surmounted by a dove and en- 
twined by two serpents. (Example 447-A.) The legend, 
"Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as doves," some- 
times accompanied the design. 

The troublous times of the Reformation, during which 
John Bebel was imprisoned, may have had some influence 
on his selection of a device. It consisted of a tree, in the 
branches of which was a prostrate man, and over him was 
a large flat thing representing the platen of a printing press. 
(Example 447-A.) On the platen were words meaning 

Do not press poor me to death." 

Christopher Plantin, a printer and publisher of Ant- 
werp, Belgium, and well known as the printer of the 
Polyglot Bible of 1570, employed a device which is em- 
blematic of the saying of Jesus, "l am the vine. " 

A device used by the Elzevirs at Leyden, Holland, in 
1620, shows a tree with spreading branches. On one side 
of the trunk is the figure of a man and on the other a 
scroll with the words No?i solus (not alone). 

Robert Estienne had a similar device in 1544 (see Ex- 
ample 447-B, insert). The device as shown is slightly 
reduced from the original, while those previously men- 
tioned are greatly reduced in size. 

Sometimes these printers' marks were so large as to 
leave little room for the title-page proper, in contrast to 
which is the modesty of Ulrich Zell, of Cologne, Prussia, 
whose works are numerous and who is credited with start- 
ing the story of the invention of printing by Coster. Zell 
scarcely ever placed even his name on a book, yet his 
work may be identified by the individuality of the typog- 
raphy. This, however, is extreme modesty. 

The Heintzemann Press device in Example 448 has an 
antique appearance and its designer evidently received 
inspiration for his anchor, foliage and scroll from such 
devices as those of Aldus and Plantin. The Riverside Press 
mark, too, has ancient motives. The anchor-shaped thistle, 
as already stated, is based 
upon Aldus' device, and the 
surrounding frame is sug- 
gestive of ancient designs 
in metal. 



An interesting feature of 
some early Venetian books 
is the use by printers of 
decorative devices designed 
upon the winged Lion of St. 
Mark. Recent adaptations 
of this device are the 
Oswald Press imprint 
(Example 449-A) and the 
ornament on a title by 





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Bruce Rogers (Example 449-B). The Lion of 
St. Mark is interesting in its significance. 
Tradition has it that long ago, when John 
Mark, the missionary companion of Paul, 
was on his way from Alexandria in Egypt to 
^^ \ Aquileia in Italy for the purpose of preach - 

1^ I ing the gospel of Jesus, he found himself 

' after a violent storm on one of the Rialto 

islands that now form the city of Venice. An 
angel appeared to him with the message 
(Pax lihi Marce Evangelista mens) that there 
on those islands his bones would some day 
find peace. In fulfilment of this prophecy, 
in the year 829, several Venetians went to 
Alexandria where the body of Mark had 
been buried, removed it surreptitiously and 
took it to Venice. Such was the enthusiasm caused by 
this event that St. Mark supplanted St. Theodore as the 
patron saint of the city. " Viva San Marco^^ was heard as 
the battle crj' of the Venetians, and the animal symbolical 
of St. Mark became the glorious sign of the republic. In 
Venice today there is a red granite column upon which 
stands the winged Lion of St. Mark, holding with one 
claw a book of the gospels. (Example 449-A.) As shown 
in Example 449-B, the exposed pages of the book con- 
tain the message of the angel as already quoted. 

Just why a winged lion was chosen to symbolize St. 
Mark is not definitely known. Such a figure had been 
used in ancient days by several Asiatic peoples to repre- 




sent their gods. The Lion of St. Mark, as appearing on a 
Venetian coin struck about 1330, stands full face with 
head encircled by a halo. 

The colophon -imprint shown in Example 451 is sug- 
gestive of possible arrangements for elaborate booklets or 
books, especially the printer's own advertising matter or 
publications. The style is Italian, for it will be remem- 
bered that the printers of Italy usually had the beginning 
and ending set in capitals to differentiate from the body of 
the book. Elbert Hubbard at one time made use of sim- 
ilar treatment for the colophons or endings of his "Little 



EXAMPLE 453 

a imprint that has to 

with mythology 




EXAMPLE 455 



IMPRINTS 



159 




co^PA^nr 

m 



MltTNBAPO 




Representative of the large v 



eby 






Journeys" and special pam- 
phlets (Example 458). 

Example 452 shows four de- 
signs with motives from ancient 
sources. The Matthews-North- 
rup device of the mythical 
phoenix rising from the fire is 
emblematic of immortality ; the 
torch probably signifies the in- 
tellectual light possible because 
of the invention of printing. The Winthrop Press imprint 
has already been mentioned as having relation to the 
ancient German printers' arms. The Binner-Wells design 
suggests that of Froben, by the lettering between the 
oval lines. The possible derivation of the Gould Press 
device from the Venetian master printers' emblem was 
previously suggested. 

The unique mark of the De Vinne Press 
(Example 453) probably pictures a page 
from a manuscript book. The legend con- 
nected with the Greek lettering is mythical 
and has to do with one Prometheus, who, 
while chained to a rock, tells of the bene- 
fits he had conferred on mankind. A lit- 
eral translation of the Greek at this point 
reveals the appropriateness of the quota- 
tion as used by the De Vinne Press : And 
further, I discovered for them numeration, 
most striking of inventions ; and composi- 
tion, nurse of the arts, producer of the 
record of all things. " This imprint was de- 
signed by Babb, Cook & Willard, archi- 
tects of the building in which the De Vinne 
Press is housed. 

Three imprint-devices, based upon archi- 
tectural motives, are shown in Example 454. 
In the Rogers design the architectural panel 
is surmounted by a silhouetted heraldic fig- 
ure that adds much to the attractiveness of 
the device. A Roman laurel wreath in the 
HoUister design is supported by two Ionic 
pillars. The Egyptian winged ball, asps, 
and open book, are well blended with the 
monogram circle that fits the Roman arch 
in the Trow imprint. The initials of the 
several printers are prominent features of 
these devices. 

Initials in monogram form are frequently 
used by printers, and three such devices 
are shown in Example 455. Reversing one 
of the initials is a favorite method when 
the nature of the letter allows it, as in the 
Patteson Press device. Fitting the initials 
to a general shape calls for clever work, as 
in the shield shape of the Corday & Gross 
design. The "AP" in The American Printer 
mark was made of two type initials, joined 



at the vertical stroke; the border forming an *'0," the 
initial letter of the publisher. 

Of the large variety of devices in use by commercial 
printers those shown in Example 456 are representative. 

It is possible to construct really creditable decorative 
imprints with typefounders' ornaments and suitable type- 
faces. Example 457 presents several such designs as dem- 
onstrations of what can be done in this respect. In build- 
ing these imprints the author has kept in mind the rules 
that govern combinations of type and ornament, as ex- 
plained in the chapters relating to harmony, appropriate- 
ness, tone, contrast, and ornamentation. In the Church 
Press design the border is made outline to reflect the orna- 
ment. The type used in the Smith-Brown, Willis Works, 
and Gothic Shop imprints harmonizes with the orna- 
mentation in both tone and shape. Italic type and the 



^mttI)^^rolun 



Printed for 
Jones &Condy 

by the 
Sandsell Press 



t!i:f)e(§otfjic 
'top 




Chicago 



mum 

Mlotfe0 

m 

Buffalo 



French 
"Print 
Toronto 





EXAMPLE 457 
Decorative imprints constructed -with typefou 
' suitable type-faces 



160 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



(goon ©rintinc from 
^tije dall fl3re)58 



THE EMPIRE SHi 

PRINTED THIS 

BOOKLET 



fleur-de-lis are French in motive. The Caslon type-face 
and the old-style parentheses go well together. The block, 
or gothic, type-face in its plainness of stroke suggests 
Greek letters. The money-bag ornament is an attempt at 
a pun, in the Stuff imprint. The harmonious gray tone 
of the Horner & Wilburn device is due to harmony of 
ornament and type-face. Many other equally good decora- 
tive imprints may be made with type. 

The printer will more often be called upon to use a 
small, inconspicuous type-imprint than the prominent 
decorative device, and it is just as important to have dis- 
tinction in these small type lines. There are grouped in 
Example 459 a variety of effects suggested for this pur- 



SO HERE ENDETH THE BOOKLET "PASTELLES IN 
PROSE," WRITTEN BY ELBERT HUBBARD FOR 
JOHN WANAMAKER, AND THE WHOLE DONE 
INTO PRINT BY THE ROYCROFTERS AT THEIR 
SHOP, AA^HICH IS IN EAST AURORA, N. Y., MCMVII. 



t book-endin 



t Hubbard 



I ELECTRIC print] 



Bath Times 
Job Department 



The Kiessling Company 

©rintera 

New York City 



JOHN WEIXTON, Prin 



Clje |)eint^cmann |)rc66 
■J8o0ton iitaBBatljtiBetts 



Hill's Print Shop 
New York 



DONE AT 

THE WEST SIDE PRINTERY 

CAMBRIDGE 



—And Bihon did it ! 



Knowlton &= McLeary Co., Fa>mington 



EXAMPLE 459 
Small type imprints, and the i 
effects possible witb tber 



pose. It was the custom at one time to electrotype im- 
print lines so they could be easily handled, but now the 
linotype furnishes a convenient method of casting them. 
It is well, tho, to strengthen the face by having the slugs 
copper-faced, which work is done by electrotypers. 

The imprints of the Corbitt Company and the Knowl- 
ton & McLeary Company have the conventional horizon- 
tal rule over the type lines, a practice that is commend- 
able when the imprint is set close to the foot of a type- 
page. The style of setting the name of the press in text 
letter, and the firm name in capitals and small capitals, as 
practiced by the Riverside Press, is effective. Sole use of 
text also looks well, as will be seen from the Heintze- 
mann Press and Call Press imprints. Slightly spaced 
small capitals give good results, as does italic lower-case 
or capitals, examples of which are shown. Lower-case of 
simple type-faces such as Caslon or Antique, appeals to 
printers with leanings toward simplicity. A light rule 
surrounding the type-line, as in the case of Electric Print, 
adds character to the imprint. The styles of the type- 
imprints here shown are varied, and printers, no matter 
what their personal tastes may be, should find something 
to suit their needs. 

Where should an imprint be placed.'' In the old days 
when a printer was also the publisher, the imprint was 
given a prominent place ; in some instances, as has been 
shown, the device and imprint monopolized two-thirds 
of the title-page. It is now accepted as good form in 
book printing to place the publisher's imprint on the 
title-page, and the printer's on the back of the same 
leaf, at the foot. This position seems to be the logical 
one for the printer's name or device on catalogs and 
booklets, altho many are found in the rear. The Mat- 
thews-Northrup Works frequently places a line of type, as 
shown in Example 459, in a vertical position near the 
fold on the fourth page of cover. 

On the smaller jobs of commercial printing the imprint 
should be modestly displayed, and in some cases should 
not be used at all. There are printers who go so far as to 
place imprints on tickets, but they use a very small light- 
face letter, one of those diminutive faces that come on a 
six-point body. 

The imprint affords the printer a legitimate opportu- 
nity for publicity of which he should avail himself to the 
fullest extent that business wisdom permits. After the 
artist has produced good work he affixes his name to it. 
Should not the printer do the same.^ 



APPENDIX 



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3:0 






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= 


BULKIER ENVELOPS FOR 
THE EMPLOYEE, LARGER 
PROFITS FOR THE EMPLOY 
ER, AND INCREASED SALES 
FOR THE ADVERTISER- 

THESE THINGS RESULT FROM REGULAR 
READING OF THE AMERICAN PRINTER 
AND FROM ADVERTISING IN ITS PAGES 
THE AMERICAN PRINTER IS THE REPRE 
SENTATIVE MAGAZINE FOR PRINTERS IN 
ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. IT IS READ 
BY MEN OF INFLUENCE IN THE PRINTING 
FIELD-EMPLOYING PRINTERS. MANAGERS 
FOREMEN. AND AMBITIOUS AND ENER 
GETIC COMPOSITORS AND PRESSMEN. THE 
AMERICAN PRINTER WAS FIRST IN THE 
EDUCATIONAL FIELD; ITS SCHOOL OF 
TYPOGRAPHY. BEGUN IN 1903. WAS ORIGI 
NAL IN CONCEPTION AND IS OF IMMENSE 
VALUE TO THE STUDENT TYPOGRAPHER 
THE AMOUNT INVESTED IN A YEAR'S SUB 
SCRIPTION TO THE AMERICAN PRINTER 
WILL RETURN TO THE INVESTOR MULTI 
PUED MANY FOLD. OSWALD PUBLISHING 
COMPANY. 25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 




m 




III 




= 



II 

:1s 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 



HOW should a circular be treated typographically? This 
question submitted by the publishers of The American 
Printer to its readers brought one hundred and ninety- 
nine answers in the form of designs for one-page circu- 
lars in two colors. The copy was as follows: 



Bulkier envelops for the employee, larger profits 
for the employer, and increased sales for the adver- 
tiser — these things result from rejrular reading of 
The American Printer and from advertising in its 
pages. The American Printer is the representative 
magazine for printers in all parts of the world. It 
is read by men of influence in the printing field — 
employing printers, managers, foremen, and ambi- 
tious and energetic compositors and pressmen. The 
American Printer was first in the educational 
field; its School of Typography, begun in 1903, was 
original in conception and is of immense value to 
the student typographer. The amount invested in a 
year's subscription to The American Printer will 
return to the investor multiplied many fold. Oswald 
Publishing Company, -io City Hall Place, New York. 



In order not to restrict the efforts of those energetic 
typographers willing to give their time and abilities for 
the general good, it was determined to render judgment 
from two viewpoints — the artistic and the advertising ; 
realizing that an artistic job of printing is not always 
acceptable from the practical, advertising viewpoint, and 
that printed work in which the advertising features are 
emphasized often lacks typographical beauty. 

The copy begins with three "catch-phrases" or "eye- 
attractors," as they may be called, the object being to 
engage the attention and cause an interest, on the sup- 
position that having become interested the reader will 
peruse the circular. There are many parts of the copy that 
may be displayed ; some more important than others, 
and it may be interesting to observe that the words 
The American Printer" have been displayed or empha- 
sized in almost every specimen sent in. The inclination 
has been to give too much prominence rather than too 
little to these words. 

There is a tendency among compositors to make the 
signature of a circular or advertisement too prominent. 
This was done on most of the circulars submitted. The 
name of the advertiser and the address in this instance 
are merely for the purpose of reference. 

While transposition of copy was no violation of rules,, 
many of those submitting specimens made a mistake 
of judgment when they changed the copy about and 
started typesetting at the wrong point. When a customer 
brings copy to the printer it is the duty of the printer 
to interpret as faithfully as possible the ideas of the cus- 
tomer as presented in the copy; to build upon it; and to 
add such typographical treatment as will further the in- 
terests of the customer. The printer should not blindly 
follow copy, neither should he change or transpose it 
unnecessarily. 



Let us analyze the four specimens selected as the 
best of the one hundred and ninety-nine: 

Mr. Anthoensen's circular.- — This was selected as the 
best from an artistic viewpoint. There is harmony of 
type-face and decoration, the tone is even, the propor- 
tion and balance are perfect. The words are arranged 
without awkward divisions and every line fits snugly 
without recourse to wide letter-spacing or ornamentation. 
The spacing is almost perfect. Not only does this speci- 
men register high artistically, but also from considera- 
tion accorded the advertising features. The introductory 
lines are given prominence and the name of the publica- 
tion is emphasized wherever it occurs. Altho set entirely 
in capitals, reading the circular is not difficult. For its par- 
ticular use in advertising a printing trade paper, and 
for art purposes generally, the typographical style of this 
page is recommended ; however, the average customer 
would not appreciate it. 

Mr. Doyle's circular. — This was selected as the best 
from an advertising viewpoint. It excels in its presentation 
of the advertising elements. The introductory phrases 
are given the prominence intended by the writer of the 
copy. The words "The American Printer" are presented 
strongly without overshadowing all other lines as was 
done in some specimens. The arrangement of the descrip- 
tive paragraphs in parallel columns is good ; it enables 
the reader quickly to gather the points presented. Set- 
ting the last paragraph smaller and in italic separates it 
and clinches the argument of the circular. Objections 
could be raised to the blackness of the head and foot 
rules. Eight-point instead of twelve-point rules would 
perhaps have been better. However, heavy rules of this 
kind, permissible outside of the type-page, would be 
objectionable if used inside, diverting attention from the 
reading matter. This specimen also has merit from an 
artistic viewpoint. Type-faces are harmonious, the tone 
is fairly good, and there is present both proportion and 
balance. 

Mr. Watkins' circulars. — The artistic merit of the 
specimen in capitals is so obvious that it would have had 
an excellent chance for first selection had more atten- 
tion been given the advertising features. The circular 
has been converted into a general one and the title of 
the magazine is treated as the subject. The tone is fairly 
even, type-face and border harmonize and the treatment 
as a whole is unusual and interesting. The motive is 
based upon the work of Aldus, the Italian printer of the 
sixteenth century. The use of an initial in the middle of 
a sentence is objectionable. 

For legibility Mr. Watkins' specimen in Caslon lower- 
case scores higher than most others. The large rubricated 
initial attracts the eye and leads to a reading of the 
introductory phrases. Mr. Doyle in his circular has 
grouped the various advertising points so as to assist the 
reader in absorbing the thoughts expressed. In the circular 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



r=^^ 



^ 



I 



=^^ 



JSulbitr larger ^ Sntrt aKeb 

Cnbelopes; Uroftts; ^les; 

Employee Employer Advertiser 



QTlje SUmeritan printer 

Is the representative magazine 
for printers in al! parts of the 
world. It is read by men of in- 
fluence in the printing field — 
employing printers, managers, 
foremen.and ambitious and ener- 
getic compositors and pressmen. 
The American Printer was 
first in the educational field; its 
School of Typography, begun in 
1903, was original in its concep- 
tion and is of immense value to 
the student typographer. The 



(i^sEtoalb $ublt£;f)tng Companp 

25 City Hall Place, New York 



i 



^ 



H 











Bulkier envelops for the employee, 
larger profits for the employer and 
increased sales for the advertiser— 

Ibcac lhing» te«ult ftom reguUr reading of 

m^t ameritan printer is the repre- 
sentative magazine for printers in all 
parts of the world. It is read by men 
of influence in the printing field — em- 
ploying printers, managers, foremen and 

pressmen. 

Wit american printer was first in 

the educational field. Its School of 
Typography, begun in 1903, was orig- 
inal in conception and is of immense 
value to the student typographer. 

The amount invested in a year's sub- 
scription to Clje iSnurican printer wiu 
return to the investor multiplied many 
fold. 

OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 
19 CrrV HALL PLACE 









Bulkier Envelopes for the Employee 
Larger Profits for the Employer, and 
Increased Sales for the Advertiser — 



The 

American Printer 

Is the representative magazine (or printers 
in all parts of the world. It is read by men of 
influence in the printing field— employing 
pnnters, managers, foremen, and ambitious 
and energetic compositors and pressmen. 

The American Printer was first in the 
educational field: its 

School of Typography 



begun in 1903, w 
rypographer. 



s original in conception 



amount invested in a year's subscnp- 
o The American Printer will return 
; investor multiplied many fold. 



. Oswald Publishing Company 

25 City Hall Place, New York 



[iiMmgBmooaimfflmiaaMJ^^ 



Bulkier Envelopes for tl^e Employee i 
Larger Profits for the Employer^ i 
Increased Sales for the ^Advertiser 

These things result from regular reading of 



cylMERICAN 
PRINTER 



gjHE AMERICAN PRINTER 
is the representative magazine 
j| for printers in all parts of the 
A world. It is read by men of 
5, influence in the printing field 
— employing printers, managers, foremen, 
and ambitious and energetic compositors 
and pressmen. 

CThe American Printer was first in the 
educational field ; its School of Typography, 
begun in 1903, was original in conception 
and is of immense value to the student 
typographer. 

CThe amount invested in a year's sub- 
scription to The American Printer will 
return to the investor multiplied many fold. 

Oswald 'Publisl^ing Co. 

Twenty. five City Hall Place 
New York 



CC.-Selectedfor 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 



The 

American 
Printer 

is the representative magazine for 
printers in all parts of the world. 
It is read by men of influence in the 
printing field — employing printers, 
managers, foremen and ambitious, 
energetic compositors and pressmen 
Bulkier envelopes for the employe 
Larger prqfits for the employer 
Increased sales for the advertiser 

The American Printer wu fint in the educational 



Oswald Publishing Co. 

SS City Hall Place, New York 



Bulkier envelopes for the employe 
Larger profits for the employer 
Increased sales for the advertiser 
—these things result from regular 
reading of The American Printer 
and from advertising in its pages. 
The American Printer is the repre- 
sentative magazine for printers m 
all parts of the world. It is read by 
men of influence in the printing 
field — employing printers, mana- 
gers, foremen, and ambitious and' 
energetic compositors and press- 
men. The American Printer was 
first in the educational field; its 
School of Typography, begun in 
1 903, was original in conception and 
is of immense value to the student 
typographer. The amount invested 
in a year's subscription to The 
American Printer will return to 
the investor multiplied many fold. 
t)s\\al(l Pul)lishing Company 



under consideration grouping has not been practiced, 
but the entire message is made easy to read, and this 
almost guarantees that it will be read. An advertise- 
ment, circular, or other job of typography, to be set in 
undisplayed style, should not have much copy supplied 
for it. If a great amount of copy is supplied it is well to 
display parts of it, or introduce headings that will en- 
able the reader (juickly to grasp the thoughts expressed. 
A treatment of Mr. VVatkins' page nearer the ideal would 
be to place "The American Printer" in one line, reduce 
the signature one size and, to fill the space thus gained, 
set the body of the circular several points larger. 

The other circulars here reproduced, lettered for iden- 
tification, are analyzed below : 

AA. — This was printed on a folded sheet of hand- 
made paper, with which the Caslon type-faces blend 
pleasingly. The style of the border is associated with 
Colonial printing and makes an acceptable mate for the 
type-faces and paper. The initial "l" is misused. An 
initial should indicate the starting point ; here it does not. 

BB. — The even, dark tone of the type-face and border 
is the first thing in this specimen to merit praise. Old- 
style Antique and Caslon Text are legible type-faces, 
and are particularly appropriate for this kind of work. 
The rubricated initials form a clear contrast to the 
surrounding black and white. 

CC. — In this specimen the introductory phrases are 
separated from the main portion of the circular by the 
border. The general effect of the circular is one of neat- 
ness. The tone is an even gray, marred only by the ex- 
cessive strength of the signature. Type and border har- 
monize, and blank space is properly distributed. 

DD. — The uniform gray tone of this specimen is its 
chief attraction. It has strength, too, and legibility. 



Tho decorative, the decoration is subordinated to the 
reading parts of the circular. The spacing is consistent 
thruout. The italic type-face does not quite harmonize 
with the Old-style Antique, yet the general effect is so 
pleasing that no fault should be found with it. 

EE. — The uneven spacing between lines (which af- 
fected the tone) and placing the real beginning of the 
reading matter below its proper position, weakened the 
effectiveness of this specimen. There is consistent use of 
lower-case, and the egg-and-dart border is a harmonious 
mate for the Scotch Roman type-face. As it may prove of 
interest, this specimen is shown rearranged on a some- 
what different plan. The three italic lines are moved 
to the head of the page, where they belong, and 
the remaining matter arranged without display. This 
treatment is more severe, but affords easy reading of the 
circular, and the tone is even. Color at the head and 
foot relieves the page of monotony. 

FF. — There is consistent use of lower-case in this 
specimen and the tone is even, tho a trifle strong. It 
tells its story in an emphatic manner and from an adver- 
tising viewpoint this is merit, but from the viewpoint of 
typographic beauty the type should be reduced a size 
thruout, with more blank space inside the border. 

GG. — This specimen in arrangement is entirely differ- 
ent from any of the others and the advertising features 
are well displayed. The introductory matter is consider- 
ately arranged at the head and upper left side, and the 
general matter is placed in a solid group with an initial 
to lead it off. The signature group is a size too large. 

HH. — The white space on this page is carefully dis- 
tributed, lower-case is used thruout and the signature 
kept in proper proportion. The border and the two faces 
of type are harmonious. The words The American 
Printer" should have been smaller. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



Bulkier Envelot)es for tKe EmJ)loyec 
Larger Fronts for tne Emt>loyer, ana 
Increased Sales for tlie Advertiser 

of tlie Amcncui PrintCT ud fcom 

Che Hmmcan 
Printer 



f influence in tke printing 
>ager8. foreman, and ambi- 



tke world. It is read by men 
field — employing printers, n 

American Printer was first ii 



School of Cypograpby 

begun in 1903. was original in conception and is of im- 
mense value to tbe student typograpber, Tbe amount in- 
vested in • year's subscription to tbe American Printer 
will return to tbe investor multiplied many fold. C «> » 

Oswald Publisning Comfiany 

25 City Hall PUce 5. «■«■«.* New York 











C Bulkier envelops for the 
employee, larger profits for 
the employer, and increased 
sales for the advertiser — 


These things result from regular reading of 

The American 
Printer 


The American Printer is the representative 
magazine for printers in all parts of the world. It 
is read by men of influence in the printing field - 
employing printers, managers, foremen, and ambi- 
tious and energetic compositors and pressmen. 

The American Printer was first in the educa- 
tional field ; its School of Typography, begun in 1903, 
was original in conception and is of immense value 
to the student typographer. 

The amount invested in a year's subscription to 
The American Printer will return to the investor 


Oswald Publishing Company 

25 City HaU Place, New York 













Bulkier Envelops for the Employee 
Larger Profits for the Employer £^ 
Increased Sales for the Advertiser 



These things result 
from re gular 
readin g of 

llmerican 
^rinttr 

^ from advertising 
in its pages 



Companp 

25 City Hall Place 
New York 



n 



'HE AMERICAN 
PRINTERiitherep- 

magazine for 
printers in all parts of the 
world. It is read by men 
of influence in the printing 
field — employing printers, 
managers, foremen, and 
ambitious and energetic 
compositors and pressmen. 
The American Printer 
was first in the educational 
field; its School of Typo- 
graphy, begun in igoj, 
was original in conception 
and is of immense value 
to the student typographer. 
The amount invested in a 
year's subscription to The 

" ■ will 



return to the investi 
tiplied many fold. 



HH.—Selected for Fifth Place, Advertising Division 
By Edward Connor, Everett, Mass. 



GG.— Selected for Fourth Place, Advertising Division 
By Austin M. Reblin, Dorchester. Mass. 

J J. — A feature that made this circular a winner is the 
arrangement of the head portion, wherein the phrases 

Bulkier Envelops," Larger Profits," and Increased 
Sales" stand out prominently. Because the reading por- 
tion below the head is a size too small the circular was 
prevented from winning a better position. The last line 
of the address should have been in capitals. Perhaps the 
page would look better with the ornament placed under 
the last paragraph. 

KK.— This page is well balanced and blank space is 
judiciously distributed. Harmonious in the use of prac- 
tically one face of type, there is an inconsistent use of 
capitals and lower-case. The words "advertising in its 
pages," are displayed too prominently; the words in the 
beginning of the sentence are just as important. The 
three lines at the head are not large enough, but the 
words "The American Printer" are too large. The sim- 
plicity of border allows prominence to the reading matter. 

A. — The red border on this specimen is its striking 
feature, from an advertising viewpoint. There is a har- 
monious use of type-faces and the general effect is good. 
Perhaps an improvement would result if the reading 
matter were set the full width of the line "The Ameri- 
can Printer" and in type a trifle larger. 

B. — This page is harmonious in typography, the border 
and type matter blending agreeably. The use of capital 
lines in the head and foot groups is commendable, but 
in this instance the signature is too prominent. The 
body type should be a size larger ; there is a suggestion 
of weakness as it now stands. 

C. — The general appearance of this page is good, but 
from an advertising viewpoint it is wrongly constructed ; 
the heading is placed in the lower portion of the page. 
While a certain distinction is given by the ornament 



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THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 



BULKIER ENVELOPS 

FOR THE EMPLOYEE 

LARGER PROFITS 

FOR THE EMPLOYER AND 

INCREASED SALES 

FOR THE ADVERTISER 




THE AMERICAN PRINTER 






OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 



R PROFITS FOR THE EMPLOYER, A 



X3he 

American 
©rinter 

Advertising in Its Pages 



Oswald Publishing Company 
25 City Hall Place. NEW YORK 



in the top line, its presence between two related words 
is objectionable. It was a mistake, also, to use an initial, 
as it does not mark the beginning of the sentence. 

D. — This page has merit as a design, but is too much 
broken into groups for circular purposes. There is con- 
sistent use of italic lower-case, and rule and border 
treatment is harmonious. 

E. — There is not much to adversely criticise in this 
specimen. A square effect has been obtained at the sac- 
rifice of letter-spacing which somewhat affects the page 
tone. Type-face and border are harmonious. 

F. — This is a page of strong contrasts. The type-faces 
and border are harmonious and the general effect is good, 
yet from an advertising viewpoint there are defects. Too 
much emphasis is given the words "employee," "em- 
ployer," and advertiser," which are meaningless sep- 
arated from the words that complete the thought. The 
phrases displayed in their entirety, as was done in most 
of the specimens, or divided as in JJ, are preferable. 

G. — Typographically this is a good specimen. Only 
one type-face is used, and the display is in capitals ex- 
clusively. Displaying the phrase ' The American Printer 
was first in the educational field" is a commendable fea- 
ture. The only fault is that the copy was transposed. 

H. — The designer of this page went to considerable 
trouble in having a border especially made for it, but 
failed to blend the typography with the border. This 
specimen suggests the question, "What is the purpose 
of a border?" It can be argued that a border is to type- 
matter what a frame is to a picture. And then it may be 
held that, adapted to printing, the border is merely 
marginal decoration. As found on this specimen it may 
be well to assume that it is marginal decoration. The 
early typographers first printed the type-pages and the 
illuminator covered the margins close up to the type- 



pages with decoration. When border decoration came to 
be printed, it was placed close to the type; this gave the 
page an appearance of solidity and unity. In the page 
under consideration the type should have been set closer 
to the border and in a larger size. 

I. — A well-balanced page, harmonious in use of type- 
faces and lower-case, but containing too much display. 
Then, too, the copy being transposed starts at the wrong 
place. The use of the monogram is commendable. 

J. — A handsome page that would have been selected 
for a place were it not that the introductory reading 
matter has been made awkward by transposition. The 
tone of the Caslon type-faces blends pleasingly with that 
of the border. The distribution of the blank space, and 
the starting of the paragraphs flush at the side and sep- 
arating them by increased space, are good features. 

K. — Another specimen that counts high in typo- 
graphical beauty, but loses when considered from the 
advertising viewpoint. The starting phrases are placed 
near the foot of the circular. Old-style Antique is a good 
companion for the wood-cut design used in the heading. 

L. — Another admirable typographical specimen that is 
deficient in treatment of the advertising features. There 
is the same objectionable use of an initial as pointed 
out in the criticism of specimens AA and C. The tone 
of this specimen is decidedly pleasing, the ornament 
blending well with the type-faces. 

M. — Type-face and border are harmonious, but the 
tone is "spotty" and the balance poor. The two lower 
paragraphs should have been set a size larger, and the 
space between the upper groups lessened. A three-line 
group should have been made of The American Printer. ' ' 

N. — This specimen is defective in tone and in promis- 
cuous use of capitals and lower-case in display. The rule 
arrangement is pleasing, type-faces harmonious, and the 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 





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It IS read by men of influence in the pnnling 

pressmen. Vhejlmcman Trinltr was first in 

giaphy. begun in 1903. was onginal in con- 
ception and 19 of immense value to the student 

subscription to TAe JImcman 'Prmler will 
return to the investor multiplied many fold. 


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THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A CIRCULAR 













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American Printer 

Magazine for Printers 


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The American Printer Books for Printers 

Oswald Publishing Company 

Printers, Publishers 
Booksellers 

Represented by 25 City Hall Place 
John Caxberg New York 

1 







Selected for First Place 
Design by Howard Mixter, Buffalo. N. Y. 




Selected for Second Place 
Design by Will J. Cota, Burlington. Vt. 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 



Oswald publishing Qo. 



PUBLISHERS MjL TWENTY-FIVE 

PRINTERS (H CITY HALL PLACE 

BOOKSELLERS J^ NEW YORK 

REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERG 



OOKS FOR PRINTER 



Selected for Third Place 
Design by Arthur Nelson, New York 




THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 



THE business cards here exhibited were selected from 
more than four hundred different arrangements con- 
structed by printers in thirty -five states of the Union, 
Canada, England, Wales and Sweden. The showing is 
interesting in that it presents the ideas prevailing in 
1909 of the typographical treatment that should be ac- 
corded a business card. The copy follows : 



Oswald PublishinjBr Company, printers, publishers, 
bookseUers, 25 City Hall Place, New York. Repre- 
sented by John Caxberg. The American Printer. 
Books for printers. 



The business is three-fold in character (printers, pub- 
lishers, booksellers), and each of the divisions is of equal 
importance. This fact was grasped by most of the com- 
positors, as will be seen. 

The card selected for first place (which, by the way, was 
the personal preference of the president of the Oswald 
Publishing Company) contains the most correct dis- 
position of the various portions of the copy. Distinction 
is given the name of the company and directly under- 
neath is displayed the three words indicating the busi- 
ness. Consideration is next given the name of the repre- 
sentative, and then the location of the company. The 
phrases "The American Printer'' and "Books for Print- 
ers,*' important only in a parenthetical sense, are placed 
in the upper comers. While the other cards were ar- 
ranged differently according to the style of treatment 
adopted in each case, there was an intelligent apprecia- 
tion of the relative importance of the phrases. 

The first thirteen cards are here briefly reviewed : 

First Place (Insert). — The fact that this card was pre- 
ferred over all the others is a triumph for simplicity in 
typography and for the Caslon type-face. It is notable 
that, excepting the name of the representative, the de- 
sign is all in lower-case. Typographers generally should 
find in the unaffected simplicity a valuable hint. Simple 
arrangements, built on art principles, please ten times 
where elaborate designs please once. The two light lines 
that form the border give shape and finish to the card. 

Second Place (insert). — While this card also contains 
the Caslon type-face, no roman lower-case whatever ap- 
pears. This last-mentioned circumstance, together with 
the employment of a decorative border, and the cone 
formation of the words, gives a result totally unlike the 
first example, but one which, from another viewjjoint, is 
as good. A suggestion was made that the book ornaments 
opposite the words "Printers, Publishers" are superfluous. 
The design would api)ear a trifle clearer without them, 
yet the ornaments fulfil an object in that they connect 
the border with the type matter. 

Third Place (Insert). — The merit of this examjjle lies 
chiefly in the striking effect produced by the heavy red 
bands. The wording is cleverly arranged to blend with 
the main purpose, and the comparative value of the 



phrases well set forth. The owl ornament assists in the 
distribution of color over the face of the card, and is 
counted an appropriate device for booksellers. 

Fourth Place. — This card is uncommon in its con- 
struction and color treatment. Type, rule and ornament 
are blended with artistic skill, and the general effect is 
strong and attractive. The two book ornaments are un- 
conventional, but are decidedly fitting for the purpose. 

Fifth Place. — The circular ornament on this card 
afforded a nucleus around which was constructed a rather 
pleasing type arrangement. At first glance one is tempted 
to suggest moving the main group higher on the card and 
transferring the small top group to the foot of the orna- 
ment, but it is doubtful if this would improve the result. 

Sixth Place. — For neatness and simplicity this card 
classes with the specimen selected for first place. Its 
style is more conventional, tho, and for that reason would 
perhaps appeal to the tastes of a greater number of people. 
The commercial printer would be making no mistake 
were he to adopt this treatment for the bulk of business- 
card orders. Caslon Text and the Caslon roman capitals 
as here used give greater distinction and individuality than 
would the frequently used imitations of engravers' faces. 

Seventh Place. — The pleasing balance and symmetry 
obtained on this card are notable features. It also scores 
because of the legibility of the Cheltenham capitals and 
the tone and shape of the book ornament. 

Eighth Place. — The decorative motive of this design 
is well carried out by the ornamental band and Old Style 
Antique capitals. Caslon Text would have been better 
than Engravers' Old English for the main line. 

Ninth Place. — What has been said about the card 
selected for sixth j)lace could almost be api)lied bodily to 
this example. The qualities of neatness and refinement 
are, if anything, more strongly emjihasized. 

Tenth Place. — In some respects the treatment of this 
example resembles the card selected for eighth place. 
The ornamental band is the same design slightly larger 
and lighter in tone. The blank space has been well dis- 
tributed over the entire card, giving it a graj' tone. 

Eleventh Place. — Type-face and ornament combine 
here to make a strong, artistic effect that closely ap- 
proaches hand-lettered results. A two-point lead lifted 
from between the lines at the head and inserted below 
the ornament would liavc perftctcd this card. 

Twelfth Place. — The classic treatment of this ex- 
ample is pleasing. Tiie capitals are slightly spaced and 
this adds to its effectiveness. The center group could 
have been moved closer to the main line in the interest 
of more perfect spacing. 

Thirteenth Place. — The manner in which the words 
are distributed over the face of this card is uniciue. It is 
seldom that scattering produces sucii good results, and 
compositors are far safer when they group the words. 
There is not a capital line on the card and the type- 
face, Puritan, lends itself hajjpily to this treatment. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



OSWALD PUBLISHING 
iA4 COMPANY iJkjk 

ITt '^^^ YORK flTI 

•mJ Twenty-five City Hall Place "Ofl 



PRINTERS. PUBLISHERS, BOOK- 



SELLERS—BOOKS for PRINTERS 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 



Repreaeated by JOHN CAXBERG 











©fltnalb PubltHl|ing Qlnmpang 

PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS 
THE AMERICAN'PRINTER. BOOKS FOR 
PRINTERS. 25 CITY HALL PL.,NEW YORK 




REPRESENTED BV JOHN CAXBERG 









THE AMERICAN PRINTER 
BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 



Oswald PuDlishmgCompany 



PRINTERS 
PUBLIS HERS 
BOOK SELLERS 




TWENTY-FIVE 
CITY HALL PLACE 
NEW YORK 



ReprcMntcd by JOHN CAXBERG 




•THE-AMERICAN 



Ogbjalb ^ufaUsljins Company 

PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS y BOOKSELLER 
NEW YORK 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 
PRINTERS: PUB LIS HERS: BOOKSELLERS 

THE AMERICAN PRINTER : : BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 



REPRESENTED BY 



25 CITY HALL PLACE, NEW YORK 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO. 

PRINTERS :: PUBLISHERS :: BOOKSELLERS 

The AMERICAN C^^^^ '* BOOKS FOR 
PRINTER |(M||^|| PRINTERS 



!5 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK. RcpreMnlcd by JOHN CAXBERG 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO. 

PRINTERS PUBLISHERS BOOKSELLERS 
THE AMERICAN PRINTER . BOOKS FOR 
PRINTERS 25 CITY HALL PLACE, N. Y. 




REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERG 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 







^fitoalti $ublifii)tng Company 

PRINTERS 

PUBLISHERS BaOKSELLERS 

THE AMERICAN PRINTER 

BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 

?" 

RBPRB8ENTBD BY 25 CITY HALL PLACE 
JOHN CAXBERO NEW YORK 



















Oswald Publisliing Comfjany 






Publishers Booksellers 
Printers 






TKe American Printer ^T Books for Prmte« 






25 C.ty Hall Place. New York 

















OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

PRINTERS 03 
PUBLISHERS 
BOOKSELLERS 

THE AMERICAN PRINTER 
BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 



25 CITY HALL PLACE NEW YORK 




By Percy Ginsburg, Boston, Mass. 



OSWALD 


r..^...^.^ 


PUBLISHING II 


COMPANY 


Printers 


RrprtienlrJ h John Caxbtrg 


Publishers 




Booksellers 


IS City Hall Place : 


: NEW YORK 


' 



y Albert Prastmark , Crary, N. D. 











©Ktoalb ^ublisffjina Co. 




PRINTERS :: PUBLISHERS :: BOOKSELLERS 

TWENTY. FIVE CITY H A L I. PLACE. NEW YORK 











I 






" THE ASERICAn PRIBTER " BOOKS FOR PRDITERS 




O^smalb ^ubltal^mg (Ed. 

33rinlpr0.^ubli8l]pra 
?8ookaflbra 


R<p«al«l br lOHB CAMERG 25 CfTY HAll. PUCE, REW YORK 







By Frank J. Wolf, Denver, Colo. 



By Leon I. Leader, Brattleboro, Vt. 











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OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 




PRINTERS. PUBLISHERS. BOOKSELLERS 


THE AMERICAS PRINTER BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 
REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERC 


' 




I' 










By H. D. Wismer. Fulton. N. Y. 



By W. A. Allen. Boston. Mas 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











C^c^lmcn'taft Printer 
tJBooM for ptintcri 

Printers • Publishers • Booksellers 

25 CiTv Hall Place 

New York 

Represented by Joh« Caxberc 

















OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 
TWENTY- FIVE CITY HALL PLACE 
NEW YORK- PUBLISHERS -PRINTERS 
BOOKSELLERS -THE AMERICAN 
PRINTER - BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 
REPRESENTED BY lOHN CAXBERG 






^^^^ 





By Harold Eldridge, Atlantic, Mass. 



By Theo. Backen, New York. N. Y. 






BOOKS POR PmlNTElM 



Oswald Publishing Company 
printers 

PUBLISHERS • BOOKSELLERS 



B crrv Haix p 



John Caxbbrg 



New York 



y E. A. Frommader, Moline, 111. 



Printers, Publishers, Booksellers, 
25 City Hall Tlace, 3(ew Tori. 



REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERG. 




By William Toovey, Hemel Hempstead, England 





"^ 


©s^toalb ^ufafefjina Company 




lartnter©.. |3ubli0l)ers.. Boofe^^ellers 


JSumber Qttocntpjfitic Citp J^all ^lace.iSeto gorb Citj 


RtprmntfH tip John (taxbtrfl 


tElK American printer SSoofag lor printers 







THE <^MERICAN 'PRINTER 

"Books for Printers 

Oswald jPublishiing Compan'^ 



25 City Hall Place 
New York 



fifpresenled by 

JOHN CAXBERG 



T'rinters 

Tubliskers 

'Booksellers 



ly J. W. Spradling, Sparta, Wis. 



By M. C. Merriam, Phoenix, Ariz. 



© 



Oswald Publishing Company 

PRINTERS • Publishers • booksellers 
o BY John Caxbcro 



By F. W. Lake, Moline, lU. 



03WALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

TWENTY-FIVE CITY HALL PLACE, NEW YORK 

rr.'_NTERS : PUBUSHERS : BOOKSELLERS 

THE AMERICAN PRINTER 

BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 



REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERG 



By Harry E. Shrope, Washington, N. J. 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 







1 




I 




SP^^SWALD PUBLISHING 

■^^^^H GOMPANYiTwentj-five 
R^TB City Hall Place, New York 




)3StiM^^ ^ublii\)tti. printers, ^oobStUtri 


«R<pre...i«d hi JOHN CAXBERG 

tE^^camerican printer* SSoohjet fotj^intttjt 




D 






1 



By Frank L. Crocker, Jersey City, N. J. 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS 

BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 

TWENTY- FIVE CITY HALL PLACE 

NEW YORK 



By Walter B. Gress, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Non-competitive) 











<0sbml& PDl)lisl)ing (^mmi 

Prinlfrs, Pubiisbfrs, Boo&sfllprg 
25 (Sit? Iball Plarr. Jlflu j^orfe 




* 


Books for pnntffi 
Cli» tmtnm Pnnlfr 

R..«-..«l k, lOIIN C*JBt»G 


! 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 



BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 



Oswald Publishing Company 

Printers :: Publishers 
Booksellers 



y O. Grigutsch, Los Angeles, Cal. 



y L. F. Evans, Raleigh, N. C. 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO. 

PRINTERS • PinLISHERS- BOOKSELLERS 



NEW YOHK 



JOHX CAXBERG 



By Karl R. Moberg, Sundsvall, Sweden 



Oswald 4^ubUsl)in9 Comfan^ 

"Prlntcrs.TJubllsbcrs. booksellers 



Ol)e 



merican 



rinler 



^ooKs for 4^riRt(irs 



By William H. Jackson, Philadelphia. Pa. 



SWALD PUBLISHING 
COMPANY ^x'^^TERs^o 

PUBLISHERS a 

ITED BY JOHN CAXBERG BOOKSELLERS 
THE AMERICAN 
PRINTER . BOOKS 
FOR PRI NTERS 

m m ui 



25 CITY HALL PLACE, NEW YORK 



By R. Henneberry. Boston. Mass. 











OSWALD PUBLISHING CO 

PRINTERS. PUBLISHERS. BOOKSELLERS 
25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 




THE AMERICAN PP.INTER €| BOOKS FOR PRINTERS 


REPRESENTED BY JOHN CAXBERG 









By W. R. Terry, Durham, N. C. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











"Thf American Printer- gooks for Printere 

Oswald Publishing Company 

Printers Publishers 
Booksellers 

25 CITY HALL PLACE 

Repreaeoted by JOHN CAXBERG NEW YORK 

























OSWALD PUBLISHING 
COMPANY '•""^""io'Sls^irLlS! 




THE AMERICAN PRINTER 


D □ BOOKS FOR PRINTERS a a 


25 CITY HALL PLACE, NEW YORK 

K»pr«»Dl*d by JOHN CAXBEIG 















By A. Miltenberger Jr.. New York, N. Y. 



By Winifred Arthur Woodis, Worcester, Mass. 



Oshald Tuhlishing Company 



T'RINTE'SJS ■■ pyBLISHZnS .; SOOKSELLEJ{S 

T ' /.'■■■■■-' '■■^l' 'P-'-'nter - Books for 



r> ^ CITY HALL riACZ 

ZO NZ.W YOSJK 



By Herbert R. Smith, Washington, N. J. 



"The American Printer" 


Books for Printer* 


OSWALD 


PUBLISHING 


COMPANY 


PRINTERS : 


PUBLISHERS :; 
25 C.TV Hall Plau 


BOOKSELLERS 


JOHN CAXBERG 




NEW YORK 



The American Printer 



Books for Printers 



Oswald Publishing Company 

Printers Publishers 

Booksellers 



By William B. Bradford, Portland, Me. 



Jswa/d Publishing Company 




ly George B. Moore, Fulton. N. Y. 



By C. P. Flaskamp, Cleveland, O, 



Oswald Publishing Company 

Pnbliahers ii Printers ti Booksellers 
Twenty tiTe City Ball Plaoe 

New York 



The American Printer 



By George W. O'Neal, Norfolk, Va. 



The American Printer 



Books for Printers 



Companp 

Printers. Publishers. Booksellers 



JOHN CAXBERG 



By W. H. Benson, Batavia, 111. 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BUSINESS CARD 





ZtftOmtium 
fttivttt 

BOOKS f»r 
PRINTERS 


^J^^^l PUBLISHING 
i-lp^ COMPANY 

^liS'^ iBoob«flItr8C25Citp 











Oswald Publishing Go. 




PRINTERS. PUBLISHERS. BOOKSELLERS 


The American HH^ Books for 


25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 

Represented by John Cixberg 





By Eli Black. Cleveland. O. 



By C. R. Morris, Fostorio, O. 



PRINTERS PUBLISHERS BOOKSELLERS 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO. 

»5 City Hail Place. NEW YORK 



The American Printer 
Books for Printers 















OstoalD Boilislitns 

BOOKSJorPRINTERS BOOKSELLERS 







By Frank A. Shaw. Concord, N. H. 



By John Houtkamp, Philadelphia, Pa. 



®stDaIt)^3ubIts|)tngCQmpanp Oswald 



TWENTV-FIVE CITY HALL PLACE, NEW YORK 

^tinuts, iSubliBljers, moobetUtxe 



c? 



Soot0 far ^tintttg 

JOHN CAXBERG \iU Th« Am«icah Printbr 



By E. Peterson. Galveston. Tex. 



Publishing 
Company 



Printers 
X Publishers 
^ Booksellers 



OHe Qmerican Qrinter 

Books for Printers 

R.pr„««d b, 25 City Hall Place 

John Caxberg New York 



y John H. Woods, Atlanta. Ga. 



FOR. PRINTERS 



o 



SWALD 
OUBLISHING 

QOMPANY 



By J. Warren Lewis, Ogden, Utah 











OsuialJi ^bliatiing (jompany 




PRINTERS .:■ PUBLISHERS .:■ BOOKSELLERS 


25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 
^^ ^^ 

JOHN CAXBERG (JJlje Amcrttan Jrinttr 







By N. G. Gustafson, Boston. Mass. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 











The American Printer Boob for Printers 

Oswald Publishing Company 

25 City Hall Place 
New York 

Printers 
Repr«enied by Publishers 
John Caxberg Booksellers 











. 




'iiSM3]fe^]fe)SMa3te^M53te[9M3]f'.^ m 


j 


^Qubltfilimg Qpmpang i 

PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS. BOOKSELLERS ^ 
25 City Hall Place. New York RJ 

R,or,..„.,d bv ^^^ Amrrtran ^rintpr ^ 




r^TTSfr^.^/r^'^fr^l?^!^^ 





By Robert F. Salade. Philadelphia, Fa. 



y B. Walter Brannan. Colwyn, Pa. 



Books for Printers 



The American Printer 



Oswald Publishing Company 











OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

25 CITY HALL PLACE. NEW YORK 




PRINTERS, PIJBUSHERS. BCX)KSF.! .1 F.RS 

TAe AMERICAN PRINTER 

and BOOKS FOR 

PRINTERS 







By F. H. Moore, Allegheny, Pa. 



By George H. Grampp, Buffalo, N. Y. 




The JmericanTrmler .: "Bonis fir Trintert 



SWALD 

PUBLISHING 

COM PANY 



j^rinter0'j|aubli0i)er0'J5oofe0ellers 



'^""'"john''c<'xberg "^5 C«TY HaLL PlaCE, NeW YoRK 



By Tom V. Jones, Cardiff, Wales 



— ^0 



fHL AMLRICAN Pf 



BOOKi FOR PRINTERi 



Oswald Publishing Co. 

"PRINTE.R5«» 
.PUBLISHLRS' 
BOOK5LLLLR5 

25 CITY HALL PLACE. 

epresente^ ^XBERG NLW YORK 



By George Millar, New York, N. Y. 



Qswald Publishing Company 

''' " 30KS /Of PRINTERS 

PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS 
BOOKSELLERS 



JOHN CAXBERG 



25 City Hall Plac. 



NEW YORK CITY 











(f^stoalli $u!)li0f)ing Company 




PrinferS : PublisfieriS '.^odbetQtts 


25 <titp ^afl Pate 

^tto Sort 

* 

|f«t*ttentsa tur The Aiherican Printer 
. iOHN CAXBBRQ Books Tor Pfintera + 









By Charles F. Keppler, Detroit, Mich. 



By Austin M. Reblin, Dorchester, Mass. (Non-competitive) 




a 



y 



33H 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 



THE blotter as a means of publicity is no longer an ex- 
periment ; it is lar^jely used by advertisers and is a famil- 
iar form in the printshop. This being so, the subject was 
chosen for the consideration of those interested in The 
American Printer School of Typography. There is no 
craft law that confines the typographic treatment of 
blotters to any set style, and reproduction herewith 
of sixtj'-three type-designs, from the same copy, by as 
many different typographers, reveals the variety of treat- 
ment blotters receive from printers generally. The copy 
from which these designs were comiwsed follows: 



The American Printer sets the pace for enerfretic 
printers in the race for success. It trains them in 
correct practices and leads them into ri^ht paths. 
In these days Goodenouj^h falls by the wayside and 
Dothebest is first at the tape. Two dollars pays for 
twelve months of The American Printer. Oswald 
Publishing Company, ii City Hall Place, New York. 



The advertising value of a blotter seems to lie in its 
ability to do one of two things — strongly and favorably 
to attract attention when received, or thru attractive sim- 
plicity to grow in favor during use. The former may be 
likened to a rocket which compels attention and i)leases 
for a moment, and the latter to a star whose beauty and 
attractiveness last forever. The opinions of the persons 
who made selections from three hundred and thirty-five 
blotter designs show a preference for effects that imme- 
diately create a favorable impression thru strong use of 
color or illustration. It will be noticed upon examination 
of the preferred designs, that there is more to them than 
the mere idea of attracting attention, and that the mes- 
sage contained in the copy has been so treated as to en- 
able the reader easily to digest it. 

It is customary for a compositor first to select the im- 
portant phrases and classify them in importance. A ma- 
jority of the typographers chose "The American Printer" 
as of first importance and "Oswald Publishing Company, 
25 City Hall Place, New York,"' for secondary emphasis. 
Some treated the words "The American Printer" too 
strongly, and most of the typographers gave too much 
prominence to the company name and address. The last- 
mentioned part of the copy is really of minor import- 
ance. It has no direct advertising value and is for the 
convenience of the reader should he desire to correspond 
with the company. 

There is another material point in connection with 
this copy. The purpose is not so much to make known 
The American Printer, as to publish the fact that it sets 
the pace for energetic printers in the race for success. 
Those designers who emphasized this statement carried 
out the idea of the man who wrote the copy, and it 
may be interesting to state that the copy was so writ- 
ten as to afford opportunity for illustration such as is found 
in the design selected for third place. 



A brief review of the first tliirteen blotters follows : 
First Place (Insert).- — This blotter probably owes its 
selection to the strong border treatment, which caused it 
to stand out above all others. It is a blotter that will de- 
mand attention from the recipient : and right at this point 
it must do its work, for the blotter is too striking to be 
used on a desk day after day. The triangular ornament 
adds a certain necessary decorative quality, and the 
Scotch Roman tyi)e-f;ice gives a tone of distinction. 

Second Place (Insert). — The merit of this blotter 
seems to lie in its simple, straightforward arrangement of 
the several parts of the copy, and in the strength im- 
parted to the design by the rule panels. The initial has 
a place in leading the attention to the phrase "The 
American Printer sets the pace.*" The manner in which 
the copy is divided into panels is commendable. 

Third Place (Insert). — The spirit of the copy has been 
admirably interpreted by the designer of this blotter. 
The typefounders' athletes interestingly illustrate the 
phrase "in these days Goodenough falls by the wayside 
and Dothebest is first at the tape." The placing of the 
words "The American Printer" at the right of the line is 
odd, yet pleasing, and the remaining portion of the sen- 
tence is set sufficiently large to carry the eye along in 
reading it. The signatuic is pinpt-rly subordinated. 

FoiRTH Place. — This l)l()ttcr scores in effectiveness at 
a position between tlie strongly attractive and modestly 
refined. It is a design that one could look at repeatedly 
without weariness. The manner in which the copy is sep- 
arated into groups shows careful and intelligent analysis 
on the part of the designer. 

Fifth Place. — The classic simplicity of this blotter 
will appeal to refined tastes. Such a blotter before one 
on the desk is not only inoffensive, but a positive delight. 
There is advertising value in the emphasis placed upon 
the first sentence of the copy. The signature is unobtru- 
sive. 

Sixth Place. — To those who recognize the merit in 
harmonious relations between type-faces and borders, 
this design affords pleasant study. The square-like sec- 
tions of the initial "A" reflect the little red s(iuares in 
the border and the blend is further carried into the type- 
faces. The importance of emphasizing the first sentence 
is also recognized in this instance. The way in which 
The"" is disposed of among the flourishes of the initial 
letter is interesting. 

Seventh Place. — A number of other blotters here re- 
produced also show the feature possessed by this one, of a 
red border running to the edge of the stock. The mat- 
ter on this blotter is well apportioned and the first sen- 
tence legibly presented. This and other specimens are 
witnesses of the excellence of Caslon for blotter purposes. 

Eighth Place. — While lower-case of Caslon has been 
well used on other designs, this blotter finds favor in the 
clever use of Caslon capitals. The initial, too, is a factor 
in its attractiveness. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 













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THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 




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OHE AMERICAN PRINTER sets the pace for energetic printers in the race 
for success. It trains them in correct practices and leads them into right 
paths. In these days Goodenough falls by the wayside and Dothebest is first 
at the tape. Two dollars p?y9 for twelve months of The American Printer. 
2i Cic, Hill Plic< OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY N... York 




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XIX 

Ninth Place. — The adaptation of 
the stock automobile cut to the phrase 
The American Printer sets the 
pace," no doubt weighed heavily in 
the selection of this blotter for hon- 
ors. As has been said, the copy was 
peculiarly suitable for the use of ap- 
propriate illustration. 

Tenth Place. — This is one of 
those strong designs that accomplish 
their purpose immediately. The state- 
ment that The American Printer 
sets the pace*' cannot be missed by 
the man who opens the mail. 

Eleventh Place. — The beauty ele- 
ment no doubt gave this design its 
position. There is pleasing contrast 
of tone between the type-face and 
white background, and the graceful 
ornament strikes a harmonious note. 
The correct distribution of space is a 
feature of this blotter. 

Twelfth Place. — The meritorious 
feature of this blotter is its distinct- 
iveness. The diagonal color-lines fol- 
lowing the direction in which the 
italic slopes give a note of originality 
that has value from an advertising 
viewpoint. 

Thirteenth Place. — Here is a 
blotter that, used continually on a 
desk, will not tire the eye. The mod- 
est treatment accorded the type-mat- 
ter carries it close to the point wliere 
the message is in danger of being 
missed, yet the extreme neatness of 
the design, guaranteeing its use for a 
longer period, gives it continued op- 
portunity of being considered and 
carefully read. 

Perhaps the strongest design among 
those recognized by honorable men- 
tion is Mr. McLelian's. The border 
running to the edge of the blotter is 
delivered from plainness by the white 
lines at the corners. The initial blends 
well with the type-treatment, which 
provides for emphasis of the first sen- 
tence. 

The blotters by Messrs. Loven- 
dale, Streeter, Young and Grady are 
commendable because of their neat- 
ness, as they are the kind that will 
wear well. 

The arrangement of Mr. Wohl- 
ford's blotter is the most unusual, the 
position of the illustration panel at 
the lower right corner assisting in 
this result. 

Mr. Black's design is also uncom- 
monly arranged, the square of large 
type contrasting not unpleasantly 
with the blank space at the right. 

The orange panels on Tom V. Jones ' 
l)lotter are too strong as they appear 
here, and should be tinted lighter. 
Otherwise this design has excellent 
advertising value. 

Mr. Verburgt's design scored be- 
cause of its suggestion for using a mini- 
ature cover reproduction. 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



r/i^Hmerican printer 



ic Printers in the Race for Sua 



0«wald publishing Company 



s^ AMERICAN PRINTER 




I Wi)t American printer atti tfje pace 

energetic printers in the race for success 

PCj g tkL n '' '"'"^ ''^^'" '" '^""^'^^ practices and leads them 

I — — =» 1 into right paths. In these days Goodenough falls 

JEtoo BoUarS ■'>' '''^ "'ayside and Dothebest is first at the tape 



ESSHE AMERICAN PRINTER 
^Bpfflsets the pace for energetic 
SffiS printers in the race for success. 
It trains them in correct practices 
& leads them into right paths. In 
these days Goodenough falls by the 
■wzyside&Dot/iel>estis first at the tape 



Oswald Publishing Co. 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY " 



The AMERICAN PRINTER | 

sets the pace for energetic printers in the race 
success. It trains them in correct practices and leads I 
them into right paths. In these days Goodenough | 
falls by the wayside and Dothebest is first at the tape 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO.. 25 CITY HALL PLACE. >4EW YORK 



feHE AMERICAN PRINTER 

' sets the pace for energetic:::: 
1 printers in the race for success 






In these days Gooder 



d leads them 



krside and Dothebes 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY. 25 City Hall 



Tibe American Printer 

Sets the Pace for Energetic Printers in the Race for Success 

• // Imim tkem in Correct Practices and I 

n Uads them into Right Path 



OstoaU DuWi«!)iii8 Cempanj 




E AMERICAN PRINTER s 
[for energetic printers in the r 



ts the pace 
for success. 



5 them in correct practices and leads 



[ them into right paths. In these days Good- 
enough falls by the wayside a nd Dotheb est is first at the 
tape. gTwo dollars pays for twelve ^^BH^^^B 
months of The American Printer. j^lHHHIi 

OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY. J5 City Hall Place. NEWYORK 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER sets the pace for energetic 
printers in the race for success. It trains them in correft 
praftices and leads them into right paths. In these days Good 
enough falls by the wayside and Dothebest is first at the tape 



Two dollars pays for twelve months of The American Printer 



Oswald Publishing Company, 25 City Hall Place, New York 



Selected for Second Place 
Design by William L. Doyle. Cleveland. O. 



IN these days Goodenough falls by the wayside f 
y%2^ and Dothebest is first at the tape yT 



The American Printer 

sets the pace for energetic printers in the race for success. 
It trains them in correct practices and leads them into 
right paths. Two dollars pays for twelve months of The 
American Printer Oswald Publishing Company 

25 City Hall Place, New York 



Selected for Third Place 
sign by E. A. Froramader. Molin 



THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 























The American Printer 

•en die p»« for mcrgctic printers in the rjce for sgcccK 
for twelve oionih. of The Amerian Printer 


Oswald 
Publishing 
Company 



















. -I-HE American Printer sets the pace 
1 for energetic printers in the race for 
success. It trains them in correct prac 

* tice« and leads them into right paths 
In these days Goodenougk falls by the way 
side and Dotkibest is first at the tape 
Two dollars pays forwelve months of ^ < 


— 


'///i'Aniencan Prinrcr 

0™^d Pablkhu,e Comply 25 C, H^ Pbce. N« V„k 



The American Printer sets the pace for 
enerj^etic printers in the race for success 



Ch^aM Publishing Company, 15 City Hall Place, New York 



The American Printer 



Oswald Publishing Company 

SS City Hall Place ■:■ -:- -.- -:■ NEW YORK 




the pace for energetic printers in the race 

?ss. It trains them in corre<ft praAices 

and leads them into right paths. In these days 

Goodenough falls by the wayside and 

Dorhebest is fir^ at the tape 



Cl)t ^jntrii 



I Crittttr - 



- stts tt)c paa 



Ostoall) Cnblisting Gompanp : for tntrattu pnnttrs in tlie ra« 

25 Citp *aU PUtt Xitu Port I ^'^ su£««S- 3t trams t\)tm in 

bj, Itorrftt urattictsanblfabBtljtm 

ZtBO ftoUar* into rigtjt pattjs. 3n tfjtsr baps 

paps (or ttDtlbe montbs ^oobrnousf) (alls bp ti)t toapstlx 

of Zi)t ^nurican printer I anb Sotbtbtst is first at ttt tape 






























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kit a ll>e u,' jK3J 


J^BBhE AMERICAN PRINTER 
HnH sets the pace (or energetic printers 

^^^Q them in correct practices and leads 
■gH them into right paths. 
HB&OSU ALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 


1 
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^"^^^ 























THE AMERICAN PRINTER 

OSWALD PUBLISHING ToMpTnT 

TWENTY. FIl'E CITY HALL P L AC E, M EW YO R K 






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,- City H.:ll PLuc, A. :: York Oswald Publishing Company 



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rhe AMERICAN PRINTER 



IT trains them, in correct practices and leads them into right paths. 
In these days Goodenou-ih falls by the wayside and Dothebest is 
first at the tape. TWO DOLLARS pays for twelve months of 
Tbt AMERICAN PRINTER 



OrjcaU Tublishing Company 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



y MT II CO fV\ ''^'^^'^ rOR TWELVE MONTHS '^ 
i t]L» ^^.UU of The AMERICAN PRINTER rjf 





OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 











The American Printer 








^2F~^^\y!;r=^£iH:?~ 






Oswald Publishing Co.. 25 City Hall Place, New York 











Galveston, Te; 



THE AMERICAN 
PRINTER se..i,.P«. 



OSWALD PUBLISHING CO.' 




THE AMERICAN PRINTER .«, tke p.« (or energetic printer, 
in tke race (or success. It trains tkem in correct practices anJ leaJs 
tKem into right paths. Cm In these Jays Goodenough (alls by the waysije 
and Dothche,t is lirst at the tape. C Two dollars pays {or twelve months 
of Th, Stmcrican 'Prints. 

OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 



|ISS||11I sets the pace loT 

^^^M energetic printers in the race for success. <1 It 
^^^^ trains them in correct practices and leads them 
' ^™"^^ into right paths. *i In these days Goodenougk 
falls by the wayside and Dothebest is first at the tape. 




^he Bmerican printer 



Scb the pace for energetic prinlers in the race for luccesi. It trains them in correct 

practices and leads them into right paths. In these days Coodenou;h 

falls by the wayside and Dothebest is Hrst at the lap(! 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 

SETS THE PACE FOR EJOERCETIC PRINTERS IN THE RACE P 



IS THEM IN CORRECT P 



S AND 1.EADS THEM INTO 



„ /or Twdx Mcr,lh o/ TU A, 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 



X PLACE. NEW YORK 



IN THESE DAYS HH^t^^^^I 



f aimfruan ^nntfr sets the pace for energetic 
printers in the race for success. It trains them in 
correct practices and leads them into right paths 






eimXn $ubU0i)in8 Componp :: :: 25 Cttp j^ Sloa.- ^to ^brh 



The A merican Printer 



1®^-;) pays 



pays for twelve months 






THE TYPOGRAPHY OF A BLOTTER 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER sets tne pace 
for energetic printers in the race for 
success. It trains them in correct pract- 
ices and leads them into right paths. 
Two DoUao^ pay for 12 months of THE 
,^ cR In these dars 

Coodenough falls by the \vayside and 
Dothebest is first to the tape. Oswald 
Publishing Co.. 25 City Hall Place. N. Y. 



^ AMERICAN PRINTER^ 



OSWALD FOBLSHIJiC CO - 2S Gtr Ball Place • NEW YORK 



Br W. R. Padgett 



■■■■ fab br fe •api^'i.j Dodxixit b fa< « d. a^ 

HHHHI 0««U Pifchi, Gx. 25 Cky HJ PUce. N<wYoi 


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UfVeem Irrioc Leader 



HE AMERICAN /RjNTER 



OSWALD PUBLISHING C 



lY. 25 C>t>- Hall Place. NEW YORK 



The American Printer 






Oswald Publishing Company 



Ctlf atmr nf an ^rtntrr 

n die pace for OKt^eac pnaten in die race for success. It traim 

^qsGaadeaoaehbOsbydiesaysdeanl Dodvebea a hm at the ape 
Tw ^Ufan f^ Jir mAr mmtJh of The Amtnca finmur 











In these days ssi^'ZiSSJrss^ 




Gc^denoush falls by the wayside and 
Doihcbesi is first at the tape 






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^ oswxu, ««ush,m; COMP.V.. « c, «.. ^,. s„ r^ 









Q The American Printer 

• ,- 'a; printefs in the 
r«**.-. -^ - -- ■ = -i tfietn incorrect 
»- « pro^-^ri o.-.; . .^ s^^ iriio ti§ht paths. 

~ Oswald Publishing Company 


a 






The AMERICAN Printer 

Sets the pace 



OSWALD PUBLISHING COMPANY 



THE ART AND PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



THE AMERICAN PRINTER sets the pace for 
energetic printers in the race for success. It 
trains them in correct practices and leads them into 
right paths. In these days Goodenough falls by the 
wayside and Dothebest is first at the tape. Two dollars 
pays for twelve months of The American Printer. 



) PUBLISHING COMPANY. 2 



. NEW YORK 



|H E AM ERICAN PRINTER sets the pace for energetic printers 

■ e race for success. Clt trains them in correct practices and 

s them into the right paths. Cln these days Goodenough 

i falls by the wayside and Dothebest is first at the tape. 

Ctoo Bollars paps for Itotlbf montbs o/€bc amcritan $rinttr 















— 




THE AMERICAN PRINTER 


$2.00 










OSWALD PUBLISHIN-C COMPANY, r«,t^/w Cily Hall Pkc, New Y,r 









ETS THE PACE for energetic print- 



them in correct practices and leads 
them into right paths. In these days 
Goodenough falls by the wayside 
and Dothebest is first at the tape 



(0Buiuib Publishing (!Iom)iang 




Tpp AViFRTCAN PRI/NTER 

' • / . '. I'rinh-rs in the Race for Sumss 




(O0toal6 J)ubli3t)in8 Companp 



The American Printer sets the pace for energetic 
printers in the race for success 

It trains tliem in correct practices and leads them into rigiit paths 
In these days Goodenough falls by the wayside and Dothebest 
is first at the tape 

Two dollars pays for twelve months cf The American Printer 
Oswald Publishing Company ''Se'Xyo"""' 

















1 " '^^ OsH>ald Publishing Co 















nnhe American Printer si 

fV,/,r /»,/« m',-h ,f Th, Amaic 

Oswald Publishing Company -. 



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